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by: Susannah Foos


Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Communication > COMM 320 > COMM 320 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
Susannah Foos
Penn State
GPA 3.89

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Here is my study guide for COMM 320 covering weeks 10-11 and chapters 6,7,8
Intro To Advertising
Dr. Anghelcev
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susannah Foos on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 320 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Anghelcev in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Intro To Advertising in Communication at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 03/27/16
• Cognitive Consistency: strongly held beliefs to make efficient decisions resist change; can’t contradict emotions • Selective Attention: most ads ignored because they don’t fit consumer’s need state and their helps simplify decision making • Cognitive Responses: thoughts that occur to consumer at the moment when beliefs are challenged by persuasive communication ( positive = favorable change / negative = initial attitude stronger) • Advertising Clutter: large volume of advertising causes overload of persuasion • Attitudes: people’s overall evaluation of an product/person/object o 2 components = think (cognitive) and feel (affective/emotional) • Brand Attitude: summary evaluation that reflects how consumers think/feel about brands; attitudes are based on consumers’ beliefs about attributes of the brand • PAST BEHAVIOR BEST PREDICTOR OF BEHAVIOR • Multi Attribute Attitude Models (MAAMS) o Eval criteria: attributes consumers use to compare brands  A1= durability A2=style o Beliefs: knowledge and feelings consumers have about a brand o Salient Beliefs: small number of key beliefs (5-9) typically form the critical determinants of attitudes o Importance Weights:priority assigned to attributes, in computing attitude scores, beliefs/attributes scores are weighted according to their importance  A1 = Durability A2= Style Importance of A1 Importance of A2 • By knowing a person’s BELIEFS, one can predict the person’s attitude. • If attributes are equal it is better to weigh scores by the importance of the attribute for the consumers. • STP Marketing: markets are segmented; segments of markets (groups of potential customers) are targeted and brands are positioned o 3 components • Segment: market cut into pieces and focus on the pieces; breaking down large heterogeneous groups into smaller manageable groups • Target: (focus ad and IBC for delivery) segments with ads and integrated brand promo; sub-group of a larger market chosen as the focal point for a marketing or ad campaign • Position: means to attempt to give a brand a certain meaning relative to its competitors; designing and representing a brand in a way that’s distinct in the consumers mind • Segmentation: process of separating consumer into groups based on certain criteria to later target 1 group instead of the others • Differentiation: creating perceived differences between brands • Positioning: distinct from other brands; occupies a “valued” place in consumers mind; external niche (in relation to completion) vs internal positioning (in relation to other brands owned by same company) • Fundamental Positioning Themes o Social Class: Premium (classic) vs modern (cheap) o Geography: conducted by region, state, providence • Geodemographic Segmentation: identifies neighborhoods by zip codes around the country that share common demo characteristics (PRIZM – potential rating index by zip marketing) o Psychographics: form of research that emphasized the understanding of consumers’ activities, interests and opinions (AIOs) o Benefit segmentation: target segments are delineated by the various benefit packages that different consumers want from competing products • Functional – highlight attributes • Emotional – can’t argue with them • Self-Expressive – purchase made to show class/esteem/project image o Usage & commitment levels • Defensive Strategy (target users first)  Brand loyal users  Heavy users/committed users/lead users: users who purchase much more and more frequently than other • Brand-freaks: consumers who are committed to their brand that their consumer behavior towards it borders on the pathological • Switchers & Variety Seekers:buy what’s on sale • Offensive Strategy(focused on non-users)  Don’t buy category or brand  Emergent consumers: brand preferences under development  Point-of-entry marketing: campaigns to win with first time users o Demographic Segmentation: used in selecting target segments & basic descriptors like age, gender, race, etc. • 2 applications  Demo info used to describe/profile segments that have been identified with some other variables  Used frequently as starting point in market segmentation o Lifestyle segmentation: focus on consumer activities, interests, opinions produces insight to different lifestyles • Valuable for creating ad msgs that ring true to consumers • User Positioning: highlight the USER of a product • Competitive Positioning: comparison between brand vs others (PC vs MAC) **COMMERCIALS CAN BE CREATED AS A HYBRID ** • Market Segmentation: 1 step in STP market, breaking down large markets into manageable submarkets / customer segments • Segmenting business-to-business markets o Consumer markets: markets for products purchased by individuals to satisfy specific needs o Business markets: institutional buyers who purchase items to be used in other products or resold to other businesses • Bahr-InterBrand Positioning Opportunity Method o Relevance: end game for consumers was loss of control o Credibility: Symantec strengths for which to build: friendly, experience, reliable o Stretch: integration of acquisitions and internal processes o Differentiation: security and manageability, peace of mind • Positioning Strategy: meaningful commitments of organizational resources to produce substantive value for the target segment; selecting key themes to communicate to a target market • Brand positioning: value position, brand promise, brand platform o Value Proposition: a natural extension of concepts that are already familiar o Brand promise: simple sentence saying what value the brand will be to the consumer o Brand Platform: core idea that frames an ambition/aspiration for the brand that will be relevant to target audiences over time Characteristics of good market segmentation 1. segments are homogeneous • consumers within segments are as similar to one another as possible 2. segments are different from one another • between the segments there are few similarities 3. segments large enough to return profit • advertising and profits Psychographics Segmentation: VALS • within each type people behave because they’re driven by same motivations Innovators (Primary motivation) Ideals Achievements Self-Expression (high resolution & Innovation) Thinkers Achievers Experiences Believers Strivers Makers (low resolution & innovation) Survivors CHAPTER 7 • Advertising and Brand Promo research: any research that aids in the developments, executions or evaluation of ads and promos • 3 reasons to research 1. Popularity and overconfidence in social science during the time legitimized anything called science/research 2. Other agencies had research departments 3. Real need to understand how ads work • Research done in preparationfor the advertisement • IBP research = 3 parts 1. Developmental ads & promo research(before ad’s made) 2. Copy research (ads finishing or finished) 3. Results-oriented research (after ad’s in the market) Stage 1: developmental Ads and IBP Research • Helps creative figure out target audience’s identity • Consumer insight: opportunity to influence the way ads turn out • Design Thinking: get markets & advertisers to think like designers • Concept testing: seeks feedback designed to screen the quality of a new idea, using consumers as judge and jury • Lifestyle research: AIO survey data from consumers who’ve answered questions about themselves • Focus Groups: discussion session with 6-10 target customers who’ve been brought to come up with new insights about a good o Goal = test new ideas and gain understanding • Projective techniques: allow consumers to project their thoughts/feeling onto a blank/neutral surface o Association tests  Dialogue balloons: consumers fill in dialogue of cartoons in a story to project a product  Story construction: tell a story about people depictedin a scene/picture  Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) : technique claims to draw out people’s buried thoughts/feelings about products by encouraging participants to think in terms of metaphors • Fieldwork: constructed outside of agency, learn from the experiences of consumers and from direct observation; uses observation and in-depth study of small groups • Embedded: consumption practices tightly connected to their social context • Long interviews: hour long; conducted by trained researchers, structured in a way as to best get important connections Source of secondary data • Mining the web o Netnography: network ethnography (field research) mining the web as if doing field work, just online • Internal company sources: available info from within companies • Government sources o Data on population, trends, transport, consumer spending, recreational activities o American Community Survey (ACS) by Census Bureau • Professional Publications: ad and marketing professional report significant info related to industry trends or new research findings Stage 2: Copy Research • Copy research/evaluation research: research on actual ads/promos finished/unfinished; used to judge/evaluate • Normative test scores: scores relative to the average for a category of ads • Copy tests = report card • Communication test: seek to discover whether a message is communicating something close to what the advertiser desired(does the audience ‘get’ the ad?) • Cognitive residue: pieces of ads mixed with consumer’s own thoughts and reactions • Thought listings / cognitive response analysis: copy research that tries to identify specific thoughts that were generate by an ad o Tests knowledge, cognitive impact, feelings, emotion o Researchers interested in the thoughts that an ad/promo generates in the mind of the audience • Recall tests: objective is to see how much the viewer remembers of the msg o Used to get cognitive residue o Mostlyfor tv ads • Basic recall procedure o Day-After-recall (DAR): Group watches channel, day after exposure group called to determine who saw ad and how much they recall o Unaided recall: remembered brand without having the brand mentioned o Aided recall: person asked about a commercial o Claim-recall: % who claim seeing the Ad o Related-recall: % who accurately recall specific elements of the ad • Recognition: audience indicate that they have seen ad before (recognized)whereas recall requires more actual memory = print ; attempts to get more evidence of exposure residue o Problem = people say they recognized ad when they never saw it • Starch Readership Service (company): subscribers asked if they can be interview, reader must have glanced at issue to qualify, asked if they remember seeing, reading ad, conducted few days after issue available • Implicit memory measures: try to get at memory by using tasks like word fragments, more sensitive, less demanding • Knowledge: to have knowledge about a brand that came from an ad • Attitude change: influenced by what people know and feel about brand, can’t assume favorable attitude to ad • Attitude study:measures consumer attitudes after exposure to an ad • Feelings and Emotions o Feelings have 3 distinct properties making them very powerful in reactions to ads 1. Consumers monitor and access feelings very quickly 2. More agreement in how consumers feel about ads than in what they think about them 3. Feeling = good predictors of thought • Resonance test: goal is to determine to what extent the message resonates or rings true with target audience members • Frame-by-frame tests: emotion is key component, consumers turn dials (like/dislike) while viewing TV commercials in a theater • Physiological assessment: uses Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to understand how the mind reacts to ads • Eye-tracking system: monitors eye movement across ads • Behavioral intent: what consumer say they intend to do Stage 3: Results • Tracking studies: track the apparenteffects of ads over time; assess attitude change, knowledge, behavior, before and after launch • Direct response: offer audience the opportunity to place an inquiry directly through a website, produce inquiry/direct response measures • Gold standard: see evidence that new ads actually get people to do something • Single-source research: tracking individual behavior • Single-source data: provide info from individuals about brand purchases from monitoring devices attached to internet Account planning: work cooperatively with account executive on a given clients business - Agency assigns a planner to a single client to research on the project on a continuous basis - Research = prominent role - More qualitative and naturalistic research CHAPTER 8 • Advertising plan: specifies the thinking, tasks, and timetable needed to conceive and implement an effective ad effort o Extension of a firm’s marketing plan 1. Introduction o Executive summary: the ‘take away’ of the plan o Overview: what’s to be covered and its structures the context 2. Situation Analysis: client and agency lay out the most important factors that define the market and consumer situation and then explain importance of each factor o Cultural context  International ads are difficult because cultural “comfort zone”: one’s own cultural values, experience and knowledge serve as a subconscious guide for decision making and behavior  Ethnocentrism: tendency to view and value things from the perspective of one’s own culture  Self-reference criterion (SRC): the unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values, experiences, knowledge as a basis of decision o Historical context: agency learn a lot about history of competition, industry, brand, corporate culture, critical moments o Industry Analysis: focuses on developments and trends within an entire industry and other factors that make a difference in the process with an advertising plan o Market Analysis: emphasizing the demand side. Examine the overall market for a product category within which the advertiser offers a brand o Competitor analysis: determines who the competitors are to the firm’s brand, discuss strength, weakness, threats posed 3. Objectives: identify the goals of the advertisers concrete terms  Increase brand awareness: indicator of consumer knowledge about brand and how easily knowledge is retrieved  Change beliefs and attitudes / top of the mind awareness  Influence purchase intent: ask consumer whether they intend to buy product in the future  Stimulate trail usage: encourage to try brand  Repeat purchase: convert one time users to repeated purchasers  Brand switching: switch competitor’s user to own brand  Increase sales o Quantitative benchmark: measure status of shares, awareness, attitudes, effectiveness o Measurement methods/criteria for success: factors measured by directly relating to objective of persuasion o Time frame 4. Budgeting o Percentage of sales approach: calculates the budget based on a percentage of the prior years’ sales o Share of market: firm monitors the amount spend by competitors on ad and allocate amount equal to competitors for their firm o Share of voice: advertising presence in the market, that’s equal or greater than competitor’s share of advertising voice o Advertising response function: mathematical relationship that associates dollars spend on ad and sale generated o Objective–and–task approach: states campaign objects, budget formed by identifying tasks to achieve different aspects of the objectives Implementing the OBJECTIVE-AND-TASK approach budgeting method 1. Determine costs based on Building-up analysis: building up the expenditures levels  Reach- geographic & demographic exposure  Frequency - # of exposures require to accomplish  Time frame  Production costs  Media expenditures  Ancillary costs- costs not directly accounted for proceeding factors  Integrating other promotional costs 2. Compare costs against industry and corp. benchmark  Check percentage of sales that the estimatedset of costs represent relative to industry standards  Percentage-of-sales used to judge budget 3. Reconcile and modify the budget  Modifications =common  Planners= aware of corp. policy and financial circumstances during object setting 4. Determine a Time frame for Payout  Travel expenses, production expenses, media time and space tied to specific calendar 5. Strategy: The mechanism by which something is to be done 6. Execution: actual ‘doing’/ making and planning ad oCopy strategy: consists of copy objectives and methods or tactics, what the advertisers intends to accomplish oMedia plan: where ads are placed and strategy behind placement oIntegrated brand promotion 7. Evalutation: determine how agencyis graded


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