Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide HLTH 4104002
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisa Abate on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 4104002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Prof.Arif in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Epidemiology in Public Health at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Exam 2 Cohort Studies Prevalence --refers to all (existing) cases of a disease in a population of interest at a speciﬁed point in time. Incidence--refers to new cases of a disease that occur among a population at risk during a speciﬁed period of time. A cohort is deﬁned as a population group, or subset thereof, that is followed over a period of time. -Subjects enrolled based on the Exposure status ( Free from disease of interest) -Involves follow ups -PROSPECTIVE Cohort Studies- Forward in time -RETROSPECTIVE Cohort Studies- Backwards in time How to calculate it -RELATIVE RISK -Incidence in exposed/ Incidence in Non-exposed -[A/(A+B)]/[C/(C+D)]] Attributable risk AR(e)= I(e)-I (ne) Ar(e)%=[I(e)-I(ne)]/I(e) X 100 Population Attributable Risk PAR= (incidence in total population)- (incidence in nonexposed group) PAR%= [I(p)-I(ne)]/I(p) Case Control Studies Made of two groups of subjects: -Case: a group of people with the disease -Control: A group of people without the disease. How to calculate it- Odds Ratio AD/BC Cohort study: “The comparison group serves to provide an estimate of the expected disease incidence in the exposed group if the exposure had been absent.” Case control study: “The comparison group serves to provide an estimate of the exposure distribution in the source population from which the cases originate.” Experimental Studies }Investigate the role of some factor or agent in the prevention or treatment of a disease. }Most rigorous design:greatest control over the research setting. }Two characteristics: }Manipulation of study factor and }random assignment. }Randomization often increases the comparability of the different treatment groups, randomization does not guarantee comparability. Phases of Clinical Trials 26 }Phase I trials:These are clinical pharmacological studies--tests a new vaccine or drug in adult volunteers (fewer than 100 volunteers) to look at safety issues }Phase II--expands testing to a group of 100 to 300 subjects (from the targeted population).Evaluate efficacy of the new drug or treatment and to further study its safety }Phase III (the main test)—These studies are large scale randomized controlled trials for effectiveness,efficacy,and relative safety.Often include 1,000 to 3,000 or more subjects }Phase IV studies:post-marketing surveillance.Monitor new drugs for side effects as they are used by the public.Do not involve any randomization Ethical issues: Informed consent Monitoring for side effects Deciding when to withdraw a patient Protecting the interests of patients How to calculate: Prevalence Ratio Prevalence in Exposed/Prevalence in non-exposed=A/(A+B) / C/(C+D) Prevalence= # of Case/Total Pop
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