Chapter 14 Study guide.
Chapter 14 Study guide. FINE_ART 101
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Fine Arts 101 Stua Guidefor Second Exam Chapter 14 November 5 o WhoWhat to know from Chapter 14 The Renaissance Le0nard0 dd Vinci Leonardo was a leader on a new path to nature and imagination and a scientific approach to knowledge He believed in observation and analysis His famous drawing of Vitruvian Man 313 is a good example of his approach He corrects the ancient architect s theory of ideal proportions to t the actual ones of human beings The method Leonardo used is called inductive reasoning where one observes phenomena directly and then uses information gathered to develop general rules The medieval method is known as deductive reasoning where already accepted general rules determine how you explain natural phenomena Leonardo da Vinci is the embodiment of the term Renaissance man because he worked in so many elds anatomy aeronautics hydraulics military engineering and urban planning see pages from his sketchbooks in figures 14 1411 Leonardo never thought of himself as a scientist he was first and foremost an artist He believed that observation and investigation of the laws of nature were necessary for an artist to have a true understanding in order to produce works of art But of course it was more than that As revealed in his notebooks full of detailed drawings Leonardo like many of his contemporaries was in love with the act of seeing He epitomized the Renaissance s enthusiastic rediscovery of the natural world Michelangelo Michelangelo was a child prodigy As a young man it was said that no pose was too dif cult for him to draw He attracted the attention of the ruler of Florence Lorenzo de Medici who arranged for Michelangelo to study sculpture in the private academy on the grounds of the Medici Palace When he was only twentythree years old he was hired by a cardinal to sculpt the Pieta 1415 for a church in Rome D0natello When Brunelleschi went to study the ruins of Rome he went with his friend Donatello a young man who would become the greatest sculptor of his time Donatello had been a student of Ghiberti but his achievements far surpassed his teacher almost singlehandedly creating the Renaissance style of sculpture Saint Mark 145 was done when he was twenty ve years old It shows he already had a great understanding of anatomy and form We can see not only Donatello s mastery of the real features of a human body but also his ability to give a sculpture personality Unlike Greek sculpture Donatello s is not godlike but human Saint Mark is digni ed and thoughtful his features strong but not perfect He is a man who has lived on our earth and seen much his hair is thinning and his brow is wrinkled Donatello was one of the rst artists of the Renaissance to work from live models and to follow the Greek style by portraying David nude For Donatello and other Renaissance artists nudity was no longer shameful as in the medieval period but beautiful and capable of representing humanity s highest ideals Raphael Raphael achieves a harmonious composition of freely moving figures something artists have admired in his work throughout the centuries The School of Athens shows Raphael s formal mathematical side but his Madonna della Sedia 1422 shows his sweet and loving side Raphael one of the greatest masters of the Renaissance managed to achieve its highest goals beauty proportion grace and a sense of human virtue Gi0tt0 In the Italian town of Padua around the year 1300 a simple chapel was built alongside a palace Because an ancient Roman amphitheater had once occupied that site the chapel became known as the Arena Chapel An extraordinary eXperience awaits those who enter the chapel because the at unadomed walls were transformed between the years 1305 and 1310 by one of the pivotal figures in the history of art an artist named Giotto Initiating a return to visual realism Giotto almost singlehandedly created the Renaissance style of painting Giotto has a new way of telling stories rather than multiple scenes in one panel he chooses one significant moment in each He tries to imagine how the holy scene might have really looked The spaces between the figures seem natural Figures are in true proportion to each other They are placed in a natural setting More importantly Giotto tries to imagine how his characters felt Real human emotion is being displayed as the Virgin Mary and Christ s followers mourn over the dead body of Jesus Giotto s characters are not generic people copied from a pattern book or people pictured by symbols of their roles in society Now each is an individual first a unique person Giotto literally brought religious art down to earth Giotto was revolutionary in another way he was a famous artist Jan Van Eyck amp Secondary Symbolism Another Flemish artist Jan van Eyck was the favorite artist of a later duke of Burgundy Philip the Good Although we do not know much about this artist s life his sober realistic style was most likely in uenced by Sluter s Like Sluter he lived in Brussels but also traveled widely as a diplomat of the duke Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride 1428 is van Eyck s most famous work and is evidence of the growing trade between Northern and Southern Europe Van Eyck s painting is a good example of secondary symbolism Medieval artists loved to make symbolic puzzles out of pictures and van Eyck continues the practice It was part of a desire to give realism even greater meaning by making each detail meaningful The dog for example symbolizes Fidelity Fido Peaches ripening on the desk and window sill suggest fertility as do the ripe cherries on the tree outside the window The chandelier has only one candle the nuptial candle carried during the ceremony and by tradition blown out right before going to bed on the wedding night The ceremony is not totally secular The main participants have removed their shoes because it is sacred ground The mirror with tiny scenes of the Stations of the Cross around its edge probably represents the eye of God witnessing the ceremony 1429 In it we can see the backs of the couple as well as van Eyck and his assistant A rosary hangs to its side The entire scene while very naturalistic symbolizes the holy sacrament of marriage Brunelleschi One famous competition was held to design the bronze doors of the city s baptistery The nalists both in their twenties were Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti Each was required to execute a speci c tale from the Old Testament Abraham s Sacrifice of Isaac 142 143 where the old patriarch was asked by God to prove his faith by killing his only son While Brunelleschi would lose again to Ghiberti when a second set of baptistery doors was offered to competition he would have a greater triumph as an architect The worldrenowned Dome of the Florence Cathedral 144 is his creation The cathedral originally begun in 1296 with a tower designed by Giotto was nearly complete when Brunelleschi began work in 1420 but it had a huge hole at its center Fortunately after his two humiliating defeats to Ghiberti Brunelleschi had gone to Rome to study the ruins of the ancient buildings By using the results of his studies combining them with medieval techniques and by inventing many new ones over fourteen years of construction Brunelleschi was able to solve the problem that baf ed all his countrymen Albrecht Dtirer One man took it upon himself to bring the ideas of the High Renaissance to northern Europe the German artist Albrecht Diirer who became known as the Leonardo of the North because of the variety of his interests writing treatises on painting perspective human proportions forti cations and many other topics Like Leonardo he did many sketches from nature studying its most delicate details Durer is probably the first artist to paint pictures devoted solely to a selfportrait His SelfPortrait 1430 in 1500 shows him at the age of twentyeight after his return from Italy where he studied the great works of the Italian Renaissance and became determined to bring this knowledge north Despite the exceptional skill demonstrated in his selfportrait Diirer s greatest talent was not as a painter but as a printmaker As an artist Durer demonstrated that effects once thought possible only in paint could be accomplished by a master printmaker and helped make the print the equal of any other fine art form Andrea Mantegna In The Dead Christ 147 Andrea Mantegna uses perspective to place us right at the feet of Jesus Mantegna s Dead Christ seems to be an eyewitness report He depicts the wounds of Jesus with almost cruel accuracy we can see into several layers of skin and esh On Jesus s right arm there are dried drips of blood remnants of his suffering during the cruci xion Mantegna like the leading intellectuals of his time considered the Middle Ages an era of superstitious thought They felt it was time to see once again clearly and rationally as the Romans had This desire to see clearly was the source of the detached unemotional eye of Mantegna s Dead Christ as well as the mathematical vision of Luciano Laurana s View of an Idea City 324 Titian Venetian amp Impasto The greatest colorist and painter of the Venetian Renaissance was Tiziano Vecellio or Titian Unlike the geniuses of Florence and Rome Titian s sole interest was painting he was not an architect or a scientist He mastered the medium with a singlemindedness that was unique for his time He developed new techniques for example impasto where thick layers of paint are built up for added richness Titian would vary the texture of the paint itself sometimes scratching into it with his fingers His surfaces are full of energy Sensuality became a hallmark of Venetian painting and the Venus of Urbino 1423 probably epitomizes the Venetian love of sensual delight better than any other work The large red pillow the hue is known as either Venetian or Titian red today in the foreground is balanced by the red skirt in the bac kgroundTitian had created a new type of image one that would be borrowed by artists for centuries Romantics Classicists Realists and Impressionists would all choose to continue the tradition of the reclining nude Hans Holbein A younger German Hans Holbein made that goal his main occupation and became one of the greatest portraitists who ever lived He came from a family of painters and began his career after Durer s mission to spread the in uence of the Italian Renaissance had taken hold Like Durer Holbein traveled to see the great Italian masterpieces rsthand and by the time he was thirty years old he had assimilated the learning of the Renaissance While most of his religious paintings were being destroyed Holbein desperately looked for a safe haven where he could continue his career He sailed to England and was given refuge by Sir Thomas More a worldfamous writer scholar and political leader His Portrait of Sir Thomas More 1432 was painted soon after Holbein s arrival when More was Speaker to the House of Commons With meticulous detail it shows an intelligent digni ed and successful man wearing the symbol of his high of ce The picture provides sensual pleasures as well Holbein masterfully reproduces a variety of textures More s soft hands the stubble of his beard red velvet black satin gleaming gold and fur Underlying all of Holbein s work is his marvelous drawing ability We believe every detail without question we are convinced this is how Sir Thomas More looked Hier0nym0us Bosch There lived another northern artist whose pictures are among the most fantastic weird bizarre and visionary of any age Heironymus Bosch We know little of his life except it was quite unlike the experiences of the educated city dwellers Durer and Holbein His was the world of northern villages before the Reformation where alchemy was an accepted practice superstitions were unquestioned and the Roman Church had its hands full trying to control the widespread use of magic Preachers used pornographic images to make their points and prostitutes could be seen at work in the churches Bosch cared little for the new ideals of Renaissance painting He was interested in creating visions that taught moral lessons and used the achievements of the Renaissance only to help make his visions look more real Most of Bosch s pictures are very symbolic and dif cult to decipher The Garden of Earthly Delights 1435 is his greatest and most famous painting but scholars are still trying to understand it The left panel shows Christ introducing Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden before the Fall The central panel gives the triptych its name showing the world after the Fall and symbolizing Bosch s era The setting seems to be a park where nude men and women are indulging in pleasure enjoying free and open sexuality But Bosch is not celebrating this scene What he wants to show is a false paradise Bizarre acts are rampant as revelers engage in acts restricted only by the limits of Bosch s fertile imagination Botticelli Lippi s student Sandro Botticelli surpassed them all in fame His greatness was in his ability to bring beauty and harmony to pictures that also embrace scienti c and classical ideals Though his work is lled with scholarly allusions they do not weight his pictures down In fact his gures oat they hardly touch the ground Learning from the ancients was mixed with a graceful line and rhythm Botticelli s The Birth of Venus 149 is popular today because of its sweetness and the innocent quality of Venus as she oats in a fantasy world 0 Vocabulary from Chapter 14 The Renaissance Early Renaissance During the Renaissance Italy was divided into many citystates each ruled by a powerful and wealthy family By the beginning of the fifteenth century Florence was in the midst of an economic boom and had become one of the most prosperous cities in Europe A wealthy cultured society revolved around the ruling family the Medici intemational leaders in banking as well as great patrons of the arts There was a great deal of building schools hospitals and especially churches Artists from all over Italy were coming to Florence attracted by the many commissions Brunelleschi s discovery of the mathematical rules of perspective transformed twodimensional art With perspective drawing and painting were now raised to the level of sc1ence High Renaissance Leonardo s The Virgin of the Rocks 1413 marks a new period in art the High Renaissance Compare it to a work of thirty years earlier Mantegna s The Dead Christ 147 Mantegna s picture seems stiff It s cold clarity seems impoverished when contrasted with the liquid atmosphere and subtle muted light of Leonardo s picture In this painting hard edges are nonexistent While it looks real it is more like a dream a vision The figures of the Virgin Mary the infant Jesus his cousin John the Baptist and the angel are not entirely of our world nor should they be Meaning rebirth a period famous for art and architecture and generally considered to mark the beginning of the modern world Spanning the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries in Europe it was marked by renewed interest in Classical culture as well as the development of capitalism the rise of the nationstate scientific investigation and individualism Also known as the Age of Exploration Leonardo acknowledged as the great artist of his time felt the challenge of a younger man one who would become the predominant artist of the High Renaissance Figure Triangle The Virgin of the Rocks shows the perfect ease and accomplishment the effortlessness the grazia that Renaissance artists were looking for But underlying the softness is a new structural innovation a geometric underpinning which will be used throughout the Renaissance the figure triangle Leonardo also used a new medium that had been developed in northern Europe oil painting The smooth and subtle transitions between light and dark are made possible by this revolutionary medium T0nd0 As a modern critic said this picture would be recognized as a masterpiece even if it were found dusty and unlabeled in an attic It is in a circular format called a tondo which means simple in Italian yet it is probably the most difficult form for a painting compositionally because of a tendency to seem unbalanced and rolling 0nep0int perspective A system of linear perspective invented by the Renaissance artist Filippo Brunelleschi All parallel lines appear to converge at one point in the distance the vanishing point which is exactly on the horizon line As in all linear perspective the sizes of objects shrink as they increase in distance from the viewer Grazia By the end of the fteenth century in Florence there was already a reaction to this coldness a call for pictures with a sense of grace called grazia by the Renaissance Italians Ref0rmati0n The Protestant Reformation led by Martin Luther turned Europe upside down and had deep and pervasive effects on the art world too The rebellion against the Roman Church was sparked by the church s practices like the sale of indulgences which Pope Julius II had zealously promoted to pay for his new Saint Peter s Luther and his followers preached that Christians needed only faith and knowledge of the Bible to reach salvation but the rise of the Protestant Reformation came with a terrible cost for art and artists Genre Bruegel s work is one of the rst to use genre ordinary and commonplace subject matter His approach to his subject is a statement that not only is our world worth portraying but it is much more signi cant than an ancient myth For most people cosmic events have less importance than their own everyday concerns
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