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Exam 3 review

by: Andrew Faus

Exam 3 review BSC 1011C

Andrew Faus
GPA 3.7
General Biology II
Amy Keagy

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A brief overview of key concepts from chapters 31 and 41. Questions: -Andrew
General Biology II
Amy Keagy
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrew Faus on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 1011C at University of North Florida taught by Amy Keagy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 408 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at University of North Florida.


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Date Created: 11/04/15
Exam 3 Review Brief overview of 31 and 41 Ecological importance of green algae and land plants Green algae and land plants offer ecosystem services that enhance environments Examples 39 Green algae are believed to be the ancestor of land plants Photosynthesis which removes Carbon Dioxide from the environment and produces Oxygen Hold and build soil Fallen plant parts are decomposed by worms fungi and Prokaryotes to form the soil Soil is then held in plants by the extensive root systems of plants 39 Storage of H20 and climate moderation Tissues hold in water while leaves soften the impact of rain on soil Plants also form shade and wind barriers which help to regulate temperature Primary producers Food for everyone Plant adaptations to land Algae is protected by water which reduces the intensity of UV light and retains moisture Movement of plants to land lost them this advantage Adaptations Waxy cuticle and stomata Growing upwards to access sunlight Lignin for weight support Vascular tissue for foodwater delivery Plant adaptations to land Cuticle and stomata The cuticle is a watertight cover of the above ground plant surface that allows plants to retain water However it creates a problem with gas exchange This is solved using a pore with 2 guard cells stomata that regulates what comes in and out Liverworts are the only land plants without guard cells They simply have pores Plant adaptations to land Higher intensity of sunlight was an advantage for plants in regards to photosynthesis However the UV light can damage their cells This led to the evolution of flavonoids which protect the plant DNA Once plants could handle intensity of light they began to grow upwards in competition for access to light Upward growth however requires vascular tissue to deliver water Xylem tracheids and vessel elements and nutrients Phloem Sieve tubes and companion cells and support structures to prevent falling overLignin Plant adaptations to land reproduction Seeds Gymnosperms and angiosperms developed seeds which further their ability to reproduce and spread throughout ecosystems Pollination Angiosperms developed flowers that attract animal pollinators which increases genetic diversity by cross pollination Land plants Charophyceans are the oldest group of land plants and the closest relative to green algae Bryophytes Ex mosses contain a protective gametangium around their gametes Sperm producing gametangium Antheridium egg producing Archegonia Seedless vascular plants Ex ferns developed vascular tissue to transport H20 and nutrients Gymnosperms ex pinesdeveloped seeds which allow reproductive material to remain dormant until growth is possible Angiosperms Ex magnolia developed flowers and fruit to aide in reproduction and use animals to spread pollen and seeds Alternation of Generations Plants alternate between a haploid n gametophyte stage and a diploid 2n sporophyte stage The gametophyte produces gametes which combine to form an zygote2n which grows into an embryo2n and later an adult plant which is known as a sporophyte2n The sporophyte produces sporesn which form the gametophytes and the cycle repeats Angiosperm Double Fertilization When pollen from the anther of a flower lands on the stigma of a flower it produces a pollen tube 2 Sperm cells travel down the pollen tube One binds to the Egg to form a Zygote Zn The other binds to the 2 nuclei of the female gametophyte to form endosperm 3n Endosperm becomes the nutrition for the zygote within the seed Seeds Contain an embryo and a food supply with a protective coat Allow embryo to be transported to a new location Food supply allows seed to survive until it is able to absorb water and photosythesize Protective coat allows seed to remain dormant


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