Chapter 9 Study Guide
Chapter 9 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 297 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Study Guide for Chapter 9 Attraction and Close Relationships LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 9 1 Describe social anxiety and the need for affiliation Address the relationship between affiliation and stress pp 340343 The need to belong is a basic human motive Around the world people feel joy when they form new social attachments and react with anxietygrief when those bonds are broken The need to belong runs deep which is why people get very distressed when they are neglected rejected excluded stigmatized or ostracized Individuals differ in their need for affiliation but it seems that people are highly motivated to establish and maintain an optimum balance of social contact Stress strongly arouses our need for affiliation An external threat triggers fear and motivates us to affiliate particularly with others who face a similar threat 2 Summarize the social difficulties associated with shyness and loneliness Discuss factors that predict loneliness e g age transitions and coping strategies that can be employed to deal with loneliness pp 343345 People who are shy find it difficult to approach strangers make small talk call someone to make a date participate in small groups or mingle at a party To be lonely is to feel deprived of human social connections Some research says loneliness is triggered by a discrepancy between the level of social contact a person has and the level he or she wants Loneliness is most likely to occur during times of transition of disruption first year of college after a break up when a loved one mores far away People fight loneliness by trying harder to be friendly by distracting themselves with other activities by trying hard to succeed in other aspects of life or by talking to a friendrelativetherapist about their problems 3 Describe the role of familiarity in attraction including issues of proximity and mere exposure effects pp 345348 People are attracted to those with whom they can have a relationship that is rewarding In evolutionary psychology human beings all over the world exhibit patterns of attraction and mate selection that favor conception birth and survival of their offspring The mere exposure effect is when people evaluate a stimulus more positively the more that they are exposed to that stimulus The proximity effect is the idea that the single best predictor of whether two people will get together is physical proximity or nearness You are more likely to be attracted to people that you are around more often 4 Distinguish between objective and subjective perspectives on physical attractiveness drawing on data and observations that support both ideas pp 3483 52 Objective beauty has to do with things such as symmetry average features proportions of facial features as well as proportions of waist size to hip size The idea of subjective beauty is influenced by culture time and the circumstances of percep rion Research has shown rha r people can generally agree whe rher a s rranger39s face is a r rrac rive or no r bu r i r also has shown rha r The individuals differ a grea r deal in rheir priva re preferences of wha r rhey find a r rrac rive which promo res The idea rha r beau ry is in The eye of The beholder 5 Describe the Whatisbeautifulisgood stereotype and Why it endures Explain the benefits and costs of being someone WhO is perceived to be beautiful pp 352354 This s rereo rype is The belief rha r psychically a r rrac rive individuals also possess desirable charac reris rics One possibili ry i r endures is rha r if is inheren rly rewarding To be in The company of people who are aes rhe rically appealing jus r being around rhem can make you happier like a beau riful landscape can People who are a r rrac rive are au roma rically judged To be smar r successful happy well adjus red socialable confiden r and asser rive bu r also vain Highly a r rrac rive people can r rell if The a r ren rion and praise They receive from o rhers is due ro rheir ralen r or jus r rheir good looks which can cause rhem To be vulnerable and insecure 6 Explain the in uence of similarity 0n attractiveness including the matching and complementarity hypotheses Discuss the role of reciprocity in liking pp 354359 People rend ro associa re wi r o rhers who are similar ro rhemselves especially in aspec rs like age educa rion race religion heigh r socioeconomic s ra rus and level of a r rrac riveness Mos r evidence sugges rs rha r The more similar rwo people are rhey more rhey have in common The more rhey would like each o rher Reciproci ry refers ro liking Those who like us However rhe complemen rary hypo rhesis sugges rs rha r people who are differen r can be more a r rrac red To each o rher a couple wi rh each individual being very low in agreeableness would likely each be roo s rubborn and would figh r a lo r 7 Explain the differences between evolutionary and sociocultural perspectives on mate preference pp 359368 According To The evolu rionary perspec rive women mus r be highly selec rive because They are biologically limi red in The number of children They can bear and raise in a life rime Men can fa rher an unlimi red number of children and can ensure rheir reproduc rive success by insemina ring many women which is why men are generally less picky A woman mus r selec r a ma re who possesses economic resources and is willing ro commi r rhose resources To suppor r her offSpring in order To pro rec r rhem Men seek out young and physically a r rrac rive women because rhey rend To be more fer rile meaning rhey have a grea rer chance of ge r ring pregnan r The sociocul rural perSpec rive argues rha r women rrade you rh and beau ry for money no r for reproduc rive purposes but ra rher because rhey of ren lack direc r access ro economic power Some researchers have found rha r men ge r more upse r over sexual infideli ry no r because of uncer rain pa rerni ry bu r because rhey reasonable assume rha r a married woman who has a sexual affair is also likely To have in rima re feelings for her ex rramari ral par rner Research has also found rha r men and women are equally upse r by emo rion infideli ry when asked ro recall ac rual experiences from a pas r rela rionship Selfrepor red differences be rween men and women were rypically found To be pre r ry small compared To The similari ries 8 Explain social exchange theory De ne the concepts of comparison level comparison level for alternatives and investment Explain how equity theory differs from social exchange theory pp 368371 Social exchange rheory is an economic model of human behavior according To which people are mo riva red by a desire To maximize profi r and minimize their loss in their social rela rionships jus r as They are in business Comparison level refers 0 The average expec red ou rcome in rela rionships A person wi rh a high comparison level expec rs rheir rela rionships To be rewarding Comparison level for al rerna rives refers ro people s expec ra rions abou r wha r rhey would receive in an al rerna rive si rua rion For example if The rewards available elsewhere are believed To be high a person will be less commi r red ro s raying in The presen r rela rionship An inves rmen r is some rhing rha r a person pu rs info a rela rionship rha r he or she canno r recover if The rela rionship ends Equi ry rheory provides a special version of how social exchange opera res in in rerpersonal in rerac rions H says an equi rable rela rionship is a ma r rer of social jus rice people are more con ren r when The ra rio be rween wha r rhey ge r ou r of a rela rionship and wha r rhey pu r info if is similar for bo rh par rners This is difference rhan social exchange rheory because equi ry isnquotr equali ry Balance be rween bo rh par rners is wha r coun rs 9 Distinguish between exchange and communal relationships and consider the role of attachment style in studying intimate relationships pp 3713 72 Exchange rela rionships are charac rerized by an immedia re ri rfor ra r repaymen r of benefi rs people wan r cos rs To be quickly offse r by compensa rion Bu r in communal rela rionships par rners respond To each o rher s needs and well being over rime and in differen r ways wi rhou r regard for whe rher rhey have given or received a benefi r A couple rha r has a secure a r rachmen r wouldn39f be worried abou r being repaid righ r away because rhey believe rhey will con rinue To be in rha r rela rionship which an anxious a r rachmen r s ryle may feel uncomfor rable wi rh owing or loaning resources 10 Summarize different approaches to classifying love such as Lee s love styles Sternberg s triangular theory of love and Hatfield s distinction between passionate and companionate love pp 372374 Lee s love s ryles are eros ero ric love ludus gameplaying uncommi r red love and s rorge friendship love These rhree s ryles can be blended ro crea re mania demanding and possessive love pragma pragma ric love and agape o rherorien red al rruis ric love In The rriangular Theory of love rhere are rhree componen rs of love in rimacy passion and commi rmen r Passiona re love is roman ric love charac rerized by high arousal in rense a r rrac rion and fear of rejec rion Companiona re love is a secure rrus ring s rable par rnership ll Explain the relationship between arousal and attraction as well as the role that both play in passionate love pp 374376 Arousallove connec rions are obvious when a person feels a surge of sexual desire at The sigh of a roman ric par rner feelings of a pounding hear r swea ry palms and weak knees can be signs of arousal Passiona re love is in rense emo rional hear r rhumping s ra re of absorp rion in ano rher person I r39s also charac rerized by in rense highs and lows 12 Define selfdisclosure and describe typical patterns of disclosure in relationships pp 376 377 SelF disclosure is the willingness to open up and share intimate Facts and Feelings We disclose to people we like We like people who disclose to us We also like people to whom we have disclosed Partners who report higher levels oF selFdisclosure the better they Felt about each other aFter the disclosure The same goes For sex as well partners whom selFdisclose their likes and dislikes to each other are more satis ed sexually than those who are less open 13 Discuss cultural and gender differences With regard to issues of attraction intimate relationships and sexuality Consider how social psychologists study sexual orientation pp 377383 Research Found that physical attractiveness is more important to men all over the world and that Financial resources are more important to women However culture had a big impact on mate preFerences For example people highly value chastity in a mate in China India Indonesia Iran and Taiwan Although most people across the globe agree that sexual desire is what injects the passion into passionate love not everyone sees it a necessary For marriage Willingness to marry without love is highly subject to cultural variation Sexual orientation is one s sexual preFerence For members oF the same sex opposite sex or both sexes Researchers have done surveys that ask iF they had Frequent or occasional homosexual intercourse Homosexual adults tended to be less conForming as children but couldn t be distinguished by past experiences LeVay autopsied the brains oF deceased homosexual men heterosexual men and heterosexual women and Found a tiny nucleus in the hypothalamus that is involved in regulating sexual behavior that is known to be larger in heterosexual men than in women The homosexual brains he studied had a nucleus halF the size oF those in heterosexual men 14 Discuss communication and attribution patterns that can lead to con ict in relationships Describe patterns of marital satisfaction and issues regarding the end of intimate relationships pp 383387 Negative aFFect reciprocity is a titFortat exchange oF expressions oF negative Feelings which can lock a couple into a duel Many unhappy marriages are also characterized by demandwithdrawal interaction patterns in which the wiFe demands the couple discuss the relationship problems only to become Frustrated when the husband withdraws From the conversation Marital satisFaction tends to decrease over time starting as soon as one year aFter the wedding The end oF intimate relationships like in divorce is extremely unpleasant and stressFul Participants had become less and less satisFied even beFore divorce SatisFaction levels rebounded somewhat immediately aFter divorce SatisFaction levels never returned to original baseline levels meaning that people adapt but they oFten never Fully recover From the experience Key Terms attachment style p 371 The way a person typically interacts with signi cant others communal relationship p 371 A rela rionship in which The par ricipan rs expec r and desire mu rual responsiveness To each o rher s needs companionate love p 374 A secure rrus ring s rable par rnership equity theory p 370 The Theory that people are mos r satisfied with a relationship when The ra rio be rween beneFi rs and con rribu rions is similar For bo rh par rners exchange relationship p 371 A rela rionship in which The par ricipan rs expec r and desire s rric r reciproci ry in rheir in rerac rions excitation transfer p 374 The process whereby arousal caused by one si39imulus is added To arousal From a second stimulus and The combined arousal is attributed To the second stimulus hardtoget effect p 358 The rendency ro preFer people who are highly selec rive in rheir social choices over those who are more readily available intimate relationship p 367 A close rela rionship be rween rwo adul rs involving emo rional a r rachmen r Fulfillmen r of psychological needs or in rerdependence loneliness p 344 A Feeling of depriva rion abou r exis ring social rela rions matching hypothesis p 357 The proposi rion rha r people are a r rrac red ro o rhers who are similar in physical a r rrac riveness mere exposure effect p 346 The phenomenon whereby The more oF ren people are exposed To a stimulus The more posi rively rhey evalua re The stimulus need for affiliation p 342 The desire ro es rablish and main rain many rewarding in rerpersonal rela rionships passionate love p 374 Roman ric love characi39erized by high arousal ini39ense a r rrac rion and Fear of rejec rion reciprocity p 357 A mu rual exchange be rween wha r we give and receive For example liking those who like us selfdisclosure p 376 Revela rions abou r The self rha r a person makes ro o rhers sexual orientation p 380 A person s preference For members of the same sex homosexuali ry opposi re sex he rerosexuali ry or bo rh sexes bisexuali ry social exchange theory p 368 A perspec rive rha r views people as mo riva red To maximize beneFi rs and minimize cos rs in rheir rela rionships wi rh o rhers triangular theory of love p 373 A rheory proposing rha r love has rhree basic componen rs in rimacy passion and commi rmen r that can be combined To produce eigh r sub rypes Whatisbeautifulisgood stereotype p 352 The belief 139ha r physically ai39iraci39ive individuals also possess desirable personali ry charac reris rics Sample Multiple Choice Questions 1 Which of the following is most accurate regarding the human need for af liation a People tend to prefer as much social contact with others as possible b There is little variation between individuals when it comes to desired level of social contact d On average men in individualistic cultures desire more social contact than do women but in collectivist cultures women prefer more than men ANS C REF Need to Belong A Fundamental Human Motive OBJ 1 KEY Conceptual 2 Though they had all been together on the transcontinental ight for three hours the passengers didn t start to talk to one another until the plane ran into some serious tilrbulence This behavior is best explained by the b matching hypothesis c proximity effect d evolutionary perspective on the sociostat ANS A REF Need to Belong A Fundamental Human Motive OBJ 1 KEY Applied 3 Accidini to the relevant research who of the following is likely to be the loneliest b Hector who is 40 years old and has never been married c Selena who is 60 years old and is married d Marble who is 60 years old and has never been married ANS A REF Need to Belong A Fundamental Human Motive OBJ 2 KEY Applied 4 According to your textbook the single best predictor of whether two people will get together is a complementarity b matching levels of physical attractiveness d similarity ANS C REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 3 KEY Factual 5 Mita et al 1977 found that female college students preferred their own mirror image to their actual appearance This nding is consistent with a the matchini hiiothesis c social exchange theory d excitation transfer ANS B REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 3 KEY Conceptual 6 Lee 2008 and colleagues ran a study in which they examined people s ratings of photos on the website HOTorNOTcom They found that participants own level of attractiveness a were positive predictors of how attractive they rated the photos b were neiative iredictors of how attractive they rated the photos d predicted their ratings of male but not female photos ANS C REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 4 KEY Factual 7 Which of the following is not a reason why we seem to be attracted to averaged faces a They are prototypically facelike b They are symmetrical d They seem more familiar to us ANS C REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 4 KEY Factual 8 Snyder and colleagues 1977 ran a study in which mixedgender pairs had a phone conversation Male participants were given either an attractive or unattractive photo of their conversation partner Which of the following statements about the study findings is false a Men were friendlier toward the iartners who thei believed to be attractive c Men formed more positive impressions of the personality of women who they believed to be attractive d Women talking with men who believed they were attractive were actually warmer and more con dent during the conversation ANS B REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 9 Whiih of the followini best re ects the bene ts and cost of beini attractive b While attractiveness often brings heightened selfesteem to attractive individuals it can lead them to doubt others praise of their attractiveness c While attractiveness often brings greater popularity to attractive individuals it can increase mental health dif culties d While attractiveness often brings lifetime happiness to attractive individuals it can put pressure on them to maintain their appearance ANS A REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 5 KEY Conceptual 10 Popular wisdom is often contradictory as with the following two sayings l opposites attract and 2 birds of a feather ock together Research on the relationship between similarity and liking suggests that a 1 is more accurate people tend to be more attracted to those who are dissimilar I from themselves c both are right for different people heterosexual men tend to be attracted to similar others whereas gay men tend to be attracted to dissimilar others d both are right in different conditions people are attracted to similar others when they are interested in longterm relationships but they prefer dissimilar others for less serious relationships without commitment ANS B REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 6 KEY Factual ll Walster et al 1966 randomly matched students for a dance At the end of the evening students indicated how satis ed they were with their dates The strongest predictor of iltisfaction was b attitudinal similarity c proximity of dorm rooms d complementary personalities ANS A REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 6 KEY Factual 12 Pinel and colleagues 2006 refer to Isharing as an important form of similarity whereby individuals share b a level of physical attractiveness c political ideologies d technological expertise ANS A REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 6 KEY Factual 13 Wegner and colleagues 1994 conducted a study in which mixedgender foursomes played a card game Some couples were instructed to play footsie secretly under the table some were instructed to do so out in the open and others were not told to do anything at all Findings indicated that participants reported being most attracted to their partner when i thei had not been asked to ilair footsie c they played footsie so that the other pair knew they were doing it d they played either type of footsie ANS B REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 6 KEY Conceptual 14 Eastwick and Finkel 2008 examined men s and women s preferences during a speed dating event They found significant gender differences in what men and women reported as important mate characteristics before the event began differences that once they actually started interacting with the potential mates at the event a increased 1i stayed constant d became more subtle ANS C REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 7 KEY Factual 15 Who is more likely to value physical attractiveness in a potential male partner a A woman who is in poverty b A woman who makes a moderate income d All of these will value physical attractiveness similarly in a potential mate ANS C REF The Initial Attraction OBJ 7 KEY Conceptual 16 Bruce and Pam have just started dating According to social exchange theory their relationship is likely to last longer and be more satisfying if they each feel that a the rewards gained from the relationship are shared equally between them b the costs of maintaining the relationship are shared equally between them c the rewards gained from the relationship are equal to the costs of maintaining the relationshii ANS D REF Close Relationships OBJ 8 KEY Applied l7 Zachary is unhappy in his relationship and is trying to decide whether to break up with his girlfriend Which of the following factors might encourage him to stay a If his comparison level for alternatives is high li If his comiarison level is high d If his costs for staying are high ANS C REF Close Relationships OBJ 8 KEY Applied 18 In their relationship Clyde is concerned with maintaining an equal ratio of rewards and costs whereas Bonnie is concerned with being responsive to Clyde s needs Clyde views their relationship as an relationship whereas Bonnie views it as an relationship i reciprocal exchange c communal passionate d passionate companionate ANS B REF Close Relationships OBJ 9 KEY Applied 19 According to Stemberg s triangular theory of love the basic components of love are b rewards costs and investments c romance companionship and reciprocity d ludus eros and storge ANS A REF Close Relationships OBJ 10 KEY Factual 20 Bruno just nished working out at the gym On his way to the locker room he passes Charmaigne a very pretty woman Bruno feels his heart pounding and is convinced that he must be in love with Charmaigne Bruno s feelings are best explained by a neiative affect reciprocity c psychological reactance d social penetration ANS B REF Close Relationships OBJ 11 KEY Applied 21 When they first started dating Norma and Nathan didn t share much about themselves with one another but as their relationship developed they began to talk more about personal issues and reveal more about themselves Their behavior is most consistent with the predictions of a the matching hypothesis b equity theory c the trianiular theoK of love ANS D REF Close Relationships OBJ 12 KEY Applied 22 In India and China love is essential for marriage a b emihasized more amoni females than males d viewed in more dispositional terms than it is in America ANS C REF Close Relationships OBJ 13 KEY Factual 23 Which of the following conclusions is not supported by data a Men often tend to see the world in sexualized terms b Men are more likely to fantasize about seX with multiple partners c Men tend to be more sexualli iermissive than women ANS D REF Close Relationships OBJ 13 KEY Conceptual 24 Survey research regarding adults life histories reveals that homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been a overattached to their samesex parents as children b sexually abused as children i relativeli late in the development of puberty ANS D REF Close Relationships OBJ 13 KEY Factual 25 Gay couples tend to than straight couples a divide household chores more evenly b retain relationships with former sex partners more d divide household chores more evenly and retain relationships with former sex partners less ANS C REF Close Relationships OBJ 13 KEY Conceptual 26 Carly hurls an insult right back at James when James expresses his negative feelings toward her Such a pattern illustrates a social penetration b a demandwithdraw interaction pattern d distressmaintaining attributions ANS C REF Close Relationships OBJ 14 KEY Applied
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