Infant Development I
Infant Development I CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Wednesday November 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/04/15
Infant Development I October, 8 , 2015 1 Describe and give examples of the components of emotion. What evidence is there that young infants can experience emotions? Do these emotions differ from those of adults? Components of emotion: - Physical response (changes in heart rate, breathing etc) - Tied to facial expression (smiling, frowning etc) - Cognitive aspect (depends on our understanding of what is happening) - Social aspect (used to communicate & regulate interactions with others) Evidence: - Indirect—inferred from facial experiments - Smiling, Newborns will reflexive their smiling in REM sleep, we can see they are already associated with tension release - At lease some emotions experienced by adults are not present from birth (shame, guilt & pride are clear examples) - Infants’ early emotions represent a set of distinct emotions comparable to those experienced by adults—differential emotions theory 2 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using facial expressions as indicators of emotional states in newborns and adults. It is the most indirect evidence of showing infant’s emotions. -Adults rates correctly identify infants’ emotional expressions - Cross-cultural studies of emotion . Facial expressions are judge similarly all over the world (there might be exception: fear, surprise distinction in non- industrialized societies) Disadvantages: - May not be valid across contexts and ages (For example; learn to mask emotions) - Good to include physiological indicators (For example: heart rate, galvanic skin response 3 Differentiate between the three main theories of emotional development. - Theory of Gradual Differentiation . Infants are born with the capacity to express to only general emotional . Great reactions – contentment or distress - Different Emotions Theory: .The basic emotions are biologically innate and present at birth in essentially adult like form . Infants’ early emotions represent a set of distinct emotions comparable to those experienced by adults . For example: People from widely different cultures use similar facial expressions to signal basic emotions, and to research suggesting that many infant facial expressions are similar to those of adults & can be fairly identified as such by untrained adult observers - Emotions as Ontogenetic Adaptations .They have evolved because they contribute to infants’ survival & development .Babies experience & express different emotions (For example: on the sorts of situations that provoke feelings or joy), & in the ways infants’ emotional expressions affect their interactions with their caregivers . The significant of the emergence of the social smile as a maker of a new level of development is reflected in a special celebratory victual traditionally 4 How is emotional expression an important social skill for infants? - Infants’ emotion play a key role in connecting infants to their social world - Indicates that the mother & baby are each able to recognize & share the emotional state of the other - Primary intersubjectivity: Organized, reciprocal interaction between an infant & caregiver with the interaction itself as the focus .It is direct facetoface interaction .Importance: Nowhere more apparent than in circumstances in which it breaks down, as when interactions between the baby & caregiver are disorganized & out of synch 5 How do brain processes contribute to emotional development? Monkey animals: Mirror Neurons: - Specialized brain cells, fire when an animal sees or hears another perform an action, just as they would if the animal itself were carrying out the action Human Brains: - A variety of mirror neuron systems in the human brain that are much more complex & flexible than the systems found in monkeys - We feel happy when those around us seem happy & sad when others seem sad, because the emotional expressions of others activate our mirror neurons - For example: the joy babies desire from imitative games is a joint function of the emotion connection that comes from understanding that the adult is choosing to do ‘the same as me’ & the sense of agency that comes from controlling the behavior of another 6 What are self-conscious emotions? How do they differ from primary emotions? What do self-conscious emotions tell us about developmental changes in the child? Self-conscious emotions: Emotions such as embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt & envy, which emerge after 8 months with infants’ growing consciousness of self - Involve complex combinations of cognitive & emotion & cannot appear until children are able to think about & evaluate themselves in relation to other people & the goals they desire Differences: - Selfconsciousness emotions: depend on babies’ newly acquired abilities to recognize, talk about & think about themselves in relation to other people - Basic emotions: Joy, fear & so forth, bear a simple & direct relation to the events that elicit them Development changes: - For example: many of them started to fret, stopped playing, & clung to their mothers. Kagan concluded that their distress signaled a new ability to recognize adult standards, a sense of responsibility to liv up to them, & shame or embarrassment when they failed to do so - Children’s increasing selfawareness, their growing sensitivity to adult’s standards of what is good; their new awareness of their own & judge them against adult standards; & a strong desire to see their plans are not thwarted by adults 7 What evidence would indicate that a 2-year-old has developed a sense of “self”? -By the time they are 6 months old, infants have acquired a great deal of experience interacting with objects & other people & have developed an intuitive sense of themselves as a result - Having a more explicit sense of self as separate from other promotes new forms of social relations. Infants at that age begin to learn that they can share their own experiments & compare their own reactions with those of others, especially through their emerging use of language - For example: Nadia’s ability to intentionally draw attention her way, & her delight in showing off, indicate that she has developed a sense of self, that is, of being an entity separate from the people & objects around her 8 Define temperament and distinguish between nature and nurture views on temperament. Temperament: The term for the individual modes of responding to the environment that appears to be consistent across situations & state over time Includes: characteristics as children’s activity level, their intensity of reaction, the ease with which they become upset, their characteristic responses to novelty & their sociability Nature: Children are born with certain temperaments - Role of genetics . Heritability – evidence from twin studies . Different appear early—innate dispositions Nurture: Children are the way they are because of the way they are raised - Role of environment . Only modest stability over time . Only ~20% of extremely shy children maintain extreme profile over time 9 Describe the general procedure used in Thomas & Chess’ New York Longitudinal Study, and describe the 9 dimensions of temperament derived from this study. Discuss the stability of temperament traits. Procedure: - Initiated in 1956 by 2 physicians who noticed early differences in infants - Followed 141 children from infancy into adulthood - Conducting structured clinical interviews of the children’s parents shortly after the children’s birth. They questioned parents about such matters as how the child reacted to the first bath, to wet diapers, to the first taste of solid food 9 dimensions of temperament: 1) Activity level – low to high 2) Biological/Rhythmicity—For example: sleeping, when to use the bathroom (The regularity or irregularity of the child’s basic biological functions) 3) Approach-Withdrawal—to toys, some babies approach, some withdrawal) (The child’s response to novelty) 4) Adaptability—whether the infant can sit on his seat (The minimum intensity of stimulation required to evoke a response) 5) Quality of mood—Negative, Positive 6) Intensity of Reaction—How much reaction the infant will get when he/she is upset 7) Sensitivity—How sensitivity to the environment, for example: touch or towards loud noise/night 8) Distractibility—By activities, even background noises 9) Persistence—Won’t give up 10 How would you describe a child with an easy, difficult, or slow-to- warm-up temperament type? What are the implications of these temperament types for later behavior? Be sure to include a description of the goodness-of-fit model and differential susceptibility in your answer. Temperament Types: -Easy (~40%) . Positive mood, fast adaptation, low-moderate activity of reactions . Playful, are regular in their biological functions, & adapt readily to new circumstances - Difficult (~10%) . Negative mood, slow adaption, high intense reactions, low threshold . Are irritable & often respond intensely & negatively to new situations or try to withdrawal from them - Slow to warm up (~15%) . Withdrawal, slow adaption, lowmoderate activity, mild intensity of reactions . Are low in activity level, & their response are typically mild. They tend to withdrawal from new situation, but in a calm way, & require more time than easy babies to adapt to change 11 Describe evidence suggesting that young infants have a sense of right and wrong. - Children’s increase selfawareness, their growing sensitivity to adults’ standards of what is good; their new awareness of their own ability to live up to those standards; an ability to create plans of their own & judge them against adult standards; & a strong desire to see that their plans are not thwarted by adults - For example: Parents say that, around their second birthday, children gain ‘sense’ & can be held responsible for their actions because they can supposed to be able to tell right & wrong
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