Greece Midterm Study Guide
Greece Midterm Study Guide History 1A
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Part 1: Identifications Knossos: Was the capital of Minoan Crete. Inhabited for several thousand years, beginning with a Neolithic settlement sometime in the seventh millennium BC, and was abandoned after its destruction in 1375 BC due to the Mycenaean invasion, which marked the end of Minoan civilization Agoge The upbringing/training young males underwent for 13 years in Sparta Involved learning stealth, cultivating loyalty to the Spartan group, military training (e.g. pain tolerance), hunting, dancing, singing and social (communicating) preparation. They often had to make their own beds, were underfed to encourage them to steal, and lived in barracks, away from their families until they were 30. Thermopylae A battle of the Persian war that took place in 480 BC. The Greeks were largely outnumbered by the Persians, yet held them back for 7 days. Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a hidden path that the Persians could use to cut the Greeks off. Leonidas knew that they were going to be defeated, so he sent the rest of his army off and remained with 300 Spartan soldiers and 700 helots. They are able to kill about 20,000 Persians, and even though they technically lost the battle, they were able to maim the Persian army and boost morale for the Greeks to continue fighting the Persians. Aristotle 384322. Greek philosopher, part of the “Big Three” of this time period. Student of Plato. Published many works dealing with different forms of government, but is most noted for his work in science. He taught his students to study empirical science, which is what can be seen to exist around us. His theories of physics were used throughout the next 2000 years because he was able to take the elements of the world that were agreed upon (fire, earth, water, air) and provide a reason for different phenomena (why a stone falls back to the earth, why fire and air seem to move upward while water is on the ground, etc.) Helots 736716 BC, Sparta conquered the Messenians and made them slaves. These slaves were called helots. They were used to work the land owned by Spartan citizens (men of pure Spartan descent) while they focused on the military goals of the polis. Helots differed from other slaves in Greece in that they were properties of the state rather than individuals, which meant they could not be bought or sold. The helots outnumbered the Spartans 7:1 so constant military training was needed to maintain control. Salamis 480 BC. The Greeks knew that the Persians were going to invade Athens, so the Athenians evacuated to Salamis. While there, there were some disputes over whether or not to defend Athens or let it fall. The Athenians didn’t want their city to be destroyed, so Themosticles sent a letter to Xerxes, commander of the Persians, convincing him to attack at Salamis. The Persians do this, but are beaten by the Greeks who have a better navy. Xerxes watched as thousands of his men died and his navy was destroyed, and then went back to Persia. This was the last major battle between the two, and was a deciding factor in the Greeks ultimate defeat of the Persians. Trojan War 1200 BC Summary: Agamemnon, King of Mycenae and Menelaus, king of Sparta, are brothers. Menelaus’ wife Helen was kidnapped by Paris who was the son of a Trojan King. Agamemnon and Menelaus work together and go on a journey to save Helen. It leads to a war, but they are able to defeat the Trojans and save the wife. The Iliad by Homer is the record we have of this war, but because it was written around 800 BC its not really an accurate account, but we do know it happened. It was the last notable event for the Myceneans and their culture. Draco 7th century BC) was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court instead of relying on the judgements of a group of elder. Most notably, he wrote a law that distinguished between voluntary and involuntary homicide Pericles Most influential political figure in Athens from 450420. He was a democratic imperialist, and was known for his “beautification project” in which he mobilized the people to repair the damage done by the Persian invasion and build the Parthenon. Homer Author of the Iliad and The Odyssey, lived around 800 BC. There is a lot of controversy involving relying on him as an accurate historical source because of various inconsistencies between his works and what we know about Greek society during the time periods he writes about. Some historians question whether or not Homer was a real person Solon A poet and statesmen in Athens around 600570 BC. He was able to implement economic reforms that helped avoid the civil war in the making due to high poverty and debt levels. After solons success in that sense, he took it upon himself to regulate trade in Athens and have the people specialize in making olive oil. He also made their units of measurement more in line with those used throughout Greece. Solon then altered the political structure of Athens by dividing the citizens into 4 classes based on income and gave the two highest the opportunity to hold a political office. Now, men were able to improve their stats economically regardless of their ancestry. The last change he made was implementing a court of appeal that all citizens could access. Sophocles 496406 One of the prominent tragedy playwrights of Greece during the beginning of the classical age. He has 7 plays which survived, the most famous being the story of Oedipus Rex. He changed the form of drama by adding a third actor in order to develop his themes more and raise more questions about society. His plays mostly deal with civil disobedience. Hesiod late 8th and/or early 7th century. Epic poet like Homer, but his works were much shorter. Theogony , had a traditional subject material about the origin of the gods, a time of heroes, and the distant past. TheWorks and Days , takes place in present day rather than the past. Didactic, meaning instructional poem. The works talks about how to respect the gods and be successful. The day's talks about when to plant what crop, who to marry, etc. Peisistratus Son of Hippocrates, was a tyrannical ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC. He ruled under a façade of legality, with the archons of Athens voting in favor of his projects when they were actually handpicked and bribed to do so. He gained support through his immense public works program that built many temples and put on festivals and by giving land to his supporters. Thucydides Mid 400’s BC. Next great historian after Herodotus. He writes a focused monograph on the Peloponnesian war because he realized as soon as the war broke out that it would be the biggest war ever. Also narrows significantly the field of causation. Herodotus employed redundant causation, meaning that there were divine and mortal reasons for events while Thucydides only discussed human reasoning Sappho 600 BC Woman from the island of lesbos and one of the very few female authors whose voice survived from the ancient world. Literature was a man’s business, but there were some woman, we have a lot of Sapphos works. Won awards for poetry and in the Olympics. Had a lot of erotic literature, mostly about other females Cleisthenes of Athens Around 514508 BC Was exiled from Athens during the reign of Hippias. While exiled, Cleisthenes and his supporters asked the Spartans for help in overthrowing Hippias, which they did in 510. Cleisthenes returns in 508 and ignited a social revolution that eventually established the first form of democracy in an ancient world. Participation extended to only adult male citizens, but the council of 500 members he created ensured an equal opportunity for each citizen to serve as part of the government and was used for over 50 years. Peace of Nicias 421413 At this point in the Peloponnesian War, both Sparta and Athens were ready to call a truce. It was essentially at a standstill, so the Peace of Nicias was signed by both. However, some states in alliance with Sparta and Athens were not ready to end the war, so it turned into a period similar to the Cold War, with no actual fighting but caution and passive aggressiveness on both sides. Archilochus 650 A Greek lyric poet from the island of Paros in the Archaic period. Criticizes what is considered acceptable in the society in which he lived. Herodotus About 450 BC. Considered to be the first historian. He is the "father of history" because of how he answers the question why things happened. Used "Redundant causation" or "double motivation", meaning he records not only divine causation but human causation as well. His purpose was to explain how the "barbarians and Greeks came into conflict" Barbarian has a bad connotation now, but back then it just meant anyone who wasn't Greek. History comes from the Greek word historie which means inquiry. This describes Herodotus' methods with how he went all around the known world, asking questions, interviewing people, and writing it down. Lycurgus About 800 BC., his law system was used about 600 BC. A legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the militaryoriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. All his reforms were directed towards the three Spartan virtues: equality (among citizens), military fitness, and austerity. He is referred to by ancient historians and philosophers Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato, Polybius, Plutarch, and Epictetus. It is not clear if this Lycurgus was an actual historical figure; however, many ancient historians believed Lycurgus was responsible for the communalistic and militaristic reforms that transformed Spartan society, most notably the Great Rhetra. Marathon 490 BC. One of the most famous battles in Greek history from the Persian War. Marathon was the name of a town in Greece where the Greeks were vastly outnumbered by the Persians yet still managed to win that battle, and made it back to Athens in time to prevent the Persians from destroying that city. If the Greeks hadn’t have won, they probably would have just faded into history rather than influence the rest of it. Linear B 14501400 BC. The writing system used by the Greeks, developed from Linear A used by the Minoans. Linear B was used by the upper class for note taking and record keeping, so it died off during the dark ages when the upper class were either killed or exiled by the Dorians. Oedipus 431404 BC. Main character in the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. In it, there is a prophecy that Oedipus will kill his father and marry his mother. His parents leave him on the hillside, a shepherd finds him and saves him. Oedipus grows up in Corinth, not knowing who his real parents are. One day he is walking down the road, runs into a group of men, they fight and Oedipus ends up killing a man who was a stranger but was actually his father. He goes home, finds the Queen Jocasta who was recently widowed, and marries her. When the city is inflicted with a plague, Oedipus is told that the only way to end it is to avenge the murder of King Laius. He eventually confronts the truth that he killed his father and married his mother and pays a heavy price. Philip II Reigned in Macedonia from 359336. Used diplomacy and aggression to expand his kingdom, and was very successful. He created the League of Corinth in 337 after showing impressive military strength in 338, making it so that all the other polis were afraid to say no to joining the league. They put Philip as his leader and all agreed to go to war with Persia, but Philip was assassinated before this happened. Alexander III (the Great) Lived from 356323, reigned from 336323. He created the largest empire known in the ancient world and became responsible for the eastward movement of Greek culture. He was often criticized by the Greeks for becoming too Persian in their eyes, which was seen through how he tried to make himself a diety. Delian League 478 BC. After being liberated in the Persian wars, several Greek states met on the island of Delos to form an alliance that would continue the Persian war in order to exact revenge on Persia. Athens was recognized as being in charge of the league and also controlled the navy and treasury. It became the Athenian Empire in 454 when they moved the treasury from Delos to Athens. Socrates (470399) One of the Big Three Greek philosophers. Fundamental problem with studying him because he didn't write anything down about his philosophy, so rely on what his student Plato has written down. At one point, someone went to an oracle and was told that Socrates was the wisest man on earth. Socrates decided that this was because he is the only one hero recognizes his own ignorance He had an interest in ethics and human behavior. He believed virtue and knowledge are identical because the person who knows what's right and has that knowledge will do that which is right. He was an extremely well known Public figure, but not always liked. In 399, he was put on trial for impiety and corrupting the youth. Ultimately he is killed because Critias was his student and also one of the 30 tyrants. Within two generations of the execution was revealed that although at the time they said it was because of his political views, it was actually this connection to Critias that made people kill him. Zeno of Elea 490430 Bc. preSocratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. Aristotle called him the inventor of the dialectic. He is best known for his paradoxes. Plato 428347 BC. Student of Socrates who wrote a lot of the history regarding his teachings. He developed his own concepts about how one can know what is right, as well as how our perceptions of things may vary. polis Late 9 /early 8 century. Also known as a city state. Similar to city states seen in places like Mesopotamia. Usually had an urban center surrounded by the farmland where most people lived and worked. About 75% of people were farmers. Typically came about when people of different villages would come together and create a more permanent and organized settlement. With the rise of the polis, trade resumed that had been halted during the dark ages. Olympic Games 776 BC. Often used to mark the beginning of the archaic period in Greece. The first games were held in Olympia, and demonstrated the importance of religion in Greek life because they were dedicated to the god Zeus. They were also used to celebrate qualities the Greeks thought were important, such as honor strength and heroism. Winners of the events received rewards and glory in their city. Ionian Revolt499 BC. A group of Greeks known as Ionians were under Persian control and asked Athens to help them become free. Athens agrees and sends part of their navy. The revolt ultimately failed in 493 but is often considered the catalyst for the two Persian Wars. LECTURE NOTES WEEK 3 NOTES 10/14/15 Greece and the Bronze Age Minoans from Crete and the Mycenaean from the Greek peninsula. The oldest Neolithic era civilization we found on Crete dates back to 6100 BC. Around 2000, immigrants began moving to the island of Crete as well as those surrounding it From 2000 to 400 the Minoans reigned over this area The rise of Minoan civilization occurred between 2000 and 1600 Significant trade contact was made to the north and the west Multiple palaces were built, and a road system was built that linked the various palaces Religious shrines were developed, mostly on mountains and caves Cultural contact was established with middle kingdom Egypt, who were much more advanced than the Minoans Linear A is the name for the Minoan form of writing. It remains undeciphered today, but we do know that it was not used to form the Greek language. The high point of Minoan civilization lasted for a century and a half, from 16001450 BC. The capitol was securely established at Knossos We know what people wore, what they liked to do, what sports they participated in, how they labored, etc. through Minoan art The Minoans had a type of sport that we call “bulljumping”, where they would try do some sort of gymnastics thing to jump over a charging bull Inspired Greek myths Ex: King Minos, and his wife Pasiphae. Poseidon gave Minos a beautiful bull, but Minos didn’t sacrifice it to Poseidon like he should’ve. So, Poseidon gets revenge by having Pasiphae become attracted to the bull. She gets an anatomically correct cow suit that then fools the bull into thinking shes a cow. They mate, creating the Minotaur (half man half bull). Minos can’t kill the Minotaur because it is diving intervention. The Minotaur liked to eat people, so he is stuck in the labyrinth and people are sent in there to be sacrificed to the monster. Then the Greek hero, Theseus, kills the Minotaur. Kernels of truth: The labyrinth can be linked to the Palace of Minos at the capitol Knossos, which is quite large and confusing. It is also known that the bull was an important animal to the Minoans. At the capital palace, there is a lot of artwork and archeological elements that are related to the bull. Minoan Religion We cam conjecture about Minoan religion from archeological evidence, but since we can’t decipher the language we can’t know for sure The main deity was a woman goddess. There are many depictions of her with a bull, holding 2 snakes with a dove on her hear, or with a young boy, who is presumed to be a sort of male divinity. Scholars call her the “snake goddess”. We don’t really know what this goddess did. We can assume she is a sort of fertility figure because of how she is depicted with animals and because a lot of female gods of the ancient world were associated with fertility. The most important city during this entire time period was Knossos. There are only a handful of rulers names recorded, the majority named Minos. Always said to be the son of Zeus. It is likely that Minos was more of a title like Pharaoh than an actual name. Trade Minoan Fallasocricy, meaning ruler of the sea. They established a navy that allowed them to become a strong country economically We have found Minoan trade goods throughout the region, including Egypt This provided outside cultural connection Fall of Minoans They fell due to outside invasions from the mainland Mycenaean people We know that around 1450, every palace other than Knossos is completely destroyed Although Knossos survived, we have found Mycenaean pottery, literature, and weaponry that is dated from 1450 to about 1375. The Mycenaeans probably used Knossos as their base of operations while they took over the rest of Crete PreGreek We know that the people who inhabited the island of Crete and the Greek mainland didn’t speak any form of the Greek language or any other IndoEuropean language They may or may not have spoken Linear A, but we don’t know for certain Certain consonant clusters such as “nth” and “ss” are present in names for places that were adopted by the Greeks, showing that the original inhabitants had a unique language An example is “Thalassa”, which is the name for the sea. It has survived all the way until Modern Greek. We know that the original people primarily worshiped a fertility goddess. This is known because we have found depictions of a woman with exaggerated sexual features that is similar to fertility goddesses of other areas. Diews, the sky god, eventually becomes Zeus, Jupiter, and Tiw The IndoEuropean speaking invaders had a male sky god at the top, were land based (agricultural society). Around 1600 or so, the Greek speakers on the mainland are able to begin to develop their civilization quickly thanks to the Minoans. They are eventually called the Mycenaeans The Mycenaean’s were generally overshadowed until 1400 because they were less advanced than the Greece Mycenean culture spreads, palace states are developed Palace bureaucracy begins, which is similar to the Minoans 10/16/2015 Mycenae Seen as Greek people We call these people the Mycenaens because of the castle in Mycenae Build giant walls around their palaces that were 20 feet thick. It was unnecessary to have them that thick because no one had weaponry strong enough to penetrate this. It was probably done to send a message to the people that they shouldn’t try to revel Two castles, Mycenae and Tiryns. Mycenae was the main castle, Tiryns was a bit smaller. Elaborate road network connecting the cities Religion o Spoke an Indo European language, an early ancestral form of the Greek Language o Worshiped above all others a male God of the sky o Thanks to Linear B tablets, we know that they worshiped basically all of the Greek divinities o They mention Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hermes, Artemis, Apollo, etc. Redistributive economy (Palace Economy) o 1450Strong element of oversea trade, dominant trading people in the area Although they could feed themselves, they had to import a lot of items to sustain o themselves o Foreign trade throughout the Mediterranean, in Egypt, Israel, Palestine, o Fine Mycenaean lottery where Minoan pottery used to be, showed that Mycenaeans took over previously Minoan controlled trade routes Foreign Relations: Hittites Empire in Southeast Asia minor We have writings from them that mention a people called "Ahhijawa " o We are almost certain these were the Mycenaean Greeks o Greeks were known as Achaioi which turns into Ahhijawa o However, we don't know which Greeks, or where they came from o Could be Mycenaean itself because of its power or an island Mycenaean colony because they were close from the Hittites o We have records of hittites leaders contacting the Mycenaeans, in a non aggressive way. They seemed to get along Egyptians Mycenaean Greeks were among the people of the sea, in at least one but maybe both of the attempted invasions of Egypt by the people of the sea In one of the Egyptian inscriptions about a battle, it is noted that “KWS” were there and if you plug in the right vowels, which Egyptian didn’t use, and you get “achaioi” which were the Greeks There are also people referred to as DN which can be equated to “Danoi” which is another name for the Greeks The Mycenaean Greeks tried to invade Egypt and failed leading to hostile relations between the two Trojan War The Iliad is a book by Homer, the action takes place over the ten year Trojan war Summary: Agamemnon, King of Mycenae and Menelaus, king of Sparta, are brothers. Menelaus’ wife Helen was kidnapped by Paris who was the son of a Trojan King. Agamemnon and Menelaus work together and go on a journey to save Helen. It leads to a war, but they are able to defeat the Trojans and save the wife. It was thought of complete myth, with no basis of historical fact, until the city of Troy was uncovered o Since it was a popular settlement site, they actually found multiple Troy's stacked up o The Troy associated with the Trojan war is Troy 7a o We know this was the one because it shows signs of destruction by fire dating to the Trojan was which would’ve been at about 1200 BC o We have Hittite documents saying that the Mycenaean people were being a nuisance in the Mediterranean region Saying the Trojan war really did happen isn't the same as saying Homers Iliad is an accurate description of the Trojan war o The Greeks weren't literate at the time of the war o So, it was passed down orally for about 400 years until it was written down by Homer around 800 BC o No one believes that Helen was really kidnapped, that Agamemnon was a real person, or that the war lasted 10 years. The Trojan war was the last notable event for the Mycenaeans and their culture o Within the next century their culture is obliterated o A people from the north called the Dorians speak Greek but a different dialect, came through, destroy and conquered the land. o The Dorians destroyed every single palace. However, they skip Attica Athens because it's too far out of the way so that Mycenaean palace remained. Dark Ages The Dorian invasions ended up starting the dark ages Literacy was lost because Linear B was lost. Linear B wasn't wide spread and was only used for note taking by the upper class who were probably all killed Standard of living drops, populations drop and become less centralized. There are no more palace states, small villages are very common About 1050, mainland Greece transitioned from bronze to iron The Archaic Period Late 9 to early 8 century End of dark ages led by archaic period Ended thanks to the polis and the Greek alphabet o Polis also known as a city state. Similar to city states we've seen in places like Mesopotamia. Usually had an urban center surrounded by the farmland where most people lived and worked. About 75% of people were farmers. Typically came about when people of different villages would come together and create a more permanent and organized settlement o Literacy returns to Greek due to trade and contact with the Phoenicians. With the rise of the polis, trade resumed that had been halted during the dark ages. The Greek adopt the Phoenician alphabet, but altered it a little by adding vowels Literature Unlike Linear B, the new Greek alphabet is used for everything, not just record keeping. One of the first written things we have is the Iliad written about 750 BC It is inevitable that after 400 years of telling the story orally, it gets added to and made more dramatic than it truly was Odyssey, written about 725 BC About Oedipus returning to his home in Ithaca after the Trojan war Using Homer as a historical source is highly contested o The Homeric Question: scholars question whether or not Homer actually existed 1. Doubted because the poems are written in is a Greek dialect that no one ever spoke. It’s actually a mixture of many different dialects o After the war, people began telling the stories orally. When literacy was restored, Homer, who was probably the lead story teller at the time, wrote down the poems. 1. The Homeric poems are written in a meter used by the Greeks for the purpose of writing epic poetry 2. This meter, dactylic hexameter, provides a type of rhythm that is only used for Epic story telling WEEK 4 NOTES Continuation of Homer: We see genuine Mycenaean elements, and Bronze Age influences, other characteristics from the intervening dark ages that get muddled in the poems The poems mostly bring up using bronze weapons which was an accurate memory for the time period the poems took place o However, occasionally iron weapons are mentioned which is impossible because they didn't know how to make iron at this time o Also, boar tusk helmets are mentioned. This is a backward inaccuracy because boar tusk helmets have phased out by the time of the Trojan War. This detail tells us that the tradition of storytelling is older than the Trojan War. o Chariots are another forward inaccurism. They remembered that chariots were used in war, but they didn’t know how. In reality, soldiers would stay in the chariot to fight, while in the poems they would get out of it to fight. Archaic period (776479/8) Rise of the polis has a lot of influence in coming out of the dark ages Polis is the dominant form of political and social order in the greek world for many years o Defined as "a community of several villages that possesses the goal of virtually complete selfsufficiency" by Aristotle 4th century BC o Polis came into being through villages uniting o Because of their goal of selfsufficiency, they are known as city states o Selfsufficiency can't be realized because of the poor soil in Greece, the lack of natural such as minerals to make metal. Led to a high dependence on trade Resumption of overseas trade in a large scale with the near east and Egypt Return of literacy in the form of the alphabet 776 is known as the beginning of the archaic period because that is what is known as the first year of the Olympics 479/8 is chosen as the end because that's when the Persian war ended Literature of archaic period Begins with Homer, who is the first and greatest poet of the Greeks Next was Hesiod, lived in late 8th and/or early 7th century. o Epic poet like Homer, but were much shorter o Theogony , had a traditional subject material about the origin of the gods, a time of heroes, and the distant past o The Works and Days , takes place in present day rather than the past. Didactic, meaning instructional poem. The works talks about how to respect the gods and be successful. The day's talks about when to plant what crop, who to marry, etc. The Lyric o New genre of poetry that developed during this time period o Uses many different meters o Epics write about the distant last with gods and heroes. Usually the narrator is a detached third person character. o With a lyric, it's first or second person. This makes it more personal o They talk about the present not the past Sappho o Woman from the island of lesbos o One of the very few female authors whose voice survived from the ancient world o Literature was a man’s business, but there were some woman, we have a lot of Sapphos works o Won awards for poetry and in the Olympics o Had a lot of erotic literature, mostly about other females Age of Colonization (750550) Colonies were sent out all over the place for many city states With the rise of the polis, increased standard of living, increased population led to not having enough food Causes if civilization 1. Need for more food 2. Trade interests 3. Lost a war and were kicked out A colony is always founded as an independent polis from their mother cities, so there was never a revolution because they weren't politically subject Colonized around the shores of the Mediterranean, around the Black Sea Density varies 1. Heavily around the eastern Mediterranean, Italy, 2. Less heavily in the west toward Europe, and in the southern coast o Results of colonization 1. More money because easy access to trade 2. Access to materials they didn't have in Greece 3. Population expansion 4. Various city states begin fighting each other over land, alliances were made o Political fragmentation 1. Hundreds of city states all in competition 2. Common culture in language/literature and religion that tired them together Although different dialects, they recognized they all spoke Greek Common pool of literature thanks to Homer. He writes for a broad Greek audience, as does Hesiod. Later authors follow their lead Innumerable differences with how to worship gods and heroes locally. They all worshiped the 12 Olympian gods, including Zeus, Aries, jades, Poseidon, Hera Women Received physical education Two healthy parents were needed to create a healthy child Understood the important role of women in raising children for the state Has more rights than many other women in ancient civilizations o Still couldn't vote or hold political office o 40% of land in Sparta was controlled by women, probably the result of massive wartime casualties but the fact that they were allowed to own it is noteworthy Oracles Any individual or group can consult the oracle of Apollo in Delphi You would go to the temple, talk to the priest and ask your question, someone would inhale something and go into a trance. Her response would be translated into dactylic hexameter and that's the answer Tagean conflicts with oracle advice o One of the only instances where we see the Spartan military set back o They think the oracle says they will beat the Tageans, when actually the Tageans lose and bind the Spartans with the ropes meant to capture them o After they win, they decide they won't helotize any other conquered people. Argos o Defeat Argos in battle o Don't compel Argos into alliance with them Foreign policy Begin to expand their alliances throughout the Peloponnese Unite basically every country except Argos Culture Political power spread, culture declined Imports and exports diminish Lack of fine arts, no more monumental architecture Everywhere except Sparta starts using coinage, Sparta bans it o No Artists or metal worker or merchants are going to come to Sparta because they can't be paid Athens Principal city of the region of Attica Athens and Attica encompass the same ideas and can be used to talk about the same thing Politics o Citizenship is extended to all free people o Got rid of kings, replaced them with a board of 9 men elected annually o Council of the Areopagus were advisors to the king, then changed so that after you were in the board for a year you served in the council until you died o Only the aristocracy were eligible to be in these positions o In 621/0 Athenians decided they wanted a written set of laws, Draco write a set of laws. This was only a temporary solution because later all his laws except the ones about homicide are repealed and replaced o Solon, elected 594/3, given the ability to change and fix the constitution and set of laws o The main problem at this time was they Athenians were largely in debt Most Athenians were small farmers, and had bad crop years. They could then either starve or take out a loan. They would ask a wealthy neighbor, and out up their land as collateral. If they had a second bad year and couldn't pay back, then the loan giver owned the land and kept the farmer as a sharecropper. They worked the land and gave 1/6 of their crops to the lender If they had a third bad year and couldn't pay rent, then the lender could make you slaves and either sell you or keep you whatever he wanted o Solon decided to eliminate debt He forgave all debt Liberated all Athenians who had been sold abroad as slaves Divided people into 4 social classes based in income o Political power became tied to ones social class, making Athens go from an aristocracy to a timocracy o Solon temporarily delayed civil strife, and bound the people to following his laws o Peisistratus became a tyrant 561/0, then again in 565/6 then gets kicked out, and is back 575 until he dies. Then he left the tyranny to his sons He was known as a good tyrant who followed the laws and constitution Low taxes Coinage was introduced into Athens Patronage of the arts, sponsorship of state religious festivals involving dramatic competition of plays and comedies o His sons Hippias and Hipparchus become joint rulers Hipparchus is assassinated Hippias goes on a reign of terror Sparta helps Athens help kick them out Tyrant becomes a negative word o 508/7 Cleisthenes , Democratic reforms Tribal reform: creates 10 tribes from the 4 original, divided based on varying geographical location. He divided Attica into 140 deems, of 3 large sections (interior, coast, city), took one deem from each and made a tribe with representation from each region. Tribal membership was hereditary. Each tribe had equal political representation WEEK 5 NOTES Politics The council of 500 was a group of 500 men elected annually o Chosen via a lottery system, showed thaw theoretically every citizen was able to serve in a political process o Makes almost every important decision of state, including going to war, making peace, passing laws, decrees o Direct democracy seen through how as long as you're a males out can. Go and directly vote on what the council is discussing Ostracism o Every year, was divided into 10 parts so that there was one part of the year for each tribe to be in charge of the council o The tribe will vote on if they want an ostracism, if the majority say they do then 8th part of the year everyone puts in a name. They count the ballots and if someone gets a plurality vote they are banished for 10 years o Designed to prevent another tyranny to happen. It allows the people tothu get rid of a seemingly corrupt politician without the risk of having it pinned on one person who trot get rid of them o Wasn't used for twenty years Persian wars Herodotus o Considered to be the first historian o He is the "father of history" because of how he answers the question why o "Redundant causation" or "double motivation", meaning he records not only divine causation but human causation as well o His purpose was to explain how the "barbarians and Greeks came into conflict" o Barbarian has a bad connotation now, but back then it just meant anyone who wasn't Greek o History comes from the Greek word historie which means inquiry. This describes Herodotus' methods o Herodotus went all around the known world, asking questions, interviewing people Cyrus o 30 year reign of Persia o Makes Persia the strongest empire in the region o He dies, leaving the kingdom to his son o ____, the empires goes from Asia Minor to _ o Each king after Cyrus has a desire to live up to his rule by expanding the empire Ionian revolt o Persians were in control of Ionia, Ionians revolt, Athens helps them but they aren't successful o King wants revenge o Sets out to attack Athens, there is s storm that causes them to be unsuccessful . They decide to take s diplomatic route o Athens and Sparta refused to give "earth and water", and kill the ambassadors sent to them to collect it. Violation of international law and a scandal o The next year, Darius decided to go for s military strategy because diplomacy didn't work o Battle of Marathon The Athenians send their entire army to hold off the Persians, while they also ask Philippius to run to Sparta to for help. The Spartans come as soon as they can to help the Athenians. Both armies of Persians and Greeks sit and wait for 5 days The Persians take advantage of every soldier being at marathon, so they leave to attack Athens The Greeks are signaled by some Ionians that the Persian Calvary is gone, so the Greeks decide to attack while the Persians are weaker, then hope they have enough time to go back and defend Athens 6400 Persians die, 162 Athenians The Athenian survivors, leave 1 tribe to stay on the battlefield, the rest go back to Athens They get back just in time, as the Persians show up and decide they don't want to risk another loss so they leave and Athens is save They buried all the soldiers who died on the battlefield o If Athens hadn't won the battle of marathon, the Greeks would've been just a footnote of Persian history They proved that they are capable of defeating the Persians It teaches the Greeks in general that it is possible to beat these people instead of just taking it Hellenic league League of Greek city states coming together to beat the Persians The Spartans are out in charge of the league because of their military expertise and the fact that the league is mostly filled with people provided by Sparta from their Peloponnesian league Athens provides most of the navy because Sparta doesn't have experience in that Thermopylae 5200 Greek troops, 900 Famous 300 Spartans Greeks are outnumbered probably 40:1 o They know they're not going to win, but hope that they can cause enough causalities to wear down Xerxes and keep morale up back home Ephialtes, commander of the army o Everyone wants to flee, but Ephialtes says he and the Spartans will stay, 700 other thespians also stay although it's basically a suicide mission Although technically a loss, they were able to kill 20,000 Persians and boost morale We know they didn't expect to win because they only sent 300 men, that all had at least one living son to continue their family alone Salamis Persian have a clear spot to Attica, so the Athenians evacuate to Salamis Spartans wanted to go back, give up Athens, and defend the isthmus if Corinth Athenians don't want to do that, so Themistocles plays a trick o He sends a letter to Xerxes saying that he should attack at Salamis o So Xerxes listened and the battle took place there The Greeks were outnumbered 4:1, but somehow won the battle o 1sr Greek victory in the second Persian war o Causes Xerxes to change his strategy for the rest of the war. Up until this point, he would fight on land and sea simultaneously Now, he has lost faith in the navy so he sends them home and the rest of the war is fought on land 30,000 Persians are killed, only 1500 Greeks die The Persians give up because they realize it's not worth it and they keep losing To celebrate the victory, the Greeks went to the oracle at Delphi and send a serpent column on a gold tripod to thank Apollo The Greeks decide to take the war to the Persians Summer of 479, the Athenian navy ends up fighting a battle at Mycale o The Greeks win by a lot o Seeing a successful Greek fleet in their region, the Ionian Greeks ask for help in liberating them. The Hellenic league agrees and is able to help the Ionians o Spartans don't think they need to do any more, so they go home o The Athenians stay to occupy the Persian city of Sestos and successfully conquer it o Marks the end of the Persian wars as well as the end if the archaic age and beginning of the classical age of Greek history o Leads to a huge divide between the Spartans and Athenians , and therefore a division in the Hellenic league Delian league Don't want to follow Spartan rules, ask Athens to be in charge of their navy Athens then starts a new league called Delian that has goals of getting revenge on the Persians for their in visions of Greece, as well as get tribute from states supporting the Persians Peloponnesian wars Showdown between Sparta and Athens Athens is clearly dominate on the sea, so they try to replicate this into land o Some Egyptians ask for help in o 454 transfer of treasury to Athens 451 signing of treaty called the 5 year peace, sort of unsuccessful o In 456 both sides agree to a 30 year peace, that only lasts 15 years Athenian empire Delian League became the Athenian empire in 454 Used as an arm of Athens’ foreign policy From the 450s to the 420s, the most famous and influential political figure in Athens was Pericles o Athens was a democracy so there was no official man in change, but Pericles was unofficially the one in charge o Pericles was a democratic imperialist o Militant democracy, meaning that Athens expanded their empire and spread democracy to the conquered peoples o Pericles began an “urban beautification program” using money from the tributes required of allies, built the Parthenon to honor Athena Other political interference o All mandatory appeals were to be heard in Athens, even if there were no Athenians involved o Declare that all allies much use Athenian coinage, weights, and measures Offensive because minting your own currency was a sign that you were independent and autonomous Allies had to take their money all the way to Athens, and exchange it for Athenian currency at a rate of 3% Athenian Drama Principle source for Greek drama was Aristotle writing in the 4 century "Drama" means action, as in what is represented in the stage Tragedy o Developed from a Greek word meaning "goat song" Could be called goat song because the chorus dressed like goats, you brought your goat with you, or the winner received a goat as a prize o Tragic chorus was a group of men singing songs o Tragedy Proper developed when an actor was added to the chorus Started with a call and response situation where a chorus would sing something and one man would respond o Genuine actor by the time of o Each of the great playwrights added actors, leading to a total of 3 actors who played multiple roles per play o Drama was not a private competition, it was through state sponsored dramatic festivals in honor of the god Dionysus where people competed o Theatres had a large seating area, orchestra level, stage, and an area under the stage for the actors to change costumes and stuff o Plays were chosen to compete in Dionysia during the religious festivals Playwrights submitted their plays in advance, and the 3 best playwrights were chosen If chosen, then the playwrights were allowed to show 4 plays, 3 that formed a trilogy and 1 that was based off an older way The actors were chosen by lottery when assigned to the playwrights They often chose their Producers were chosen by lottery and were the wealthiest people in Athens, because they were responsible for costumes, machinery, etc. Producing a play was a liturgy (service) to Athens, just like outfitting a warship or donating to build a monument To promote this, and encourage producers to do well, if you produced a 1 place play then you could put a monument of yourself in downtown Athens Aeschylus (525456) o Wrote over 80 plays, only 7 survived o Part of those 7 include the only full trilogy Sophocles (496406) o 7 surviving plays o Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex, the O.T.) Prophecy that Oedipus will kill his father and marry his mother. His parents leave him on the hillside, a shepherd finds him and saves him. Oedipus grows up in Corinth, not knowing who his real parents are. One day he is walking down the road, runs into a group of men, they fight and Oedipus ends up killing a man who was a stranger who was actually his father. He goes home, finds the Queen Jocasta who was recently widowed, and marries her. When the city is inflicted with a plague, Oedipus is told that the only way to end it is to avenge the murder of King Laius. He eventually confronts the truth that he killed his father and married his mother and pays a heavy price. Euripides o 19 surviving plays o Not as successful as the other two playwrights Elements of tragic plays Traditional stories and themes The audience usually knows the ending of the story because it has been told to them for years According to Aristotle, tragedy produces a “cleansing”, meaning that as the audience watches the play they experience sadness and pity, but those feelings are washed away in the end and result in a feeling of pleasure Over and over, characters in tragedies make crucial mistakes that lead to their ruin Question to what extent does the main character bear responsibility of this own fate? The characteristic that leads to downfall can be associated with hubris Can be roughly translated to being overly prideful However, the Greeks didn’t care if you were very prideful in your own mind, as long as you didn’t do anything about it. Hubris is defined as an act in deed or word that manifests your pride, and is caused by your overwhelming pride Comedy “Comos”=comedy o Was actually a traveling group of men, who would go from town to town drinking and singing songs, making fun of the people they encountered, bringing their animals with them Comos became the “Comic chorus” o Moved around a lot o Usually wore animal costumes o Turns from Porto chorus to a real chorus and adds actors Aristophanes (445385) o 11 surviving plays o No surviving plays from playwrights of his competition Subjects were normally about everyday life, the present moment o His play “the clouds” was about the educational movement sweeping through the state o Lysistrata Most famous play In it, all the women went on a sexual strike until the war stopped Made fun of Greek society and even the gods nd The (2 , Great) Peloponnesian War Thucydides o Next great historian after Herodotus o He writes a focused monograph on the Peloponnesian war because he realized as soon as the war broke out that it would be the biggest war ever o Also narrows significantly the field of causation o Herodotus employed redundant causation, meaning that there were divine and mortal reasons for events Thucydides only discussed human reasoning WEEK 6 NOTES Thucydides Immediate successor to Herodotus Represents a crucial step in the development of historiography o In his histories, the gods don't play a direct role o Human causation alone Was referred to as First scientific historian o We now realize that both historians have strengths and weaknesses o Thucydides, never cites sources, writes more authoritative history but doesn't back it up, might be biased but we only have his account do we can’t check o Herodotus identifies his sources, but is still biased His causes of the Great War o Proximate causes o Corinthian causes o Truest allegation/ultimate cause of the war is identified as the growth of the Athenian empire and the reaction of fear that this provokes in Sparta Archidamian War (431421) Started with Sparta attacking Athens Was actually the Hellenic league of Sparta. Against the Delian league of Athens Fought based on their individual strengths o “the elephant and the whale” o Athens is very good at naval combat, does okay on land o Sparta has a bad navy but is very good on land plague at Athens 430429 o Athens strategy was to be in the defense and just sit tight, making sure they had access to the sea so they didn't starve o Was a disaster when a plague swept through and killed 1 in 3 Athenians o Pericls, the guy in charge died PylosSphacteria, 425 Amphipolis, 424/3 o Sparta Offered chance to have peace, Athens says no o So Amphipolis is a very important city to Athens, it had a lot of good lumber and gold mines o Sparta focus their efforts on taking this very important city and succeed o As a result, Thucydides is exiled because his job was to protect the city, allowing him to travel and collect information for his history Peace of Nicias (421413) Most of the people truly want an end to the war o Athens and Sparta are ready to end the war o Other Spartans allies, such as Corinth, don't want peace and act like the treaty was never signed Went from physical war to a sort of Cold War, with aggressive actions i
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