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Packet for Misc. Classes (Requested) BIOL 241
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Wilson on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 241 at Indiana University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Duchamp in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy in Biology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Study Guide for Exam 1 PHYS 111 Chapter 1 Vectors Kinematics Sig Figs Trigonometric Functions Overview of Ch 1 Dimensions systems of units and powers of ten This chapter focuses on unit conversion as well as identifying how to multiply two units to produce a third Most of it is algebra along with a dose of problem solving Let s begin 0 Realize that there are many physical quantities The main three that we focus on are 1 Length m km cm yards feet 2 Mass lb N kg 3 Time sec milliseconds minutes 0 Time is standard across all systems Length and mass change based on a few systems be prepared to identify and convert based on this Consistency issues ie Distance velocity x time o 60 miles 20 mileshour x 3 hours 0 L L 39l39 x 39l39 The time value hours can be crossed out because it is in the numerator and denominator o J L L We have proved the distance formula s units are correct Three Systems of Units 1 MKS SI system this is the international system and the one that we will primarily be using for mathematical equations It uses the units 0 Distance meters 0 Time seconds 0 Mass kg 0 Any units that vary from these need to be converted 2 CGS System centimeters grams seconds 3 Engineering System British System feet lbs second Powers of 10 0 Powers of ten is a way of representing either quite large or quite small numbers It can also be used to manipulate the number of sig figs present 1 Ex 546432 miles 56432 x 104miles 0 Notice that the decimal point moved four places to the left Therefore the power is 104 2 Ex 00315 315 x 10393 0 Notice that the decimal point moved three places to the right Therefore the power is 10393 0 Also notice that there is one number before the decimal when we write numbers in this notation This notation is called scientific notation Significant Figures 0 Sig figs can be tricky There are however a defined set of rules that they always follow 1 All nonzero numbers 19 are always significant 2 All zeroes between nonzero numbers are always significant 3 All zeroes which are simultaneously to the right of the decimal point and at the end of the number are always significant 4 All zeroes which are to the left of a written decimal point and are in a number less than 10 are always significant 0 Let s look at some examples to clear things up These will go from easiest to hardest in terms of finding out the significant figures Please keep the rules above in mind 1 56732 5 sig figs none of these numbers are 0 They are all significant 2 5607032 7 sig figs the zeroes in this number are between nonzeroes This makes them significant 3 4300 2 sig figs these zeroes trail off and are not followed by a decimal They are not significant 4 00172 3 sig figs The two zeroes to the left of quot172 are not in front of the decimal and thus do not hold any significant However if we had a number 001720 there would be 4 sig figs because the trailing zero is after a decimal point 0 In Multiplication and Division 0 For multiplication and division know that your answer cannot have more sig figs than the number with the least amount of sig figs in the equation 0 EX 25 X 25 625 63 I 25 has 2 sig figs so our answer must have 2 sig figs 0 Ex 30 x 1500 45 I Again we simplify for the lowest common denominator and our answer should have 2 sig figs 0 Addition and Subtraction 1 Instead of looking at the number of sig figs we observe the number of decimal places 0 EX 251 16 2526 253 0 There are no decimal places because one of our numbers being added has no decimal places 0 Again you always go by the number that has the fewest numbers after the decimal place This is because of the resolution of the numbers being used you cannot assume 251 actually means 2510000 It could be 2513 or 25109 or any other number Trigonometry 3 main functions Remember SOH CAH TOA o Trigonometry is the study of triangles We are visiting it to determine distances and angles These will later be used to add and subtract vectors 1 Sine oppositehypotenuse SOH ac 2 CosG adjacenthypotenuse CAH bc 3 TanG oppositeadjacent TOA ab 0 Remember that we will be using the Cartesian plane 0 We will be working in 2D space with directions such as North West etc o In class the above three functions were converted to be in terms of x x is the given distance of a vector 0 Please look to the example below for how to use the Pythagorean Theorem and the trigonometric functions described earlier Remember that x and y are two coordinate components that define any position in the xy plane The angle is always measured from the positive xaxis o The x and y coordinates are independent of one another Knowing one does not give you enough information to predict the other Vectors o Vectors are physical quantities that may have direction and a value velocity displacement volume etc and other quantities have to be described by their value and direction 0 There are primarily 2 types 1 Scalars such as mass and time 2 Vectors such as velocity and force 0 We will mostly focus on the 2ncl type of vectors 0 Adding and Subtracting Vectors 1 Vectors are noted by a letter with an arrow over the top ie a 2 Vectors are depicted in terms of tail and head 0 Negative vectors will simply be the opposite direction with the same value o If a vector is multiplied by a number its direction stays the same so long as the number isn t negative and the force is multiplied by this number o If two vectors are equal they must be equal in magnitude and direction 0 Note the picture to the right gt realize that b has the angle of 1 plus 180 o Realize that vectors form triangles and that you can apply trigonometric functions to these remember sin cos tan 0 Below please find an application problem for the theoretical values posed above In depth equations include the by components method for the x and y axis I ve done an example problem below This is combining the concepts we have learned previously about angles and magnitudes o The formulas you should take away are included in the problem they are modifications of the Pythagorean Theorem and the sin cos and tan formulas that have been mentioned previously WORK AND ENERGY 71 INTRODUCTION In this unit an alternative approach based on energy considerations is followed The energy based approach is effective and very helpful because much of the formalism is cast in terms of scalars not vectors This approach starts with a definition of work done on the object by a force or forces acting on it In addition to the kinetic energy that a moving object has another energy concept called potential energy is introduced Another quantity called the total mechanical energy which is defined as the sum of an object39s kinetic and potential energies is also introduced and discussed in a variety of examples 72 WORK FN The work W done by a force F to displace an object a distance d Fig 71 is defined as Wchos p 71 where p is the angle between F and d If the force and the displacement are in the same direction Fig 72 then the angle is 0 and W becomes gFi 71 W F d cos 0 1 Note that it is only the magnitudes of both the force and displacement d that enter into Eq 71 p is the angle between the directions of the acting force and the resulting displacement The unit of work is Joules abbreviated as J 73 WORK ENERGY THEOREM Consider a force F applied to a block of mass m along the X direction displacing it a distance d Assuming that the surface is frictionless Fig 73 the force F would then be the only force acting on the block along the X axis From Newton s second law V F m a 72 But from the equation of motion the acceleration a is v2 vi Fig 73 2X a V V Substituting for a in Eq 72 above gives F m 2 0 X 2 2 V This can be rearranged to give F X In 2 l Thatis FX mV2 73 De ning the kinetic energy K E for an object of mass m moving with a velocity v as KE mv 74 Recognize that the term on the right hand side of Eq 73 represents the difference between the object39s nal and initial kinetic energies However the term on the left hand side is the work W done on the block by the force F This shows that the work done on an object by a force F through a displacement d is equal to the change in its kinetic energy during this displacement In the above argument neither the weight of the block mg nor the force of reaction FN does any work on the block as it moves along the X aXis simply because the angle between the displacement d and each of mg and FN is 90 and cos 90 0 One may rewrite Eq 73 in a new form the work done on an object by the net force acting on it is equal to the change in its kinetic energy A K E That is Wnet A K E 75a l or Wnet5mV2 75b This relation is called the workenergy theorem It establishes the equivalence between work and energy The unit of energy is the Joule J 74 CONSERVATIVE FORCES In any motion where the total work done on an object in its round trip is zero ie Wround trip 0 J the net change in the object39s kinetic energy is zero In other words the object comes back to its initial position with a velocity equal in value to that with which it was launched This property is a feature of any conservative force such as restoring spring forces Forces that do not have this property are labeled as nonconservative forces Dissipative forces are good examples of nonconservative forces 75 POTENTIAL ENERGY Since the work done on an object by a force acting on it is equal to the change in its kinetic energy it may be concluded that the object39s ability at a certain position to do work is kept undiminished as it returns to that same position if it is under the action of conservative force only This ability at a certain position being restored by the object completely may be eXplained by assigning to the object a new quantity called potential energy that in essence is an alternative notion for ability In other words as the K E of an object thrown vertically upwards decreases as it rises another quantity potential energy designated as P E increases by an amount equal to that lost by the K E and when the object reaches its highest position V 0 K E 0 its potential energy assumes a maximum value This P E is what enables the object to come back on its own While the object is falling it gains K E and when it is back to where it was launched the KB is completely regained while the potential energy it previously had gained is completely lost ThusA K E A P E 76 The negative sign is to describe the fact that as K E decreases the P E increases and vice versa From Eq 76 AKEAPE 0 or AKEPE0 77 Since the change in the sum of the K E and the P E is zero this sum does not change That is K E P E constant 78 0139 K E P K E P Ef K E P Earbitrary position 79 De ning the sum K E P E as the total mechanical energy E i e EKEPE 710 Eq 79 becomes Ei Ef E arbitrary position 711 This relation describes the conservation of the total mechanical energy of an obiect under the in uence of a conservative force or forces acting on it From the work energy theorem Eq 75 the work done by any force or several forces conservative or non conservative is W A K E 712 which for a conservative force acting on the object becomes WC A K E 713 or We AP E 714 This is an important relation stating that the work done on an object by conservative forces is not only associated but equal to a corresponding change in its potential energy with a negative sign imposed on this equality As stated earlier the gravitational force acting on an object is a good example of a conservative force As will be discussed in the next section a spring force i e Hooke s force in a spring is another example of a conservative force EXAMPLE ON POTENTIAL ENERGY GRAVITY From Eq 714 the potential energy A P E acquired or lost by an object of mass m whose position changes from an initial level to another of a height y is Wc Fy cos 180 mgy 1 mgy This potential energy is positive if y is above the reference level and negative if it is below the reference level The choice of the reference level is totally optional Its choice does not affect the solution for the kinematics of the system 76 NONCONSERVATIVE FORCES AND THE TOTAL MECHANICAL ENERGY It has been established from the work energy theorem that the net work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy see Eq 75 That is Wnet A 715 When several forces some of which may be conservative and some nonconservative act on the object the left hand side of Eq 715 can be split into two terms one labeled as We for the net work done by the conservative forces and another WNc for work done by the nonconservative forces Accordingly WC WNC A K E But since from Eq 714 P E We the above relation becomes AP E WNC AK E or WNCAKEAPEAKEPE which using Eq 79 for the sum K E P E reduces to WNC A E 7 16 or WNC Ef E1 7 17 As can be observed from the above relation the work done by the nonconservative forces is equal to the change in the object s total mechanical energy In contrast to the work done by a conservative force the work WNc done on it by nonconservative forces is equal to the change in its total mechanical energy Since WNc is always negative it is clear that Ef for such an object is always less than E This is a direct and sensible result because nonconservative forces like friction air resistance etc are dissipative forces which are a burden using up some of the object s total mechanical energy HPED 143 009 106 and 108 Lecture Notes Chapter 10 Exercise five components of fitness 0 Benefits precautions benefits exercise is a stress on the body so you need to be careful o Plyometrics are a way to build power and coordination 0 Exercise builds two systems motor skills and physical What is physical fitness 0 The body s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort 0 Health related fitness five components these will keep you from developing certain diseases Certain cancers are more likely to occur in people who do not exercise Cardiorespiratory endurance ability to perform prolonged dynamic exercise using large muscles at a moderate to high intensity use large muscles in the body such as quadriceps hamstrings glutes You do not necessarily need to work at a high rate to have the benefits of this this can be rated by respiration rate heart rate or calories burned perspiration rate rating of perceived exertion Body will improve in these categories as time progresses o Respiration efficiency the rate at which the lungs can transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream 0 Better chance of warding off chronic disease if this is at a moderate or high rate If not there are higher risks of 0000 0 Heart disease Depression Diabetes Stroke And many others 0 Conditioning the heart does not make the heart bigger it makes it more efficient A large heart is related to high levels of blood pressure 0 O 0 Heart will pump more blood per beat Resting heart beat will slow down Target heart rate range should drop as levels of exercise increase For blood cuffs 13070 top is systolic blood pressure bottom is diastolic I Systolic is when the heart is full of blood and the heart is wringing blood out of the heart squeezing or beat high pressure pushing against the artery walls I Diastolic is when the heart is filling up with blood again This number should be at least 30 mmHg lower than the systolic so that the heart gets a break I Cardiomyopathy cannot be reduced people who suffer from this may need a heart transplant I It is easier to tell if you have lower pressure as you get headaches and feel dizzy High blood pressure can be almost unidentifiable I Muscular strength Hypertrophy larger muscles The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort This can be tested with a bench press and a one rep max Grip strength has a high correlation between your overall body strength Not necessarily just to test grip strength Balancing out musculature can help with back pain Knee pain can be caused by having strong quads and weak hamstrings which affects your knee Increased musculature strength increased metabolism as well Greater muscle mass more of a metabolism This is why that people with eating disorders who do not eat enough look gaunt the body will break down muscles and even organs for nutrition Strength training reduces the risk of osteoporosis I Muscular endurance This can be trained for by any aerobic movement This is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given level of musculature tension This means that the muscle can be flexed repeatedly or a single contraction can be held Isometric means a constant flexion of a muscle such as holding a squat Repetition is isokinetic meaning that movement is occurring 0 Both of these improve muscle endurance These muscles are important for good posture and injury prevention Trying to get the insertion closer to the origin Size of the muscle increases This improves definition I Flexibility The ability to move your joints through their full range of motion If this is not practice flexibility will be lost When joints become stiff an unnatural posture is achieved Dalinger s hump if pectoral muscles are not stretched these muscles shorten and affect your posture Then the trapezius muscle is then not stretched as the hump tightens them they then get distended and cannot go back to place Body will respond to all of exercises that you do I Body composition Fat vs fat free mass muscle bone etc Healthy body composition has a high proportion of a fat free mass It also increases the metabolism Physical activity helps with this as well Finishing Chapter 3 after disorders Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD 0 Reaction to a severely traumatic event Treating anxiety disorders 0 Medication o Psychological interventions Depression Cognitivebehavioral o Demoralization Feeling of sadness and hopelessness Loss of pleasure in doing usual activities Poor appetite and weight loss Insomnia or disturbed sleep Restlessness or alternatively fatigue Thoughts of worthlessness and guilt Trouble concentrating or making decisions Thoughts of death or suicide 0 Dysthymic disorder Symptoms for longer than 2 years 0 Treating depression Medications therapy electroconvulsive therapy Season affective disorder SAD Mood Disorders 0 Mania and Bipolar Disorder Mania versus bipolar disorder mania is quick moving and can t keep clear thoughts always rushing Bipolar means that there is a chemical imbalance also becomes depressed People with Bipolar disorder can go months without swinging between poles Men and women equally have Bipolar disorder but women are more likely to be clinically diagnosed o Schizophrenia Getting Help Not rare Uncertainty about causes several genes appear to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia General characteristics 0 Disorganized thoughts 0 Inappropriate emotions o Delusions see smell things that aren t there 0 Auditory hallucinations o Deteriorating social and work functioning this is inevitable because these characteristics are hard to mask 0 At risk for suicide this means that people with schizophrenia require medication 0 Selfhelp Books Writing a journal Religious belief and practice Social network 0 Peer counseling and support groups 0 Professional help Determine the need Types of psychotherapy Choosing a mental health professional 0 Psychiatrists 0 Clinical psychologists 0 Social workers have to have a master s degree to earn this title 0 Licensed counselors degrees vary from state to state 0 Clergy 0 Treatment team Suicide and Self Injury 0 Suicide Statistics Prevalence Gender men higher than women men over age of 65 highest women attempt 3 times as often as men with drugs as opposed to lethal force Ethnicity Age 0 Selfinflicted injury 0 Warning Signs and Risk Factors Expressing the wish to be dead or revealing contemplated methods Increasing social withdrawalisolation Sudden inexplicable lightening of mood History of previous attempts Suicide by a family member or friend Readily available means of committing suicide History of substance abuse or eating disorders Serious medical problem
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