Psych Exam 3 Study Guide
Psych Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 110
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Spring on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 788 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Psychology 110 Exam 3 Practice Test All questions on the exams are of the multiple choice variety Questions on the textbook for Exam 3 are based on the following TrueFalse and fillinthe blank questions If you can answer these questions correctly you will do well on the textbook questions on Exam 3 TrueFalse l The right hemisphere of the brain processes information all at once holistically and simultaneously TrueFalse 2 Damage to Wernicke s area of the brain results in an expressive aphasia Correct answer Damage to Wernicke s area of the brain results in receptive or uent aphasia 3 A mirror neuron in the motor cortex becomes active when we perform an action and when we observe someone else carrying out the same action TrueFalse 4 Language tasks lead to activation of the left hemisphere in women and both the left and right hemisphere in men Correct answer Language tasks lead to activation of the left hemisphere in men and both the left and right hemisphere in women 5 Mirror neurons are thought to be involved in human empathy learning by imitation and autism spectrum disorders TrueFalse 6 The best imaging technique for determining if someone is lying is positron emission tomography PET Correct answer The best imaging technique for determining if someone is lying is a functional MRI fMRI 7 Melatonin is a hormone that is released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark Levels of this hormone rise at dusk and peak around midnight It falls again as morning approaches 8 Damage to the right hemisphere of the brain can lead to a problem called spatial neglect Affected patients pay no attention to the left side of visual space For example the patient may not eat food on the left side of the plate 9 The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is thought of as an emergency system It prepares the body for fight or ight during times of danger or high emotion 10 ll 12 Suppose that you go to the dentist for some serious painful work on your teeth When the dentist turns on the light you start to sweat profusely You sweat so much that the doctor has to give you a towel to dry your face How is it possible that you could have such a strong emotional response to a light The answer is that classical conditioning has occurred 10 The dentist s light is the conditioned stimulus in this example TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse by TrueFalse TrueFalse 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 11 The painful procedure is the unconditioned stimulus in this example 12 Sweat the conditioned response in this example Partial reinforcement schedules are associated with a low resistance to extinction Correct Answer Partial reinforcement schedules are associated with a high resistance to extinction In operant conditioning the reinforcement occurs after the response In classical conditioning the role of the learner is passive rather than active In operant conditioning the response is an involuntary re ex Correct Answer In operant conditioning the response is voluntary A secondary reinforcer is a learned reinforcer often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcer A token reinforcer is a secondary reinforcer Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event Correct answer Negative reinforcement occurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant event In a continuous reinforcement schedule a reinforcer follows every correct response Playing a slot machine is an example of behavior maintained by a partial reinforcement schedule After you have acquired a response it may be weakened by removal of the unconditioned stimulus In higher order conditioning a well learned conditioned stimulus CS can be used to reinforce other learning Vicarious classical conditioning occurs when we learn to respond emotionally to a stimulus observing another person s emotional reaction to that stimulus Animal trainers on TV and at amusement parks use shaping to teach their animals complicated tricks Punishment and negative reinforcement decrease responding whereas positive reinforcement increases responding TrueFalse classical TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Correct answer Punishment decreases responding while positive and negative reinforcement increase responding Three year old Josh sees his five year old sister being chased by his neighbor s dog Now Josh is as afraid of the dog as his sister is Josh s fear is a result of vicarious conditioning Positive reinforcers increase responding and negative reinforcers decrease responding Correct answer Both positive and negative reinforcers increase responding A xed ratio reinforcement schedule requires that a set number of responses must be made before the reinforcer is delivered Secondary reinforcers produce comfort end discomfort or fill an immediate physical need Correct answer Primary reinforcers produce comfort end discomfort or fill an immediate physical need A xed ratio reinforcement schedule produces a higher response rate than a continuous reinforcement schedule A variable ratio reinforcement schedule produces a greater resistance to extinction than a xed ratio reinforcement schedule Partial reinforcement schedules produce lower rates of responding than continuous reinforcement schedules Correct answer Partial reinforcement schedules produce higher rates of responding than continuous reinforcement schedules Partial reinforcement schedules are associated with lower resistance to extinction than continuous reinforcement schedules Correct answer Partial reinforcement schedules are associated with greater resistance to extinction than continuous reinforcement schedules In operant conditioning the learner actively operates on the environment and is learning voluntary responses In operant conditioning the person associates responses with their consequences Negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement can be used to teach the same behavior Money praise attention approval success affection and grades are examples of primary reinforcers Correct answer Money praise attention approval success affection and grades are examples of secondary reinforcers TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse engages used as a positive TrueFalse are TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse t0 TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse 39 Magnetic resonance imaging MRI is an imaging technique that results in a computer generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption Correct answer Positron emission tomography PET is an imaging technique that results in a computer generated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption 40 The left hemisphere is involved in analysis so it processes information sequentially 41 The prefrontal cortex is involved in the sense of self reasoning and in planning 42 The hippocampus is a part of the limbic system associated with storing memories 43 According to the Premack principle if a person watches television a lot watching television can be used as a positive reinforcer For example a person can make a rule for herself that she can only turn on the television after studying That is if a person in a behavior frequently like watching television that behavior can be reinforcer for teaching desired behaviors such as studying 44 Somatic sites are areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neural transmitters or hormones Correct answer Receptor sites are areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that sensitive to neural transmitters or hormones 45 Although the brain loses neurons daily it simultaneously grows new neurons to replace them 46 A motor neuron carries information from the senses to the central nervous system Correct answer A sensory neuron carries information from the senses to the central nervous system 47 New neurons developed in the brain are likely to be involved in learning memory and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances 48The psychological processes of observational learning and televised aggression are important the understanding of why watching television violence can increase aggressive behaviors 49 In the Gambler s fallacy the person believes that a string of losses will be followed by wins 50 The core feature of abnormal behavior is that it is maladaptive 51 The term insanity is a legal concept rather than a concept from psychology 52 Neuropeptides in the brain do not carry messages directly but instead regulate the activity of other neurons 53 The Autonomic nervous system is the system that carries information to and from the internal organs TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 The term neuroplasticity refers to the capacity of our brains to change in response to experience The most common delusional disorder is undifferentiated schizophrenia Correct answer The most common delusional disorder is paranoid psychosis Paranoid schizophrenia is a delusional disorder centered especially on delusions of persecution Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized by stupor rigidity unresponsiveness posturing and mutism Heredity is a factor in schizophrenia Women who are exposed to the in uenza u virus or to rubella German measles during the middle of their pregnancy are more likely to have children who are schizophrenic When the children of schizophrenic parents are raised away from their chaotic homes they are less likely to become schizophrenic Correct answer When the children of schizophrenic parents are raised away from their chaotic homes they are still more likely to become schizophrenic People who take the hallucinogenic drug PCP which affects glutamate have symptoms that closely mimic schizophrenia A psychosis caused by lead poisoning would be classified as an organic psychosis Environmental explanations of schizophrenia emphasize emotional trauma and disturbed family relationships The stressvulnerability model of mental disorders explains them as a product of environmental stresses and heredity Maj or mood disorders appear to be endogenous rather than a reaction to external events Endogenous depression is a moderately severe form of depression that begins within 3 months following childbirth Correct answer Postpartum depression is a moderately severe form of depression that begins 67 within 3 months following childbirth The incidence of depression is higher in men than in women Correct answer The incidence of depression is higher in women than in men 68 Bipolar 11 patients who are hypomanic manage to irritate everyone around them because they are aggressive or irritable talk to fast and interrupt conversations TrueFalse 69 Cyclothymic disorder is a type of depression that occurs in the fall and winter and is thought to be related to a reduction in sunlight during those months Correct answer Seasonal affective disorder SAD is a type of depression that occurs in the fall and winter and is thought to be related to a reduction in sunlight during those months TrueFalse 70 If one identical twin is depressed the other has 67 chance of suffering depression too TrueFalse 71 Someone with panic disorder and agoraphobia is afraid to leave his house 72 Generalized anxiety disorder is a chronic state of tension and worry about work relationships ability or impending disaster 73 In psychoanalysis an emotional attachment to the therapist is called transference TrueFalse 74 Selective perception overgeneralization and allornone thinking are important concepts related to cognitive therapy for depression TrueFalse 75 Eye movement desensitization therapy and reprocessing EMDR is used to treat bipolar disorder Correct answer Eye movement desensitization therapy and reprocessing EMDR is used to treat traumatic memories and stress disorders 76 The B in ABC therapy stands for beliefs TrueFalse 77 Systematic desensitization is used to treat phobias fears and anxieties TrueFalse 78 The Attribution error refers to the fact that you ascribe your wins to skill and blame your losses on back luck TrueFalse 79 Behavioral therapists believe that behavior can be modified and people with emotional problems can be helped without a deep insight into the person s problems TrueFalse 80 The tensionrelease method is used to help a person achieve muscle relaxation 81 In aversion therapy an individual learns to associate something aversive like nausea or pain with a bad habit such as smoking drinking or gambling TrueFalse 82 If a person believes he is a total failure in all aspects of life because he failed an exam he is showing overgeneralization TrueFalse 83 Systematic desensitization is used to treat depression and bipolar disorder Correct answer Systematic desensitization is used to treat phobias and anxiety 84 The term reciprocal inhibition refers to using one emotional state to block another TrueFalse 85 In vicarious desensitization the person vividly imagines each step of their hierarchy TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse TrueFalse experiences 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR a person holds a disturbing thought in mind While rapidly moving her eyes from side to side Aversion therapy and desensitization are based on classical conditioning Shaping and stimulus control are used in operant therapies The mirror technique and role reversal are used in insight therapy Transcranial magnetic stimulation uses magnetic pulses to temporarily block activity in specific parts of the brain In Rogers39 clientcentered therapy the therapist uses dream analysis to uncover unconscious motivation Correct answer In Rogers39 clientcentered therapy the therapist uses conscious thoughts and feelings Psychoanalystsilt interpret dreams In Rogers clientcentered therapy the therapist is a quotmirrorquot who re ects the patient s thoughts and feelings Eye movement desensitization therapy and reprocessing EMDR is used to treat victims of accidents muggings rapes or emotional abuse and other traumatic
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