Anthro 2A Midterm Two Study Guide
Anthro 2A Midterm Two Study Guide Anthro 2A
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro 2A at University of California - Irvine taught by DOUGLAS, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see INTR SOCIOCULT ANTH in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
10/21/15 Anthro 2A WEEK FOUR 1) Intro to Kinship a) a central component of social organization b) relatives, family ties c) who are one’s kin? i) people we have relationship with that are ENDURING DIFFUSE SOLIDARITY (1) people with whom we stand together as one solidarity. who we support that also support us 2) Kinship Categories and Notation a) Kinship and Cultural Diversity i) categories of kin mom, dad, brother, sister. ii) in U.S. “mother”. Mexico city “madre”. Yap “chitnas”. iii) YOU CAN’T SAY MOTHER EQUALS MADRE. iv) it means different things in different cultures v) chitnas means mother’s sisters, father’s sisters as well as mother b) Kin Terms and Biological Kin Types i) Kin Terms (1) a list of words used by speakers of a particular language to refer to all their categories of kin (2) mom, dad, madre, padre, etc ii) Biological Kin Types (1) actual geneological relationships (2) bio kin types: m for mother, f for father, so for son, d for daughter, b for brother, z for sister, c for child, h for husband, w for wife (3) can string these symbols together (4) Kin Term: “Mother”. Bio Kin Type “M” (5) Kin Term: “mother”. Bio Kin Type “MZ”, “FZ” “MBW” “FBW” (6) Kin Term: “cousin”. Bio Kin Type: “MBS” “MBD” “MZS” “MZD” “FBS” “FBS” “FZS” “FZD” (7) YAP (a) Kin term: chitnag. Bio Kin Type: M, MZ, FZ, FZD (8) Diagrams (a) female = 0 (b) male = ^ (c) marriage = = (d) descent 0 vertical line ^, ^=0^ (e) siblingship = [0^ (f) Deceased = draw and then strike through (g) divorce = 0 strike through equal sign ^ (9) family with married couple, three unmarried children = NUCLEAR FAMILY (10) family married couple, five children, one grandma living with them = EXPANDED FAMILY (11) has to designate a perspective in order to label: Is it a husband or a father? (a) designate an EGO perspective (b) you fill in the triangle or circle, if you fill in circle = husband, daughter, son, daughter (c) fill in bottom circle = mother, father, brother, sister 3) Rules of Descent a) bilateral descent i) discent traced equally through males and females b) unilineal descent i) NOT UNILINEAR ii) descent is traced only through males or only through females (1) Main Subtypes (a) patrilineal descent exclusively through males (b) matrilineal descent females 10/23/15 ANTHRO 2A WEEK FOUR LECTURE TWO 1) Descent Groups a) if you are doing unilineal kinship i) lineage a group of people who can trace descent in an unilineal manner to a single common ancestor (1) matrilinieage tracing descent from mother. yes males and females both belong to a lineage, they both have a mother. Can’t marry someone in the same lineage. everyone belongs to a lineage because they have a mother, but ONLY the women pass the lineage on (2) patrilineage tracing descent from father mother does not belong to the lineage of her own children (3) has sense of groupness ii) clan group of unilinealy related lineages (1) bigger than lineages contain many lineages (2) collection of related lineages (3) a group of people who believe themselves to be descended from a single common ancestor in a unilineal manner, but they cannot demonstrate the links (4) when people can’t tell you how they’re related anymore “i’m related to shakespeare” five lineages don’t know how they’re related, but they’re part of a clan (5) can be groups 2) Kindreds a) bilateral and unilineal kinship b) kindred egocentered network of bilateral, affinal (relatives by marriage), and fictive kin (“uncle” not really related, but part of the family) c) egocentered NOT a group. centered just on you. your coworkers you know, but do not know your friends. NOT a group. to be a group you need a chain of command, something. your friends, family, coworkers don’t have patterned relationships or common identity d) kindreds don’t have a sense of groupness e) everyone on list is part of kindred 3) Corporation a) corporate group a group that collectively controls a resource. The group owns land. You as a member of the group have a piece of the land but it belongs to the group b) lineages and clans can be corporate groups c) kindred can’t be corporate groups 10/26/15 Anthro 2A WEEK FIVE 1) Functions of Marriage a) shows lines of descent i) all status rights, all privileges, inheritance b) alliance i) Claude LeviStreuss ii) affines relatives by marriage. when you get married you get more family. (affinal relatives) iii) incest taboo (1) prohibition on having sex with close kin (2) we don’t marry people we don’t have sex with (3) divided social world into two categories: marriageable, or were not marriageable (4) marriage often used for alliances c) securing the rights of spouses in each other i) rights to property, rights in labor (in household) 2) Forms of Marriage a) monogamy i) practice of being married to one spouse ii) serial monogamy one at a time, divorce one before get married to another ( lots of spouses) b) polygamy i) practice of having multiple spouses at a time ii) two types of polygamy (1) polygyny (a) practice of having multiple wives at a time (2) polyandry (a) practice of having multiple husbands at a time (3) demographic implication (a) if you are in a society that routinely practices polygamy, there’s going to not be balance. (one man has many wives, not enough for other guys) c) polyandry and material conditions (environment) i) South Central Asian Himalayas (1) practice fraternal polyandry ii) material conditions (1) agriculturalists (2) limited land (arable) (3) land tenure (all practices regarding to inheritance of land) iii) fraternal polyandry and corporate property (1) brothers marry one woman (2) woman marries set of brothers (3) material conditions lead to this iv) is this a cause and effect relationship? (does material conditions cause social organization?) (1) no, not simple cause and effect relationship (2) because fraternal polyandry is not the only solution v) primogeniture (1) practice where the eldest son inherits everything 3) who can marry whom? a) exogamy i) practice of marrying outside of one’s own group ii) have to marry outside your own lineage or clan iii) is NOT the same things as incest (1) prohibition on who you may marry, while incest is prohibition for those who we may have sex with b) endogamy i) practice of marrying inside one’s social group or category ii) can marry within your social class (social endogamy), elites marry elites iii) maintaining status hierarchies (1) example: Hindu India (a) caste system iv) maintaining ethnic identity (oh no you can’t date a white guy you need to date another asian) 4) postmarital residence a) where are you going to live after you get married? b) virilocal residence (patrilocal residence) i) take up residence with man’s family ii) men all of one lineage c) uxorilocal residence (matrilocal residence) i) husband and wife move in with wife’s family d) neolocal residence i) newlyweds set up home completely independent of family 10/28/15 Anthro 2A WEEK FIVE LECTURE TWO 1) Wealth Transfers at Marriage a) bridewealth i) payment made from the groom’s family to the bride’s family ii) not a purchase iii) not directly to bride iv) cultural forms of wealth, symbolic manner of new relationships b) dowry i) payment from the bride’s family to the groom and groom’s family ii) vestigial of dowry Europe, dad pays for wedding c) brideservice i) not transfer of wealth, but labor ii) husband works for bride’s family/group for a set period of time d) marriage exchanges i) gendered wealth (1) symbolically treated as male or female (2) female wealth things women produce, male wealth things that men produce ii) husband side is trying to give more wealth than they get back (1) competitive 2) Analysis of Biological Kin Types a) Kin terms words people use in their own language for relationships (aunt, mother, sister) b) Kin types biological c) pick shortest route to describe kin type chart d) generations i) ego’s generation (1) (0 generation) (2) generation of ego, brothers, sisters, cousins, straight line ii) ascending generations (1) First Ascending go up one generation for first ascending generation (up ego, straight line across) (2) Second Ascending grandparents, go up two gen straight across iii) descending generation (1) first descending generation generation of sons and daughters, nieces and nephews e) Laterality i) matrilateral biological kin types (1) any biological kin type from your mother (the first letter mapped out is an M ex: MBDD) ii) patrilateral biological kin types (1) biological kin type that starts with an F f) “cousins” i) children of our parent’s siblings ii) parallel cousins (1) children of same sex siblings (2) have to go up to first ascending generation (go to mother, if she has a sister, the sister’s kids are his parallel cousins) MATRILATERAL (3) father’s brother’s children are also parallel cousins PATRILATERAL iii) cross cousins (1) children of opposite sexed siblings (2) mother’s brother’s children BOTH son and daughter of brother’s children are cross cousins MATRILATERAL cross cousins (3) father’s sister’s daughter and son cross cousins PATRILATERAL cross cousins iv) if ego’s society has unilineal descent groups (1) parallel cousins (at least one set of your parallel cousins will be in your lineage) (2) cross cousins are NEVER members of ego’s lineage/clan (3) incest is no sex with your close kin BUT in lineages, you can have sex with cross cousins because they are not in the same lineage 10/30/15 ANTHRO 2A WEEK FIVE LECTURE THREE 1) Nuer Is Kinship ultimately about biology? facts of procreation? 2) Intro to Nuer “Kinship” a) Nuer peoples of South Sudan, East Africa b) cattle pastoralists c) patrilineal d) polygyny e) bridewealth paid in cattle f) a man wants sons, not daughters, to carry line, even with lots of cattle from daughters g) descendents gave a man immortality i) die a true death, not have sons 3) Getting Descendents a) pay cattle for a woman b) children she has are your children c) husband pays bridewealth is husband d) father a person who is paid bridewealth and she subsequently has children, he is the father e) ghost marriage f) divorce no one is married until the cattle are paid i) no divorce until the cattle are given back ii) very hard to get g) woman can be husband or father i) if barren, she can get cattle from selling her trade, and can pay brideswealth to woman. ii) she is now husband to wife iii) social man iv) cattle can overcome gender 4) Lessons of the Nuer a) sociopolitical relationships b) kinship and power c) subjectivity i) individual perspective/point of view d) kinship and biological? i) dead man has zero procreative tie to his biological children but the other guy is the father ii) woman can be father iii) NOT about biology iv) it’s about cattle 5) Political Organization a) another aspect of social organization b) define: the different kinds of arrangements that govern the relations between the groups that make up society c) band (level of political organization) i) small groups ii) governed by their kin types iii) Ex: San (1) go to watering holes all gathering (2) dyadic ties personal ties that link people here and there (3) but no formal tie that links the people from each watering hole (4) no counsel where they come together with collective leaders/chiefs (5) not tribe, ethnic group d) tribe i) larger than a band ii) organized around kinship, but tribes have something bans don’t have: iii) pantribal organizational principle (1) principle, but NOT an authority figure (2) Nuer didn’t have chief, king, counsel, but a whole tribe can operate 11/2/15 Anthro 2A WEEK SIX midterm: kinship diagrams 1. Leaders and Authority a. Authority i. legitimate right to tell others what to do ii. assumes relationship between persons such that a person in that relationship has a legitimate right to tell others what to do iii. legitimacy: a cultural issue 1. demand to give you money: robbers, not legitimate 2. boss tells you to do something: legitimate b. Headman i. achieved status ii. does not become a headman because his father was a headman, he achieved it iii. holds this status on account of personal attributes demonstrated skills, wisdom iv. no real authority does not have legitimate authority. Can lead by example, but cannot order people around v. Ex: San when autonomous the band would be led by headman c. Bigman i. achieved status ii. personal attributes charisma, convincing, wise iii. no real authority not in position to order people to do things iv. difference between bigman and headman 1. institutions that broker relations between localized groups 2. Competitive Exchange Events: Moka a. competition between clans, tribes for prestige (outgift each other) b. bigman sets these events up c. Group A invites B to Moka, A gives B 100 pigs. A is on top of B, superior to B. B now in debt to 100 pigs. Next, B gives 150 pigs, debt of 50 pigs A A gives 180 pigs debt of 130 pigs B B gives 200 pigs debt of 70 pigs B A gives 190 pigs debt of 120 pigs B d. by gifting, these tribes are no longer fighting social solidarity, now allies e. moka: new debt, not interest i. interest is overpayment you need to cancel a debt. f. relationship between group A and group B g. role of Bigmen i. they organize Moka 3. Leaders and Authority (Continued) a. Chief i. ascribed status ii. one you inherit iii. authority over kinsmen iv. authority vested in the position of Chief 1. independent of personal qualities 2. power not with person, but with office of the Chief v. Ex: Trobriander Islands: 4 clans 1. A, B, C, D 2. chief of A authority extends only over kinsmen, does not extend over groups BCD b. Leaders of states i. Diversity 1. religious leaders, senate, etc. different leaders ii. authority over everyone in a territory c. authority and the mobilization of labor i. Bigman 1. must earn a set of followers. 2. do this by cleverly giving up himself to get people to like him 3. there’s only so many people whose labor they can mobilize, limit on their own wealth ii. Chief 1. has elaborate kinship, huge clans 2. and has authority 3. can mobilize more people than bigman iii. State Leaders 1. over entire territory 2. every US person pays taxes 3. mobilizes labor of largest number of people 4. Stratification in Industrial States a. class i. position within an overall division of labor ii. Marx: class is the relations to the means of production 1. all the things you need to produce stuff in society resources, etc 2. in Capitalism: 2 classes a. bourgeoisie (capitalists, factory owners, can live off their investments) b. proletariat (workers, all they got is their labor power, capacity to do work) 3. Marxist view of class, and you took a survey, and if you had to ask a question to determine class of respondent, what could the question be: do you own your business? a. Kobe Bryant of Lakers PROLETARIAT, because he works for the company, the Laker owners bourgeoisie 5. Multidimensional Approach to Hierarchy a. Bourdieu i. practice ii. dealing with active agent but doing it in a particularly socially organized context b. Capital i. took word capital and extended it to be used more broadly ii. suggests not just wealth, but what you do with your wealth that creates hierarchy iii. economic capital things with direct monetary value income, stocks, assets, home equity iv. social capital if you’ve got to move and you have a heavy couch, you harness social relations to get things done. distinguish each other on how much we have v. cultural capital style, taste, competences regarding consumption. Knowledge about consumption what to consume, how to consume, when to consume. Consume plate of sushi by eating it, music by listening it, consume art by putting it on wall and looking at it c. Practice accumulate capital i. shmoozing, networking, build social capital ii. cultural capital I went to UCI iii. paying for classes use economic capital to build cultural and social capital
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