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Political Science Study Guide Exam 3

by: John Henry Constantine III

Political Science Study Guide Exam 3 1100

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Political Science > 1100 > Political Science Study Guide Exam 3
John Henry Constantine III
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Political Science
Nicholas Drummond
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by John Henry Constantine III on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Nicholas Drummond in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Political Science in Political Science at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 11/05/15
Political Science Exam 3 Notes and Study Guide Elections and Participation Elections  A means of peacefully resolving disputes and setting the course of government  The most efficient and most assured way to link citizens with their government Criticism: Elections do not matter  People don’t really influence elections o Self-Fulfilling Prophecy  Nothing changes  Partisan or Collusion: These are two theories as to why critics say that nothing changes in politics  There is too much Partisanship. Rep and Democrats don’t get along and this creates gridlock and nothing ever gets done  The other theory is that Politicians collude together. Money and Politics  527 Groups o 1944 o Cannot Coordinate its activities with a candidate- Have to seem independent o Examples: and Swift Boat Veterans (2004)  Political Action Committees (Pac) o Used by interest groups to indirectly donate money o Can donate 5000 to a candidate; 15,000 to a political party per year o May receive up to 5000 to a candidate from any one individual or AC  Super PACS o Speechnow V. FEC 2010 o Cannot Donate to ( or coordinate with ) a particular candidate o May raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions ,associates and individuals o Can run favorable and negative ads. Case Study: Cantor vs. Brat (2014)  Eric Cantor (5.4 Million)  David Brat (300,000)  Cantor Defeats Brat Strengths of Elections  Empower Citizens politically  Serve as an expression of popular will : o Landslide o Referendum (Scott Brown 2010), Critical Elections, Scott Brown Ran for senate seat that has historically been democratic and he was a conservative. He won. He portrayed himself as a man of the people  Legitimizes Government  Promote Civic Education and civic duty  Act as a safety valve for discontent Limitations of Elections  Placebo for our Discontent  Provide a poor measure of public sentiment o For a politician or against the opposition  Constricted pool of candidates  The process can malfunction or is inherently flawed o Low Voter Turnout o Incumbent Advantage o Biased Media Coverage o Primary System o Electoral College Different Primary Elections Systems  Unique to America  Early State Advantage  Open Primary o Missouri o Sabotage? Rush Limbaugh (2008)  Closed Primary  Semi-Closed Primary  “Top Two “ o California , Washington  “Other” Electoral College  The electoral College  The problem of unequal votes  So why do we have it? o Demagogues o States’ Rights o Communication Issues The Elector College Process  Those who vote for president are actually voting for electors who then vote for a particular candidate  Each state has the number of electors equal to their number of senators and representatives in the US Congress  The 23 Amendment created 3 additional electors to represent Washington D.C  Most of the time, electors cast their votes for the candidate who has received the most votes in that particular state  When no candidate receives a majority, the election is decided in the house of representatives. The Presidency Class Notes 10/22/2015 The Tripartite Government  Montesquieu “Spirit of the Laws (1748)  The Branches of Government o Legislative, executive and judicial o Checks and Balances o “Power should be a check to power”  Monarch o Unitary Actor- In times of emergency, one person should be in charge o Control of Military o Stabilizer – Veto Power (Too much Power with Locals could lead to democracy and too much power with nobles could lead with aristocracy) o National Interest The Founders and the Executives  Founders concerned about another “king”  Federalist Papers: Executive o “Energetic executive” but….. o 4 year term; impeachable and removable unlike a king o President could get veto but: 2/3 vote can override o Share Foreign Policy Powers  Command and direct military, Can’t declare war  Treat Making Power o David McCullough HBO Series John Adams Class Video: George Washington was sworn into office. George Washington whispers to show that the country and everyone else is more important than he is.  George Washington (1789) o Cincinnatus (458 & 439 BC) was given emergency powers. He served in the roman senate. He led the infantry and won the war. Then he gave the power o 22nd Amendment (1951)- Every President Can only run two terms. FDR However, had more than two terms though. Requirements to be President  Article II & I  Must be 35 years or older  Have lived in the US for the last 14 years  Must be natural born citizen o Birther Controversy (2008-11) (Obama); Gallup 2011 o Scwarznegger wanted to run for president but can’t because he is from Austria Impeachment  Article 11 & 4  Impeachment DOESN’T MEAN REMOVAL  House (51%) to impeach ; then Senate must have 2/3rds (67%) to convict  Reasons offered : Treason, bribery & other Higher crimes (felony and misdemeanors )  IF convicted…………………  Andrew Johnson (House Impeaches Johnson but doesn’t get approved by the Senate)(1867), Nixon(only president to resign) (1974); Clinton was impeached but not convicted (1999) Case Study: Clinton (1999)  Controversies : Travelgate, Whitegate, Paula Jones  Issue: Can a sitting president answer to charges that occurred prior to his taking offices? Yes  Impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice, but not convicted.  Monica Lewinski gives Clinton a Blowjob  He says he never had sex with her but got a blow job so he technically didn’t have sexual relations but still…..  Clinton Lies on Camera Presidential Powers  Constitutional Powers (Article II Section 2 &3 ) o Participate in Legislative Process o Appointment Power o Commander in Chief(Cant declare war) o Head of State  Powers delegated to the President by Congress, not expressed in Constitution  Inherent Powers- inferred from the rights, duties and obligations of the presidency o Examples: war, detain, power The President’s Legislative Power o The State of the Union  o Veto Power  o Executive Orders­ Laws that the president can pass without congress approval  o Executive Agreements­ Laws the president can pass without congress approval,  the laws die with the end of that presidents term Veto Power o If the President vetoes a law…   Congress has 10 days to act   Override requires 2/3rds vote, both chambers   2500+ in history only 100+ overridden  o Executive Veto vs. Pocket Veto  o Limits: Congress gets sneaky…   Bush “Cruel and Inhumane”   They can not do whatever they want to prisoners of war. Bush  wanted to veto, but they stick it in with a larger bill he really wanted to pass so he let that part of the bill slide. o The Line Item Veto Act  Ruled unconstitutional in 1998m Case Study: Obama o National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA)   Annual budget for the military ($612 billion) o Veto Threatened   The Budget Control Act   Congress could not decide what to cut in the budget   If they could not come to an agreement, they will do a cut across  the board   They have numbers that show what each part can have   Overseas Contingency Operations   I will not “fix defense without fixing non defense spending”   Guantanamo­ He said he would shut it down  o Senate 70­27; House 270­156 o Entitlement?  Executive Orders o Directives that carry the weight of the law   Ruled constitutional; have increased  o Most commonly used to help implement legislation that congress has passed  o Examples:   Integration of the military   Military Trials   Dreamers  o Congress can pass a new law or refuse to fund the order  Tripartite government o Montesquieu the spirit of the laws  three branches of government   checks and balances  o Bicameral congress  Upper chamber­ nobles   Lower chamber­ commoners   Stabilize   Rejecting and drafting powers o Representatives   Capacity to pick rulers   Elected from districts rather than general nation   All citizens should be able to vote except the very poor  Congress and the Founders o Unicameral or bicameral  o Paine vs. Adams   Executive(secrecy congress can't keep secrets, fewer people will know if  just the prez and staff know),   legislature(we want the checking we can't rely on the reps, judicial   Articles of confederation­ perceived as too weak, Paine won argument o Constitutional convention   Virginia plan­bicameral­ they want more power for bigger states   New Jersey plan­ equal rep to all state no matter the size  Great compromise (Sherman and Ellsworth)   Origination clause.  o Aristocracy or natural talent   No nobility but try to replicate   Tenure, election  House vs. Senate o House of Representatives   25 years old   Citizen for 7 years   Resident   435 members popular election   Rep based on population divided into districts   All 435 elected 2 years   Serve more local interests o Senate  30 years old   Citizen for 9 years  Constitutional Powers o  Senate   Lawmaking   Budget   War making   Treaty ratification (2/3rd) vote   Approve presidential appointees (2/3rd vote)  Convict impeached officials  o House   Lawmaking   Budget   War making   Impeach officials   Propose all tax bills  Flashback o  Anti­federalists and the bill of rights  o 10th amendment  The powers not delegated to the us by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states  States vs. Federal Government o Supremacy clause: the federal constitution and federal law generally take  precedence over state laws and even state constitutions   States: ok, bill of rights, limited  o Elastic clause (necessary and proper clause)  o McCulloch vs. Maryland   Banks? Taxing, borrowing, regulating commerce    Regulate highways  Case Study o National minimum Drinking Age   5% of federal highway funding   Rationalizes authority under the spending clause  o South Dakota sues   Violation of 10th amendment, drinking age is state prerogative  o Supreme Court rules in favor of fed gov   Spending clause   Was no coercive, because fed gov only threatened 5%  Obama care o Affordable care act  o Not universal healthcare or single payer healthcare  o Intent is to reduce healthcare costs and provide healthcare to the uninsured  o How?  Subsidize   Increase the number of people who purchase insurance  If you have more people paying into the system the less others will have to pay  Obama care provisions o Preexisting conditions( they could deny you, charge more, or kick you off)   Death spiral  o Individual mandate­ everyone has to have insurance and if you don't you have to  pay a fee  o Children (under 26) parents insurance  o Medicaid expansion   Poor children, pregnant women, disabled( poor adults, families)  o Subsidize healthcare­ you will get an advanced tax credit it will be applied to your medical insurance. For the poor o Health insurance exchanges   Packages­  o Minimal essential coverage   Maternity, pediatric, mental health, substance abuse, Rx drugs, er, in  patient care  Obama care criticism and issues o Cancellation letters   If you like your health care plan you can keep your healthcare plan if it  have the minimum requirement  o Fairness?   Gender issues no kids  Pro Obama care arguments o Helps with the free rider program  o Mentally I'll get treated  o Preventive/early treatment  o Social good: healthy people productive society  o Morally good: healthcare is a right  o Its good but doesn't go far enough   Universal healthcare   Single payer   Minority Representation in the U.S Congress  Representation and the formation of Congress o Delegate Model   Legislator acts how they believe the people would want them to act and  the legislator acts accordingly  o Trustee Model   Legislator considers the will of the people, but ultimately, will act how  they see best fit for the nation   Founders were concerned with issues of representation even when the  electorate was not diverse  Why Does minority presence matter? o Issues of representation   Minority presence affects how constituents are represented   The policy output of the institution  o Substantive representation   Empirical research has found that minorities have distinct policy behavior  o Descriptive representation  The best fit individual to represent a group is a member of that group  o Surrogate Representation   Minority politician will represent all minorities, including those outside of  their district/country  Senate o 20 women   14 democrat, 6 republican   One Asian Pacific Islander o Overall, only 46 women have ever served in the Senate   29 Democrats, 17 Republicans  House of Representatives o 84 seats out of the 435   Or 19.3% of the seats   62 democrats, 22 Republicans   Representing 31 States  o Women of Color  18 African Americans   9 Latina   5 Asian Pacific Islanders  Increasing Minority Representation o Reducing the gender gap in political ambition   Recruit more women to run for office   Increasing minority presence in state legislatures   In only 2 states women compromise 35­44% of the state legislature (Colorado and Vermont) o In Missouri, Women hold 15­24% of seats in the state  legislature  o Emily’s List: Strength in numbers  o Changing the structure of elections   An at large system   Multi member system   Have been shown to increase women’s representation in state  legislatures  o If women continue to be elected to Congress at the current rate, it will not be until the year 2021 for women to reach 50% of the makeup of Congress  Congressional Stagnation o Approval of congress is low  o But people tend to view their representation far more positively  o High rate of incumbency reelection   Is this a concern? Expertise?  o Incumbency Advantage   Name recognition (you will vote for someone you recognize)   Money   Letters? Franking o Pork Barrel spending (Earmarks)­ Bringing home the bacon, brings money to  your district  o Logrolling­  o Staff and Franking­ You get a lot of staff you don’t have to pay for and you can  use them to help campaign  Affordable Care Act 2 o Is Obamacare constitutional?  Supreme Court Ruling o States challenged the constitutionality of Obamacare   Medicaid expansion; individual mandate  o Required Medicaid Expansion (Struck down)  Medicaid is a joint federal­state program; 16.8% of state general funds   Fed. Threatened to withdraw all Medicaid   Spending Clause  Coercive, supreme court ruled   Optional; Coverage Gap­ There was a gap in people being covered  o Individual Mandate  Commerce clause, necessary and proper clause­ they have the right to  cover interstate commerce o Compel commerce?  o Valid as a tax  Opt out you pay, opt in and you get a tax break  o Fee: 2.5% of your yearly household income or $695 per person maximum penalty per family is 2,085  o Enforcement? They will take what you owe of your tax refund Case Study: Obamacare and Hobby Lobby o Contraception and minimum essential coverage  o Hobby Lobby religious freedom   Fines= $475 million   Rules in favor of hobby lobby o Exception for “closely held” for­profit corporation  o Criticisms and concerns­ The employees may not agree with the stance that hobby lobby has on contraception


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