Political Science Study Guide Exam 3
Political Science Study Guide Exam 3 1100
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Popular in Political Science
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by John Henry Constantine III on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1100 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Nicholas Drummond in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Political Science in Political Science at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Political Science Exam 3 Notes and Study Guide Elections and Participation Elections A means of peacefully resolving disputes and setting the course of government The most efficient and most assured way to link citizens with their government Criticism: Elections do not matter People don’t really influence elections o Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Nothing changes Partisan or Collusion: These are two theories as to why critics say that nothing changes in politics There is too much Partisanship. Rep and Democrats don’t get along and this creates gridlock and nothing ever gets done The other theory is that Politicians collude together. Money and Politics 527 Groups o 1944 o Cannot Coordinate its activities with a candidate- Have to seem independent o Examples: Moveon.org and Swift Boat Veterans (2004) Political Action Committees (Pac) o Used by interest groups to indirectly donate money o Can donate 5000 to a candidate; 15,000 to a political party per year o May receive up to 5000 to a candidate from any one individual or AC Super PACS o Speechnow V. FEC 2010 o Cannot Donate to ( or coordinate with ) a particular candidate o May raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions ,associates and individuals o Can run favorable and negative ads. Case Study: Cantor vs. Brat (2014) Eric Cantor (5.4 Million) David Brat (300,000) Cantor Defeats Brat Strengths of Elections Empower Citizens politically Serve as an expression of popular will : o Landslide o Referendum (Scott Brown 2010), Critical Elections, Scott Brown Ran for senate seat that has historically been democratic and he was a conservative. He won. He portrayed himself as a man of the people Legitimizes Government Promote Civic Education and civic duty Act as a safety valve for discontent Limitations of Elections Placebo for our Discontent Provide a poor measure of public sentiment o For a politician or against the opposition Constricted pool of candidates The process can malfunction or is inherently flawed o Low Voter Turnout o Incumbent Advantage o Biased Media Coverage o Primary System o Electoral College Different Primary Elections Systems Unique to America Early State Advantage Open Primary o Missouri o Sabotage? Rush Limbaugh (2008) Closed Primary Semi-Closed Primary “Top Two “ o California , Washington “Other” Electoral College The electoral College The problem of unequal votes So why do we have it? o Demagogues o States’ Rights o Communication Issues The Elector College Process Those who vote for president are actually voting for electors who then vote for a particular candidate Each state has the number of electors equal to their number of senators and representatives in the US Congress The 23 Amendment created 3 additional electors to represent Washington D.C Most of the time, electors cast their votes for the candidate who has received the most votes in that particular state When no candidate receives a majority, the election is decided in the house of representatives. The Presidency Class Notes 10/22/2015 The Tripartite Government Montesquieu “Spirit of the Laws (1748) The Branches of Government o Legislative, executive and judicial o Checks and Balances o “Power should be a check to power” Monarch o Unitary Actor- In times of emergency, one person should be in charge o Control of Military o Stabilizer – Veto Power (Too much Power with Locals could lead to democracy and too much power with nobles could lead with aristocracy) o National Interest The Founders and the Executives Founders concerned about another “king” Federalist Papers: Executive o “Energetic executive” but….. o 4 year term; impeachable and removable unlike a king o President could get veto but: 2/3 vote can override o Share Foreign Policy Powers Command and direct military, Can’t declare war Treat Making Power o David McCullough HBO Series John Adams Class Video: George Washington was sworn into office. George Washington whispers to show that the country and everyone else is more important than he is. George Washington (1789) o Cincinnatus (458 & 439 BC) was given emergency powers. He served in the roman senate. He led the infantry and won the war. Then he gave the power o 22nd Amendment (1951)- Every President Can only run two terms. FDR However, had more than two terms though. Requirements to be President Article II & I Must be 35 years or older Have lived in the US for the last 14 years Must be natural born citizen o Birther Controversy (2008-11) (Obama); Gallup 2011 o Scwarznegger wanted to run for president but can’t because he is from Austria Impeachment Article 11 & 4 Impeachment DOESN’T MEAN REMOVAL House (51%) to impeach ; then Senate must have 2/3rds (67%) to convict Reasons offered : Treason, bribery & other Higher crimes (felony and misdemeanors ) IF convicted………………… Andrew Johnson (House Impeaches Johnson but doesn’t get approved by the Senate)(1867), Nixon(only president to resign) (1974); Clinton was impeached but not convicted (1999) Case Study: Clinton (1999) Controversies : Travelgate, Whitegate, Paula Jones Issue: Can a sitting president answer to charges that occurred prior to his taking offices? Yes Impeached for perjury and obstruction of justice, but not convicted. Monica Lewinski gives Clinton a Blowjob He says he never had sex with her but got a blow job so he technically didn’t have sexual relations but still….. Clinton Lies on Camera Presidential Powers Constitutional Powers (Article II Section 2 &3 ) o Participate in Legislative Process o Appointment Power o Commander in Chief(Cant declare war) o Head of State Powers delegated to the President by Congress, not expressed in Constitution Inherent Powers- inferred from the rights, duties and obligations of the presidency o Examples: war, detain, power The President’s Legislative Power o The State of the Union o Veto Power o Executive Orders Laws that the president can pass without congress approval o Executive Agreements Laws the president can pass without congress approval, the laws die with the end of that presidents term Veto Power o If the President vetoes a law… Congress has 10 days to act Override requires 2/3rds vote, both chambers 2500+ in history only 100+ overridden o Executive Veto vs. Pocket Veto o Limits: Congress gets sneaky… Bush “Cruel and Inhumane” They can not do whatever they want to prisoners of war. Bush wanted to veto, but they stick it in with a larger bill he really wanted to pass so he let that part of the bill slide. o The Line Item Veto Act Ruled unconstitutional in 1998m Case Study: Obama o National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) Annual budget for the military ($612 billion) o Veto Threatened The Budget Control Act Congress could not decide what to cut in the budget If they could not come to an agreement, they will do a cut across the board They have numbers that show what each part can have Overseas Contingency Operations I will not “fix defense without fixing non defense spending” Guantanamo He said he would shut it down o Senate 7027; House 270156 o Entitlement? Executive Orders o Directives that carry the weight of the law Ruled constitutional; have increased o Most commonly used to help implement legislation that congress has passed o Examples: Integration of the military Military Trials Dreamers o Congress can pass a new law or refuse to fund the order Tripartite government o Montesquieu the spirit of the laws three branches of government checks and balances o Bicameral congress Upper chamber nobles Lower chamber commoners Stabilize Rejecting and drafting powers o Representatives Capacity to pick rulers Elected from districts rather than general nation All citizens should be able to vote except the very poor Congress and the Founders o Unicameral or bicameral o Paine vs. Adams Executive(secrecy congress can't keep secrets, fewer people will know if just the prez and staff know), legislature(we want the checking we can't rely on the reps, judicial Articles of confederation perceived as too weak, Paine won argument o Constitutional convention Virginia planbicameral they want more power for bigger states New Jersey plan equal rep to all state no matter the size Great compromise (Sherman and Ellsworth) Origination clause. o Aristocracy or natural talent No nobility but try to replicate Tenure, election House vs. Senate o House of Representatives 25 years old Citizen for 7 years Resident 435 members popular election Rep based on population divided into districts All 435 elected 2 years Serve more local interests o Senate 30 years old Citizen for 9 years Constitutional Powers o Senate Lawmaking Budget War making Treaty ratification (2/3rd) vote Approve presidential appointees (2/3rd vote) Convict impeached officials o House Lawmaking Budget War making Impeach officials Propose all tax bills Flashback o Antifederalists and the bill of rights o 10th amendment The powers not delegated to the us by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states States vs. Federal Government o Supremacy clause: the federal constitution and federal law generally take precedence over state laws and even state constitutions States: ok, bill of rights, limited o Elastic clause (necessary and proper clause) o McCulloch vs. Maryland Banks? Taxing, borrowing, regulating commerce Regulate highways Case Study o National minimum Drinking Age 5% of federal highway funding Rationalizes authority under the spending clause o South Dakota sues Violation of 10th amendment, drinking age is state prerogative o Supreme Court rules in favor of fed gov Spending clause Was no coercive, because fed gov only threatened 5% Obama care o Affordable care act o Not universal healthcare or single payer healthcare o Intent is to reduce healthcare costs and provide healthcare to the uninsured o How? Subsidize Increase the number of people who purchase insurance If you have more people paying into the system the less others will have to pay Obama care provisions o Preexisting conditions( they could deny you, charge more, or kick you off) Death spiral o Individual mandate everyone has to have insurance and if you don't you have to pay a fee o Children (under 26) parents insurance o Medicaid expansion Poor children, pregnant women, disabled( poor adults, families) o Subsidize healthcare you will get an advanced tax credit it will be applied to your medical insurance. For the poor o Health insurance exchanges Packages o Minimal essential coverage Maternity, pediatric, mental health, substance abuse, Rx drugs, er, in patient care Obama care criticism and issues o Cancellation letters If you like your health care plan you can keep your healthcare plan if it have the minimum requirement o Fairness? Gender issues no kids Pro Obama care arguments o Helps with the free rider program o Mentally I'll get treated o Preventive/early treatment o Social good: healthy people productive society o Morally good: healthcare is a right o Its good but doesn't go far enough Universal healthcare Single payer Minority Representation in the U.S Congress Representation and the formation of Congress o Delegate Model Legislator acts how they believe the people would want them to act and the legislator acts accordingly o Trustee Model Legislator considers the will of the people, but ultimately, will act how they see best fit for the nation Founders were concerned with issues of representation even when the electorate was not diverse Why Does minority presence matter? o Issues of representation Minority presence affects how constituents are represented The policy output of the institution o Substantive representation Empirical research has found that minorities have distinct policy behavior o Descriptive representation The best fit individual to represent a group is a member of that group o Surrogate Representation Minority politician will represent all minorities, including those outside of their district/country Senate o 20 women 14 democrat, 6 republican One Asian Pacific Islander o Overall, only 46 women have ever served in the Senate 29 Democrats, 17 Republicans House of Representatives o 84 seats out of the 435 Or 19.3% of the seats 62 democrats, 22 Republicans Representing 31 States o Women of Color 18 African Americans 9 Latina 5 Asian Pacific Islanders Increasing Minority Representation o Reducing the gender gap in political ambition Recruit more women to run for office Increasing minority presence in state legislatures In only 2 states women compromise 3544% of the state legislature (Colorado and Vermont) o In Missouri, Women hold 1524% of seats in the state legislature o Emily’s List: Strength in numbers o Changing the structure of elections An at large system Multi member system Have been shown to increase women’s representation in state legislatures o If women continue to be elected to Congress at the current rate, it will not be until the year 2021 for women to reach 50% of the makeup of Congress Congressional Stagnation o Approval of congress is low o But people tend to view their representation far more positively o High rate of incumbency reelection Is this a concern? Expertise? o Incumbency Advantage Name recognition (you will vote for someone you recognize) Money Letters? Franking o Pork Barrel spending (Earmarks) Bringing home the bacon, brings money to your district o Logrolling o Staff and Franking You get a lot of staff you don’t have to pay for and you can use them to help campaign Affordable Care Act 2 o Is Obamacare constitutional? Supreme Court Ruling o States challenged the constitutionality of Obamacare Medicaid expansion; individual mandate o Required Medicaid Expansion (Struck down) Medicaid is a joint federalstate program; 16.8% of state general funds Fed. Threatened to withdraw all Medicaid Spending Clause Coercive, supreme court ruled Optional; Coverage Gap There was a gap in people being covered o Individual Mandate Commerce clause, necessary and proper clause they have the right to cover interstate commerce o Compel commerce? o Valid as a tax Opt out you pay, opt in and you get a tax break o Fee: 2.5% of your yearly household income or $695 per person maximum penalty per family is 2,085 o Enforcement? They will take what you owe of your tax refund Case Study: Obamacare and Hobby Lobby o Contraception and minimum essential coverage o Hobby Lobby religious freedom Fines= $475 million Rules in favor of hobby lobby o Exception for “closely held” forprofit corporation o Criticisms and concerns The employees may not agree with the stance that hobby lobby has on contraception
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