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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Abbey Kaufman

Exam 2 Study Guide HIST 101 001

Abbey Kaufman
GPA 3.2
European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century

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European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbey Kaufman on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from Ancient Times to the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 11/05/15
History 101 Exam 2 Study Guide Part 1 Unit 5 Unit 6 Magic and holy men in the Early Roman Empire 3rd C healing charms amulets Black magic witchcraft illegal interest in holy men had a special connection to gods Universalizing mystery cults example Cult of Isis 2nd C Secrets for initiates Salvation here and afterlife Isis Serapis Jewish community during Roman conquest divisions in Judaea 30 CE varied opinions on Roman rule Sadducees followed temple priests worked with Rome Pharisees less powerful teachers who favored separation to keep Jewish morals pure Jewish messianic movements and revolts against Roman rule 60150 CE Radical Jewish movements in Judea many looked through Bible for prediction s of Messiah dozens of messianic Jewish movements many were violent Zealots revolt in 66 CE 115117 CE 1 million killedenslavedkicked out RomanCera Rabbis and basic teachings of Rabbinic Judaism 200 CE failed revolts Jews had less prestige and a bad name some hid 12 million remained scattered Rabbis in uenced Jewish faith sayings were published Jesus Crucifixion and after Jesus Jewish following 50 AD Scholars fairly certain he was crucified followers didn t accept death The Cult of Christ Spreading stories of Jesus as Holy Man Son of God 50 CE scattered group formed and spoke followers had ideas but not a separate community yet Paul of Tarsus his missions and his teachings 4060 CE divisions between followers of Jesus unusual follower Paul first opposed Jesus and then changed mind executed in 62 CE teachings from letters strong in faith earliest stories about Jesus Early Christian writers hostility to Jews 12 CE earliest Christians didn t hate Jews and Paul was Christian and Jewish early gospel writers criticized Jewish leaders bitter that they didn t accept Jesus as messiah said that temples were destroyed bc of the Jews later even said that Jews were abandoned by God Early Christian writers hostility to heretics 12 CE Christians kept arguing over what they believed about Jesus being precise mattered more than it did for Jews salvation relied on it traditional tale Apostles had right faith but heretics chose different teachings Status of Jews and of Christians in Roman Empire 200 CE Most Romans polytheists Judaism was public Christianity more secretive and illegal worshipped a crucified man had around 50000 200000 followers The 3rd c Roman imperial crisis New Foes in Europe and Persia Frontier farmers German began raiding wealthy lands E Frontier 220s CE new Persian empire mandated new faith 250 AD Persians rivaled Romans Internal 3rd c Roman crises defeats plagues and usurpers travel and climate change no system of succession was hurting Roma Usurpers would be generals Emperor Decius killed Udlerian captured by Persians 260s 2 pieces of Rome left to support new dynasties Roman imperial response to crisis Diocletian and his reforms 270s CE Ursurpers made money and there was no uniform coinage lead to reforms Aurelian tried to reunite Diocletian most in uential success in reuniting by increasing size of imperial government more fair spread power redid tax system new census price control Constantine s proChristian policies and his personal religion 300s CE passed toleration for all religion favor to Christians donations to Christians especially bishops Jerusalem Churches tax breaks to Christians Council of Nicea more Christian at the end of his life baptized on death bed Constantinople a new Christian Roman Capital 330 CE New Rome second capital peninsula easy to defend accessible to churches religious motives churches in center monument to Constantine himself Julian s attempt to restore paganism and the Christian response 360s CE Constantine s nephew polytheistic pagan didn t rule long successors were Christian writers said Julian was killed for being polytheistic tried to reduce Christianity but no persecution Theodosius I and his successors Orthodox Christian Empire Late 300s CE laws favoring Christianity Christian officials annoying rules to force people into Christianity by 400 CE Rome was a Christian run state New in uence of bishops in a Christian Empire 350400 CE Bishops more in uential in the government backing large public churches independent base of authority claim to holiness Bishops concerns more important Bishops and emperors disputes over heresy and orthodoxy Late 300s CE worried about proper teaching very small differences in wording Emp Valens pushed similar to God idea in regards to Jesus killed in 378 Nicene leaders called it punishment Pagans and Jews in a Christian Roman Empire 5C most Romans Christian heretics continued new divisions pagans had legal problems some wealthy and powerful polytheists came together Jews disfavored but legal rabbis grew more organized Cultural impact of Christianity Christian family life and sexuality 5th C Roman family fathers had power marriages arranged divorce legal but difficult slavery legal abuse of children forbidden men and women free choice to marry or be celibate hostile to prostitution and homosexuality Hermits and Monasteries in a Christian Roman Empire 34 C Monasticism came from people not wanting to change their lives Monk solitary person Christians who sought to perfect life lived out of evils of the world 4c more accessible Christian life monasteries strict but not as severe as hermits more communal Cultural impact of Christianity Pilgrimage saints and relics 23C people tried to make indirect connections with God through monks and hermits pilgrimage became common special advicefavors started praying to dead holy people saints relic collection Unit 7 The Decline of Roman Power and the Origins of Islam Germanic groups Huns and the Barbarian Invasions 350420 CE Huns expanded west disrupted Germanic groups Goths defeated Roman armies 400 2 rulers caused disputes 375413 barbarian invasions vandals ed Spain to N Africa The formation of barbarian kingdoms Visigoths Vandals and Franks 450s CE barbarian autonomous zones forming into kingdoms Visi Goths first big barbarian kingdom Franks more Germans mixed with Romans Vandals richest barbarian kingdom Arian Christian only kingdom fighting with the Empire Italy from W Roman emperors to Ostrogothic kings 460500 CE Roman rule pulled back from most of W Europe N Africa ruled by 2 emperors 476 roman general forced last W Empire to retire took power in Italy 491 East Empire invited Theodoric to OstroGoth to take Italy Eastern Christian Roman Empire political stability 500 AD E Roman empire still more stable than German kingdoms more stable succession of emperors growing populations most spoke Greek Justinian s regime legal reforms and religious policies 526565CE Sought Christian Roman power unity make Rome dominant again built new churches changed Roman law Christianized code hunted Pagans limited Jews didn t work inspired foes to go against him even more separate churches began Justinian s wars with Barbarian Kings and Persia 530s CE Justinian picked fights with foes fought wars for 20 years Justinian in charge again had trouble with Italy wars were expensive and out of control Bubonic plague of Justinian and its impact 540s climate shifts plague from eas on rats 13 of population died The Great RomanPersian War and the role of allies 540630 CE recurring large wars with Rome and Persia Largest was Great Roman Persian War 602 628 started be of 3way Roman civil war Constantinople besieged twice 628 new Persian king made peace original borders restored Beginnings of Islam Scholarly debates about the historical Muhammad 550650 CE Islam began with Muhammad born in 570 CE in tribe had a religious movement prophecies began in Mecca Muhammad in Medina An Islamic state and its first jihad 622 AD year one in Islamic calendar when Muhammad ed to Medina Muhammad died with Jewish tribes creates Islamic state 8 year war to get rid of Muhammad Jihad only goal was arab unity not forced religion Earliest Islamic relations with Jews and Christians 600 CE many sources Muhammad originally started out seeking alliance with Jews and Christians Qur an Muhammad distanced Islam from Jews and Christians in Medina some Jews and Christians punished in Medina for disloyalty Islam was original religion of Abraham other monotheists truth mixed with errors After Muhammad The early caliphs and their conquests 630s CE Muhammad died in 632 Abu Bakr chosen as successor first 3 caliphs all early converts turned movement into community Arab troops tried to keep tribes united victories in 636 and 637 The New Empire of Islam conquest agreements and garrison cities 650s CE Persian empires is gone Caliph ruled over 30 million Jews Christians etc Jews Christians and Zoroastrians Romans Persians protected if they submitted and followed rules polytheists not liked Unit 8 Early Medieval Christian and Islamic Societies Rivals for the office of caliph the Umayyads vs Ali and his Shiites 650s contests for power Umayyad vs Ali both wanted to set up dynasties 661 Ali killed followers made a group for him Umayyad ruled The Umayyad dynasty in Damascus and its policies 660750 CE tried to separate Arab Muslims from outsiders 2 different governments nonMuslims Amirs and local religious leaders Umayyad claimed religious authority only Arabs could be Muslim this wasn t liked Umayyad overthrown in 751 The Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad and its policies 8001000 CE Opened Islam to all with no separation 20 non Muslims did not write all rulings that became law moved capital single government Decline of Abbasid Caliph s authority Amirs Turkish generals and scholars 870 CE Abbasid caliphate didn t fall decentralized Viziers Prime ministers hired Amirs governors more power830s Amirs started own dynasties Caliphs lost religious authority to scholars all Amirs made own armies Life in Early Medieval Islam economic life and social class 810 C economy grew changed new crops more trade wider world more capitalist society wealthy merchants big landowners state officials bigger middle class Gender family and slavery in the early medieval Islamic world 810 C more patriarchal than Rome men up to 4 wives gender segregation women had some rights some property divorce Family life private space built homes slavery very common domestic servants mail order brides Culture and learning in early medieval Islamic society 810 C culture beyond tradition converts brought other traditions Roman buildings bathing Persian political stones Greek philosophy and medicine Elite Muslim men expected to be learned Amirs hosted scholars Christian reactions to the rise of Islam The Iconoclast controversy 89 C Byzantines argued over use of pictures in worship Roman emperor banned icons then restored them church worked for the state Medieval Byzantine Expansionism Byzantium as prime power center 900s CE Byzantine had largest army in region conquered many regions Basil II reconquest with Balkans Cple still Christian center one of 3 Gender class and slavery in early medieval Byzantium 810 C Byzantine state oriented more than Islam state had vast hierarchy most Byzantine free peasants large merchant middle class could move up by working for Churchstate connections mattered slaves existed women more public than in Islam more rights monogamy no divorce barely Culture and learning in early medieval Byzantium 911 C value in learning Byzantine most literate state Christian learning highly valued Magnaura School higher learning in Cple Michael Pselios philosophy professor education could rise people in power The Carolingian Frankish dynasty and the Rise of Charlemagne 8 C Frankish dynasty Carolingians rose in 732 c Charlemagne grandson led conquest of N Germany Italy medieval knights armor on horses 800 state of Charlemagne bigger than Byzantium reformed laws supported church allied with pope Collapse of Charlemagne s empire Invaders and warlords 870960 CE less stable than Byzantine 3 fragments in the 870s Franece Germany North Italy Vikings Hungarians Muslims all invaded Frankish warlords fought lasted until 930s chaos in France warlords ran things Gender class and serfdomslavery in early medieval Latin Christendom 910 C Frankish lands elite mostly warlords and family some peasants were free serfs growing class best way to rise was through violence slavery less common in Latin Christendom women played prominent public roles links between warlord and families Less property rights though Culture and learning in early medieval Latin Christendom 910C Medieval Latin Christians gave less support to higher learning elite culture focused on war training religion monasteries preserved learning in Christian writings Unit 9 Christian and Islamic Societies in the Era of the Crusades 1 Roots of transformation climate change farming and population growth 10C Ancient Roman farming worked poorly in colder and wet weather tenth century brought warmer climate and a longer growing season new farming methods deep plows and windmills higher crop yields higher population more human labor Rebuilding Western Frankish Christian kingdoms making vassals 1012C kings gained in uence oversaw hundreds of warlords kings rebuilt by Slow building of small conquests OR total conquest of another kingdom cheating Monasteries monastic orders and their growing in uence 1012C kings built power on foundation of religious leaders 1011 C monasteries grew thousands more monks most monasteries stayed small and formed links with others Cluniac chain monks offered holy services for pay Peace of god movement The Holy Roman Emperor and his new authority 1050s CE new competitor for Christian authority Holy Roman Empire German created new system each new emperor elected by main princes HRE lacked Byzantine tax money HRE brie y took over papacy named new popes from Germany 10 11 12 13 The reform popes and their struggles for new authority 11 C the pope made claim to greater authority German reform popes hired cardinals to elect pope popes demanded all priests and bishops to be celibate new bishops not allowed to pay special favors to kings popes claimed right to depose kings who disobeyed rules of faith goal was to create singular association of the church Christian Expansionism in the Atlantic E Europe and Spain 10001300 CE Latin Christian warlords conquered new lands not usually led by kings expansionism not centrally planned driven by forces 1000 Spain under Islamic rulers 1250 all but south ruled by Christian kings Spain was wealthy and well educated The First Crusade and the crusader kingdoms early 1000 CE crusade was war against Muslims for holy sites imitation of Jesus Pope Urban promised followers forgiveness of sins drew 100000 people some unarmed gathered in C ple and moved through middle east Jerusalem taken in slaughter of tens of thousands 4 new Christian Crusader kingdoms non Christians left Saladin and the Islamic countercrusade 1100 s CE Muslims organized to fight crusaders Saladin sultan of Syria led revolution in Egypt recaptured Jerusalem then taken back Saladin negotiated with Christians and Muslims Crusades and the Byzantine Empire The Fourth Crusade 1200 CE Crusades had deeper impact on Christians Byzantine saw Crusades as powerful warriors also barbarians Crusaders distrusted Byzantine weak and corrupted this led to violent clashes 4th crusade conquered Cple Expansionism trade growth and the rise of W Christian cities 1213C Latin Christendom poorest part of the Mediterranean trade wealth and population growth raised wealth expansionism of Latin Christians into wider contact with Byz some port towns built networks of trade in Mediterranean Med luxury craft trade North wool trade these two came together Medieval Christian city charters and autonomous city governments 12C Latin Christian leaders competed to control urban trade bishops most powerful at first money went to clergy schools new churches cathedrals these ideas con icted with lords and kings who competed for the money as well hired troops lawyers secretaries and also con icted with merchants guilds who made rules for labor fixed prices avoided taxes these three worked together to make charters to agree towns declared themselves independent HRE had to accept New Medieval W Christian centers of learning scholasticism and universities 1011 C imports an d growth of learning Western Christian kingdoms not big on learning even elites uninterested in book learning 11 c population growth expansion wealth lead to more education 13 c charters for curriculum 1300 universities New pious movements in 12C13th c Christendom Mystics wanderers and heretics more interest in holiness mysticism practices to make believers gain wisdom direct contact with God E Christian mysticism popular with monks learned Christian monks fasting no sleep drugs Apolistic wanderers poor celibate more common in major trade routes deliberately poor got attention for this Old Bishops didn t like those threats to authority could teach something wrong 14 Franciscans and Dominicans Apostolic wandering priests 1200 C Church leaders denounced heretics but still popular wandering poor preachers organized blessed by pope Francis of Assisi gave away wealth to be a beggar Italy Pope blessed Francis s preaching second order of friars Dominicans stressed learning over poverty 15 The Papal Inquisition as response to fear of heresy 1012 C didn t know what to do with lay people tried different things 1 Crusades against them couldn t control wars and got out of hand 2 papal inquisition asked people about known heretics those questioned had to admit of be excommunicatedexecuted


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