Exam 3 study guide
Exam 3 study guide ANTR 110S
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nathaniel Rhodes on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTR 110S at Old Dominion University taught by KRISTIN M MACAK in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
ANTR110S Intro to Anthropology exam 3 study guide Chapter 17 What is society Political systems A Political power is the ability needed to impose one39s will over another B Authority is the approved use of power one othersnecessary to exert will legally C Social organization manages people to the best of its ability Politicians A Makes decisions for a group B Expected to lead community C Spokesman for people of nation D Power to controlinfluence behavior of others Sociopolitical typology Kinbased relation gt Band Small kin based group Tribe Power organized by lineage Chiefdom Power organized by social relationsChiefdoms are kin based but with differential access to resources Chiefdoms A A Chiefdom continuum is the stages from a tribe to a state Tribe chiefdom then state B Unlike band and tribes chiefdoms have a clear political system with offices regulations and rulers Ex Precontact Hawaii before any outsiders came they had a system with a leader and broken into smaller groups of leaders Stratification A Emergence of social division defines transition from chiefdom to state B Wealth Economic status Power Political status Prestige Social status C a system of subordinatesackeys and superordinatesbosses was created D This system is found in most all states Population control fixes boundaries citizenship Judiciaryaw judges procedure EnforcementPermanent military Fiscal support taxation these systems facilitate social control ANTR110S Intro to Anthropology exam 3 study guide E Hegemony Stratified social order in which subordinates accept hierarchy as natural F Factors such as protest riots and crime interrupt community control G Social orders try to make arbitrary mechanisms that make domination seem in everyone39s best interest and rules are what make compliance with people possible H There is a geographic linguistic and ethnic separation Sanctions A Sanctions are social and governmental B Resistance can arise regardless of order in the following ways Politics and law gossip protest messages spread through media etc Chapter 13 Ethnography Ethnography A Ethnology Comparing two ethnographies with similar attributesThrough already proven research or your own conducted research B Random sample Sample which all population members have an equal chance at being asked to take survey inclusion C Sample Small study to represent larger population Process of a field site 1 Pick a topic you want to explore questions related to the subject 2 Think of a site to explore this topic a home chat room etc 3 VariablesAttributes that differ from one person to the next are going to affect expe ence E ticEmic A Emic Strategy of research focusing on local explanations B Etic Research strategy emphasizing the ethnographers explanation and categorizers ANTR110S Intro to Anthropology exam 3 study guide Online ethnographies A Second life avatars involved B Virtual realities affect real life and vice versa social media forums Survey information should be as accurate as humanly possible Development of anthropological theories 19th centum Evolutionary perspective Early 20th century Reactions to evolutionism USAHistorical approach vs BritainFunctionalist approach Mid 20th century New evolutionary approach culture and individual vs local culture Late 20th century Increasing specialization in branches of anthropology Unilinear evolutionism Lewis Henry Morgan created this approach human society evolves through a series of quotstagesquotSavagery to barbarism to a developed civilization it is unilinear because this is the only path believed to be true in his case He also wrote the quotLeague of Iroquoisquot Historical Particularism Created by Franz Boaz 4 field approach to anthropologycultural biological etc Believed biology doesn39t determine culture and histories are noncomparable but diverse paths can lead to the same end rejected any part of the comparative method Functionalist Focuses on the present role of cultural practices in contemporary society and systems Malinowski created the ethnographical approach RadcliffeBrown created structural functionalismcustoms preserving social structure and Synchronictogether vs diachronicapart approach Contemporary functionalism When one part changes others also do Configurationalism Created by Franz Boaz39s studentsRuth Benedict and Margaret Mead culture is integrated and has a pattern as displayed in adolescence in the US vs adolescence in Samoa Culture determines behavior and cultures were documented based on how they are unique rather than origin Neo Evolutionism White and steward wanted to reintroduce interest in the evolution of culture in the 1950s Economies and societies evolve and cultures do not evolve the same way General evolutioncreated by white Main measures and causes of culture Multilinear evolution created by steward More than one way to a cultural background ANTRllOS Intro to Anthropology exam 3 study guide Cultural Materialism Created by Marvin Harris states that culture infrastructure determines structureProducts and need and superstructure Ideology and arts Structuralism Created by Claude LeviStrauss States culture is based off common underlying properties of the human mind creates structure of myth kinship human mind and marriage Ethical issues A Project Minerva A linguistics program used by the government for translation of foreign text considered unethical because it could harm another country Human terrain system Use of anthropologists in military environments to ease tension of warring sides also considered unethical because of involvement of weapons and harm of enemies Culture vs the individual Culture is the vehicle for broad change When culture is ready people in different places with the same ideas change ant the same time evolution Super organic Study of culture important as study of organic life and inorganic lifeChemicalphysical Culture has power over the individual like trends in fashion Symbols and interpretive Anthropology A Symbols A sign with significance to the viewer has a social and culture context whether hierarchical universal or particular to a person Interpretive Anthropology Culture is based on learning symbols people internalize the meaning of them ex Red cross A hospital World Systems theory and political economy Post WW2 Anthropology turns away from primitive and non industrial societies in favor of contemporary societies such as the USAnterdisciplinary took interest in historicity historical accuracy and the colonizers and colonized Anthropology today Specialization in 4 sub fields professional organizations have subgroups doing their own activities and university level anthropology is less holisticwhole and more specialized ANTRllOS Intro to Anthropology exam 3 study guide Chapter 18 Gender Gender A Genders have expected stereotypical expectations and demands in each society B Gender stereotypes Activities related to a gender C Gender roles Things expected by society from a gender D Gender Stratifications Unequal distribution of rewards based on gender E Gender A social construct to determine male or female or neither F Sexual Dimorphism Differences in male and female biology G Males have clear advantages over females in physical labor spouses and child care participation H Domesticpublic dichotomy Division of male and female roles Working conditions for females are usually worse off than males Gender lineage A Matrilineal descent Descent through the female like B Patrilineal descent Descent through male line C PatrilinealPatrilocal complex Male supremacy based on patriarchal and warfare D Patriarchies tend to resort to violence more often and matriarchies are possible Sexual orientation A Intersex A group of conditions reflecting a difference in external and internal sex organs external penis and vagina and internal Ovaries and testes B Sexual orientation Sexual attraction to a certain sex C Gender identity Persons identity as a certain gender D Transgender A movement from one gender to the other Chapter 20 Reproduction and marriage A The focus on Anthropology related to reproduction is to investigate how many people are having offspring who is having them and how they did it surrogate sex etc termination of offspring fertility rates etc B Role of Marriage Besides reproduction marriage is used politically to obtain land power etc it is used to achieve property dowriesgifts for male and labolasgifts for female It is also utilized more recently in history out of love of the other person C Marriage is a group alliance between two families usually Exogamy Endogamy and Incest ANTRllOS Intro to Anthropology exam 3 study guide A Exogamy Seeking a mate outside of your immediate groupusualy strangers B Endogamy Seeking mates inside your group of people usually friends C Incest Sexual contact with a close relative Plural marriages A Polygamy having multiple partners B Polgany a male with multiple partners C Polyandry A female with more than one partner Chapter 19 Marriage kinship and family A Nuclear familyis a family with 2 parents male and female 12 kids Family of orientation is the family you prefer to live with the Family of procreation is the family that birthed you Unilineanal Descent from either the matrilineal or patrilineal descent vs Ambilineal which is neither patrilineal nor matrilineal Matrilineal lines are all female the circles on a kinship diagram while Patrilineal is all male the triangles on a kinship diagram Kinship terminology A Bifurcate merging identifying collateral relatives with lineal relatives of the same sex and generation when the connecting relative is of the same sex but distinguishing them when the connecting relative is of the opposite sex A father39s brother would be a father but a mothers brother is a unclethis definition can be a bit confusing but it basically means that different gender different title same sex same title Generational all offspring from a stage of descent have a common ancestor Lineal Direct line of ancestry Bifurcate collateral distinguishing collateral relatives both from lineal relatives of the same generation and from one another on the basis of the sex of connecting relatives
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