Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 352 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Chapter 9: Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation: a distinct preference for sexual partners of a particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives Heterosexual: an individual with a sexual orientation primarily to members of the opposite sex Homosexual: an individual wit a sexual orientation primarily to members of the same sex Bisexual: an individual with a sexual orientation toward both men and women Prevalence of Homosexual and Bisexuality 3%-7% of American men and about 1.5% to 4.5% of American women are homosexual or bisexual Defining Sexual Orientation: Another Look Isolated instances of sexual behavior may or may not reflect one’s sexual orientation Some reach their identity after passive exploration and others after active exploration The large majority of homosexual and bisexual men became aware of their sexual orientation at a young age It is common for women not to recognize their orientation until later Women are more likely to move back and forth between heterosexual and homosexual Several studies have shown that it can change over time Heterosexual identities tend to stay the same over time Of the bisexuals who change, men can shift towards homosexual or heterosexual whereas women shift towards heterosexual Asexuality An individual with a lifelong lack of sexual attraction to men and women 1% of population is asexual They experience sexual arousal to erotic stimuli, they just lack sexual attraction to other people Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Gender Roles You cannot tell a persons sexual orientation by their gender roles Gender nonconformity during childhood of often but not always associated with homosexuality Childhood gender nonconformity does not provide an adequate explanation for the development of sexual orientation in most women Sexual Origins of Sexual Orientation Psychoanalytical Explanations: Do Parents Play a Role? o Feud believed that male homosexuality resulted when a boy had a domineering, rejecting mother and turned to this father for love and later to men in general o Female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her mother and identified with her father and became fixated on that o There is no evidence that sexual orientation results from children identity with a particular parent!! Biological Explanations o Genetic factors 100% concordance in sexuality in twins 10% in fraternal 50%-60% of sexual orientation is due to genetics o Brain anatomy Studies found that hypothalamus in heterosexuals were twice as large Others found that anther part of the hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, had tice as many cells in homosexual men as in heterosexual men and that a major fiber bundle that connect the two halves of the brain was 34% large in homosexual men o Birth Order (and the Prenatal Environment) Many studies have found that on average homosexual men have more older brother than heterosexual men Each additional older biological brother increases the probably that the younger brother will be homosexual by 33% This suggests that birth order effects in men are the result of biological influences; a reaction to the mothers immune system (Y chromosome chemicals) triggered by the previous male fetuses o Hormones (and the Prenatal Environment) Levels in testosterone increase dramatically when the testicles developed in week 7 after conception, reach a peak and then decline if it’s a girl In boys, testosterone levels then dramatically increase after birth for about 20 weeks and then decline again to the level of girls until puberty Any early differences in anatomy due to testosterone would have to occur during one of these two early testosterone surges o Most researchers agree that both biological and social influences contribute to the development of sexual orientation o Also contribution of genetic and environmental factors Being Homosexual Greek “homo” meaning same Gay: a term generally used to refer to male homosexuals, although in some places it is used to refer to homosexual of either sex Lesbian: a female homosexual Straight: a term used by homosexuals for a heterosexual History of Attitudes about homosexuality o Pederasty: a same-sex sexual between between adult men and boys Greek scholars use to have sexual relations with their students o Same sex sexual activities were practiced by many groups often as part of Hebrews for religious rituals prior to the 7 century. Was then banned for “spillage of seed” o Intolerance in Western culture Viewed as mentally ill Sexual Prejudice Today o Sexual prejudice is often institutionalized (Christian churches) o Victims of verbal abuse, harassment, bullying and hate crimes o Homophobia: an irrational fear of homosexual individuals and homosexuality o Sexual prejudice: socially reinforced negative attitudes towards homosexuals, homosexual communities and homosexual behaviors Sexual Identity Development o Sexual identity development: the process of accepting and disclosing ones homosexuality or bisexuality (“coming out”) o The first stage is admitting to oneself that one has a homosexual or bisexual orientation o Next stage is the individual gets to know other homosexuals, thus ending the sense of isolation o Once contact is made with other gays and lesbians, a new way of expressing sexuality has to be developed o Third stage, the individuals tells family and friends of his or her sexual orientation o Many gays/lesbians/bisexuals end up homeless with no supportive parents o Final stage is complete openness about ones homosexuality or bisexuality Lifestyles and Relations o Find companions can be difficult o Urban areas have more tolerance o Lesbian coupes are less likely to be concentrated in large cities o Most same-sex couples assume house roles and finalized burdens equally o Gays and bisexuals value monogamy less o Lesbians are more affectionate than heterosexual couples Homosexuals, Marriage, and Parenting o Many homosexual people marry an heterosexual a partner Due to family and societal pressures, affection for the partner, desire to have children or even negative feelings about a homosexual lifestyle o 13 states recognize same-sex marriage o Abundance of research that shows that children raised by openly homosexual partners are not different from children raised by heterosexual parents Media Portrayal of Homosexuals o Hollywood movies have began to show gay couples o TV shows portray homosexuals in serious roles Can Sexual Orientation Be Changed? Most changes are conducted by religious groups Efforts to change sexual orientation are ineffective People cannot choose to be gay or straight, nor can they be changed through therapy Chapter 10: Life-Span Sexual Development Early Infancy (Ages 0-1) o Ultrasound recording have discovered that male fetuses have erections months before they are born o After birth, baby boys often have erections before the umbilical cord is cut o Baby girls can have vaginal lubrication in the first 24 months after birth o An important part of emotional development involves the amount of hugging and cuddling that an infant has o As soon as infants gain control over their movements, they begin to touch all their body parts They may stimulate themselves This happens because the nerve endings in the genital areas have already developed Their behavior is aimed at find pleasurable physical sensations, not expressing sexual desires Early Childhood (Ages 2-6) o Children being to paly with others and their curiosity extends not only to their own bodies but other kids o Interest in genitals is very common during this age o Young children re interested in the physical differences between boys and girls and will play games that allow for sexual exploration o What may be harmful is parents reacting too strongly when they “catch” their children engaging in sex o Sexual exploration games are often played with the same sex Allowing children to explore their bodies will make them more comfortable with their bodies as an adult o Family plays a large role in the sexual impact of the child The Initial School-Age Years (Ages 7-11) o Freud believed that this was the time of “latency” when children ere not concerned with sexuality o Children have developed a sense of modesty o Several studies of adults recollections show they there was a large majority of sexual interaction before puberty o Children tend to segregate by sex by age 9 o Girls are normally treated more harshly than males o Although the amount of overtly sexual play may decrease during the initial school age years, curiosity about sex does not and children often ask where babies come from o Abundance of evidence that sexuality developed steadily throughout childhood Puberty (Ages 7-15) o The time in life when an individual first shows sexual attraction and becomes capable of reproduction o Process lasting several years o First stage, the adrenal glands start to mature when children are between the ages of 6 and 8. The adrenal glands secrete androgen hormone DHEA which is then converted to testosterone and estrogen, at this stage the girls and boys experience an increase in androgens (“male” hormones) o Second stage, testicles and ovaries mature. The pituitary gland begins to secrete FSH in high doses, stimulating the production of sperm and maturation of ova in girls o Secondary sex characteristics: bodily changes that occur during puberty and differentiate men and women o Changes in girls First sign is the development of breast buds average age of about 10 Growth spurts start- starts earlier than boys Girls generally stop growing by age 16 Increase in estrogen levels also causes an increase in fatty deposits in the hips and buttocks Pubic hair followed by underarm hair appears These hormones cause the sweat glands and sebaceous glands to develop, so that body odor and acne often become new sources of concern Menarche: the term or the girls first menstrual period Average age occurs between 12 and 13 The rise in estrogen levels causes the vaginal walls to become thicker and more elastic The average age for menarche has been dropping over the last few centuries Reason for this is better nutrition resulting in an earlier acquisition of some minimally required amount of body fat (the putative signal that tells the brain to start releasing FSH) o Changes in boys Pubertal development in boys lags about 2 years behind development in girls First change is growth in testicles and scrotum, result of increased levels of testosterone Testosterone them stimulates growth of the penis, prostate gland and seminal vesicles Growth of testicles begins ages 11-12 and is done by age 15 Nocturnal emission: an ejaculation that occurs during sleep in teenaged boys and men; “wet dream” Occurs during REM Many boys also develop temporarily enlarged breasts during puberty called gynecomastia Pubic hair develops but underarm and facial hair generally do not appear for another 2 years Amount of body hair is determined by hereditary Deepening of voice, a result of testosterone stimulating the growth of the voice box o Precocious and Delayed Puberty Precocious puberty: a condition in which puberty begins before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys This is due to premature activation of adrenal or pituitary hormones and is 10 times for common in girls than in boys The youngest girl to have given birth was 5 years old People speculate that early development of secondary sex characteristics is due to early weight gain, hormones in meat and milk or what are called environmental estrogens, chemical pollutants that resemble the female hormone estrogen Delayed puberty: a condition in which the appearance of secondary characteristics and physical growth do not being until ell after they have begun in most children The usual treatment is to administer gonadotropin-releasing hormone or testosterone o Sexual Behavior Several studies have shown that children’s first sexual attraction occurs at age 10 Children have no understanding of sex, but they do know that the are attracted to boys or girls This occurs well before gonadarche and is true for both heterosexual and homosexual attraction. It coincides with rising androgen levels due to the maturation of the adrenal glands- further evidence that Freud’s latency theory is incorrect In the developmental process, sexual attraction is followed in order by sexual fantasy and sexual behavior Adolescence (Ages 13-17) o The time of life between puberty and adulthood o Most important issue in their life is self-identity Because of their rapidly changing bodies, the search for self-identity first focuses on body image and physical characteristics o Self-esteem is generally based on his or her subjective views of physical attractiveness o Girls are often viewed as sexual objects o Masturbation For many, the first experience with orgasm occurs during masturbation A lot of guilt is tied to it o Pattern(s) of Sexual Initiation Petting: non-coital sexual contact below the waist Necking: erotic physical contact above the waist (kissing, touching breasts) The average age at which teens first have sexual intercourse has been dropping and is now about 16 or younger There is only a small difference between boys and girls Besides sexual pleasure, reasons for sex include desire for intimacy and an increase in social status Men generally have more pleasure and less guilt Some teens post pone having sex till marriage for religious reasons o Peer Pressure Expectations by one’s peer group about how one is suppose to behave The more friends a teen has who are sexually active, the more likely they will engage in sex Emerging Adulthood (Ages 18-25) o The median age for marriage is 26 for women and 28 for men o Extended period of being a single adult that occurs between adolescence young adult hood o Freedom from parental restraints and more opportunity for privacy than in the past o By age 20, 75% of emerging adults are sexually experienced and having sex regularly and most emerging adults have had multiple serial sexual partners during their short lifetimes o Hooking up: non-relationship sex without any commitment o Serial monogamy: the practice of having a series of monogamous sexual relationships Young Adulthood (Ages 26-39) o By age 44, 95% of Americans have engaged in premarital sex o Marriage The frequency of sex during the first year of marriage is usually high Sex has to compete with other demands such as careers, children Sex becomes less exciting, sometimes done at the same time every day (at night for couples with children) o Living Together (cohabitation) 2/3 of couples who marry live together outside of marriage The increase in the number of couples living together may be one reason for the older age of couples today who marry for the first time Living together can be a test or trial period before marriage Studies have found that couples living together before marriage have more marriage instability Divorce rate is higher for those that live together before marriage and who have children before marriage o Extramarital Sex- In supposedly monogamous marriages In Americans, the prevalence of an affair is high Men may solely have sexual affairs, whereas women most likely have emotional affairs as well Women are more concerned about emotional infidelity than men o Extramarital Sex- Consensual arrangements Open marriages: a marital relationship in which the couple agrees that it is permissible to have sexual relations outside of marriage Swinging: A type of open marriage relationship in which a couple has extramarital relations together with other couples Couples get together by answers ads in newspapers Men often watch the women have sex with each other Middle Ages (Ages 40-59) o Frequency of Sex A recent nationally representative survey found hat about 56% of men and 70% of women aged 50-70 years had engaged in sexual intercourse in the past year While there is a decline as people get older, it is gradual There are many more single women than single men Older women have a harder time finding partners than older men o Female Sexuality: Physical Changes with Age Menopause: the term for woman’s last menstrual cycle The changes that occur in the few years that precede and the first year that follows is called the climacteric 4/5 of women experience menopause between 44 and 55 with an average of age 51 Women will experience hormonal changes Hot flashes The loss of estrogen also causes the vagina to become thinner and less elastic, with a marked decrease in the amount of vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal For many women, menopause causes no change in interests in sex o Male Sexuality: Physical Changes with Age Men show a gradual decline in testosterone levels that begins in their late teens By age 55, 20% to 50% of men have testosterone levels that are below the normal range for young adult men This decrease in testosterone will result in some physiological changes as men. This is often referred to as andropause The changes include decreased sensitivity of the penis, a longer time to become erect and a less firm erection, shrinkage of the testicles, less forceful ejaculation, longer refractory period Some doctors advocate for testosterone replacement therapy The Elderly Years (Ages 60+) o In our culture, people believe sex is only enjoyed by young people o Among people in their early 60s, 70% are having sex regularly o 2/3 say sexual relations are satisfactory and as good or better as when they were younger o The women to men ratio is unfavorable- women outlive men o Sexual problems are common (erectile dysfunction) o Major factor preventing elderly from having sex is the lack of privacy if one is dependent on others for care o Sex will probably continue throughout life if couples have a positive attitude about sex when they were younger and are healthy
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