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CLEMSON / Psychology / PSYC 82679 / What is the role of chromosome?

What is the role of chromosome?

What is the role of chromosome?

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School: Clemson University
Department: Psychology
Course: Human Sexual Behavior
Professor: Bruce king
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: ch.8,9,10,11,13
Uploaded: 11/06/2015
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Chapter 8: Gender Identity and Gender Roles


What is the role of chromosome?



 Gender: the social construction of femininity and masculinity  Gender identity: ones subjective sense of being a man/boy or a woman/girl. This sense is usually acquired by the age of 3  Gender role: a set of culturally specific norms concerning the  expected behavior and attitudes of men and women

Biological Influences On Gender Identity  

 The Role of Chromosomes

o Rod-shaped structures containing the genetic material that determines a persons inherited characteristics

o Eggs and sperm only have one chromosomes from each of  the 23 pairs

o Girls have XX

o Boys have XY

o It is the sperm from the father that determines the genetic  sex of the child at the moment of conception

o Some individuals have XX combination have male anatomy and some with XY have female anatomy

 This is due to the fact that the Y has a gene called  SRY which determines the maleness


What are the hormonal disorders?



 This piece is missing from XY girls’ and it is present  on XX boys’ X

 The Role of Hormones

o Testosterone must be present at the critical stage of  embryonic development in order for XY combination to  result in a baby with male anatomy  

o A pair of primitive gonads develops during 5th and 6th weeks that have the potential for developing into either  ovaries or testes

o Wolffian duct system: a primitive duct system found in  embryos that, if allowed to develop, becomes the male  reproductive system Don't forget about the age old question of What is meant by the term “anaplerotic” pathway?

o Mullerian duct system: a primitive duct system found in  embryos, which, if allows to develop, becomes the female  reproductive system

o If there is no Y chromosome, the primitive gonads will  develop into ovaries

o Unless there is a high level of testosterone at ta critical  stage of prenatal development, nature programmed  


What is Freudian theory?



everyone for female development

Disorders Of Sex Development

 Individuals with a combination of male and female anatomical  features, or in which chromosomal sex is inconsistent with  anatomical sex If you want to learn more check out unshortened cake

 Chromosome Disorders

o Over 70 known disorders

o 1/426 person is born with a disorder

o Klinfelters: male girths born with an extra X

 These males have both feminine and masculine  

characteristics

 Tall with long arms, poor muscles, enlarged breasts,  hips and a small penis with shrunken testicles

o Turners syndrome: there is only one X chromosome  Ovaries never develop properly

 Don’t develop breasts

 Don’t struggle with gender identity

 Hormonal Disorders

o Some children are born with both female and male  reproductive parts because the primitive gonads fail to  differentiate properly

o Normally raided as males but have gender identity  problems when breasts begin to develop

o Very rare

o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a condition in girls in  which eh adrenal glands excrete too much testosterone  during fetal development, causing masculinization

 This includes enlargement of the clitoris and labia, so that at birth the genital are sometimes mistaken for  those of a boy If you want to learn more check out grtep.com

o Androgen insensitivity syndrome: a condition in which  the testicles secrete normal amounts of testosterone  during male embryonic development but the tissues do not respond to it. As a result a clitoris, labia and a short vagina  develop, but the internal female structures do not develop  because the testicles still secrete mullerian duct-inhibitory  substances

o DHT deficiency syndrome: a type of androgen  insensitivity syndrome in which, because testosterone is  not converted into dihydrogesterone, boys’ external genital do not develop properly. Development occurs at puberty  with the rise in testosterone. Very small penis that looks  like a clitoris and an incomplete scrotum that looks like a  labia Don't forget about the age old question of why is glycine a helix breaker

 How Many Sexes Are There?

o No direct relationship between sex and gender

o One scholar recognizes at least 5 different sexes and that  human sexuality is not a dichotomy but a continuum  

 Attempts to Reassign Sex in Infancy

o Examples on page 207-208

o Many individuals who underwent sex reassignment as  infants because of ambiguous of injured genitals have  rejected the socialization process

o Nature sets a predisposition for gender identity and that  ones sexual identity is not fixed by the gender of rearing  

Gender Incongruence in Children

 Gender dysphoria: a strong desire to be of the opposite gender or an insistence that he or she is of the other gender

 A large majority of children with gender dysphoria do not persist  this after puberty, as adults they may be either homosexual or  heterosexual  We also discuss several other topics like melissa nigro
Don't forget about the age old question of huaxiang fu

 Therapist advocate for the “wait and see” approach

Gender Incongruence in Adults

 Transgendered: an individual whose gender identity and  gender roles are opposite of those that society expects based on  his or her anatomy  

 Can have homosexual or heterosexual orientation

 Almost all cross dress

 A transvestite dresses in the clothing of the opposite sex to  achieve arousal. They do not want to change biologically or does  not experience gender dysphoria  

 Likely that the hormones in the second half of pregnancy may  have had effects on lade behavior and gender identity  Transsexual: adults with gender dysphoria who desire to  surgically change their anatomical sex

o They choose to change their sex not their gender

o Male to female: penis and testicles are removed, the  nerves are relocated to the inside of the newly created  vagina made of pelvic tissue

o Female to male: the uterus, ovaries and breasts are  removed. Some decide to have an artificial penis created  using flaps of skin and muscle or by clitoral enlargement

Psychological Theories Of Gender Identity Development  Freudian Theory

o Believed that psychological development was influenced  primarily by sexual development

o Called sexual energy, libido and thought that the area of  the body responsible for sexual pleasures changed over  time

o Oral stage: pleasure is derived from sucking and from  expiring things with the mouth

o Anal stage: lasts from age 1.5 to 3- comes from holding in  and expelling feces

o Phallic stage: lasts from 3 to 5- believed that gender  identity is learned then. Boys begin to derive pleasure  though masturbation and being to sexual desire their  mothers. Fear their fathers “castration anxiety”

o Identification: the adoption of the sex roles of the same sex parents by a child and in advertising, to identity to  relate to a product

o Girl realizes she has no penis and develops “penis envy”-  blames mother and wants to possess her father in order to  replace the mother. Once she realizes this cannot happen,  she identifies with her mother  

 Social Learning Theory

o Operant conditioning: based on the principle that an  individuals behavior is modified by the consequences of  the behavior  

 Ex: boy is praised by father for acting like father

o Imitating: following the behaviors of someone taken as  ones model

o Gender identity is acquired in the process of learning  gender roles

 Cognitive-Development Theory

o Views infants as information seekers

o Concept of male is first learned by observing others- the  boy observes his father and learns the appropriate  

behaviors for males and vice versa for girls

o Gender constancy: the knowledge that one’s gender is  constant and will not change. This knowledge is usually  acquired by age 6 or 7  

Gender Roles

 Theories of Gender Roles

o Evolutionary theory behavioral differences between men and women are due to the different reproductive pressures  each faced over thousands of generations

o Sociocultural theory states that the psychological  differences between men and women are a social  

construction

o Gender role stereotypes are oversimplified rigid beliefs  that all members of a particular sex have distinct  

behavioral, psychical and emotional characteristics

o Androgyny: the ability of an individual to display a variety of personality characteristics both masculine and famine,  depending on whether a trait or behavior is appropriate in  a given situation. It is often viewed as positive  

characteristic that gives an individual great adaptability   Socially desirable and healthy due to their flexibility o Instrumental: a personality characteristic; a cognitive  focus on getting the job done

o Expressive: a personality characteristic; a cognitive focus  on an affective concern for the welfare of others

 Gender-Role Development During Childhood

o Socialization: the process of internalizing society’s  beliefs; the manner in which a society shapes individual  behaviors and expectations

o Gender schema: ideas about gender roles that children  create from their interactions with their environment  o The socialization process beings at an early age when  children play with tors that are gender stereotyped

o First learned at home but when they reach school age  peers and teacher become powerful reinforces of the  process

o There may be little noticeable difference between boys and girls before the age of 2, but there is o question that most  children have embraced gender stereotypes by the age of  4

o By the age of ¾ children know sex stereotypes about  clothing, toys, games and work by the age of 4/5 most  have stereotypical occupational goals

o Children raised by a single parent tend to be less  stereotyped

 Role of the Media

o TV advertisements frequently use stereotyped characters o People are still exposed to extreme serotypes in music  videos

 What Causes Developmental Gender Differences? o Psychologists believe that behavioral differences have  evolutionary value  

 Ex: girls play as a parent to prepare for adulthood  Ex: guys play rough to prepare to being competitive  for women

 Adults Gender Roles in the United States: Historic Overview

o With the increased industrialization, men began to earn  their livings away from home and the economic activities  of men and women began to split

o Men were viewed as breadwinners, women stayed home o Women are now seeking more control over job  opportunities, the same amount of pay as men receive for  comparable work, more freedom in conduct of their  personal affairs, and in general more equality between the  sexes

Chapter 9: Sexual Orientation

 Sexual orientation: a distinct preference for sexual partners of a  particular sex in the presence of clear alternatives

 Heterosexual: an individual with a sexual orientation primarily to  members of the opposite sex

 Homosexual: an individual wit a sexual orientation primarily to  members of the same sex

 Bisexual: an individual with a sexual orientation toward both men  and women

Prevalence of Homosexual and Bisexuality  

 3%-7% of American men and about 1.5% to 4.5% of American  women are homosexual or bisexual

Defining Sexual Orientation: Another Look

 Isolated instances of sexual behavior may or may not reflect  one’s sexual orientation

 Some reach their identity after passive exploration and others  after active exploration

 The large majority of homosexual and bisexual men became  aware of their sexual orientation at a young age

 It is common for women not to recognize their orientation until  later

 Women are more likely to move back and forth between  heterosexual and homosexual

 Several studies have shown that it can change over time  Heterosexual identities tend to stay the same over time  Of the bisexuals who change, men can shift towards homosexual  

or heterosexual whereas women shift towards heterosexual Asexuality

 An individual with a lifelong lack of sexual attraction to men and  women

 1% of population is asexual

 They experience sexual arousal to erotic stimuli, they just lack  sexual attraction to other people

Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Gender Roles  You cannot tell a persons sexual orientation by their gender roles  Gender nonconformity during childhood of often but not always  associated with homosexuality

 Childhood gender nonconformity does not provide an adequate  explanation for the development of sexual orientation in most  women

Sexual Origins of Sexual Orientation

 Psychoanalytical Explanations: Do Parents Play a Role?

o Feud believed that male homosexuality resulted when a  boy had a domineering, rejecting mother and turned to this father for love and later to men in general

o Female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her  mother and identified with her father and became fixated  on that

o There is no evidence that sexual orientation results from  children identity with a particular parent!!

 Biological Explanations

o Genetic factors

 100% concordance in sexuality in twins

 10% in fraternal  

 50%-60% of sexual orientation is due to genetics o Brain anatomy

 Studies found that hypothalamus in heterosexuals  were twice as large

 Others found that anther part of the hypothalamus,  the suprachiasmatic nucleus, had tice as many cells  in homosexual men as in heterosexual men and that  a major fiber bundle that connect the two halves of  the brain was 34% large in homosexual men

o Birth Order (and the Prenatal Environment)

 Many studies have found that on average  

homosexual men have more older brother than  

heterosexual men  

 Each additional older biological brother increases the probably that the younger brother will be  

homosexual by 33%

 This suggests that birth order effects in men are the  result of biological influences; a reaction to the  

mothers immune system (Y chromosome chemicals)  triggered by the previous male fetuses

o Hormones (and the Prenatal Environment)

 Levels in testosterone increase dramatically when  the testicles developed in week 7 after conception,  reach a peak and then decline if it’s a girl

 In boys, testosterone levels then dramatically  

increase after birth for about 20 weeks and then  

decline again to the level of girls until puberty

 Any early differences in anatomy due to testosterone would have to occur during one of these two early  

testosterone surges  

o Most researchers agree that both biological and social  influences contribute to the development of sexual  orientation

o Also contribution of genetic and environmental factors Being Homosexual  

 Greek “homo” meaning same

 Gay: a term generally used to refer to male homosexuals,  although in some places it is used to refer to homosexual of  either sex

 Lesbian: a female homosexual

 Straight: a term used by homosexuals for a heterosexual

 History of Attitudes about homosexuality

o Pederasty: a same-sex sexual between between adult  men and boys

 Greek scholars use to have sexual relations with  

their students

o Same sex sexual activities were practiced by many groups  often as part of Hebrews for religious rituals prior to the 7th century. Was then banned for “spillage of seed”

o Intolerance in Western culture  

 Viewed as mentally ill

 Sexual Prejudice Today

o Sexual prejudice is often institutionalized (Christian  churches)

o Victims of verbal abuse, harassment, bullying and hate  crimes

o Homophobia: an irrational fear of homosexual individuals and homosexuality

o Sexual prejudice: socially reinforced negative attitudes  towards homosexuals, homosexual communities and  

homosexual behaviors  

 Sexual Identity Development

o Sexual identity development: the process of accepting  and disclosing ones homosexuality or bisexuality (“coming out”)

o The first stage is admitting to oneself that one has a  homosexual or bisexual orientation

o Next stage is the individual gets to know other  

homosexuals, thus ending the sense of isolation

o Once contact is made with other gays and lesbians, a new  way of expressing sexuality has to be developed

o Third stage, the individuals tells family and friends of his  or her sexual orientation

o Many gays/lesbians/bisexuals end up homeless with no  supportive parents

o Final stage is complete openness about ones  

homosexuality or bisexuality  

 Lifestyles and Relations

o Find companions can be difficult

o Urban areas have more tolerance

o Lesbian coupes are less likely to be concentrated in large  cities

o Most same-sex couples assume house roles and finalized  burdens equally

o Gays and bisexuals value monogamy less

o Lesbians are more affectionate than heterosexual couples  Homosexuals, Marriage, and Parenting

o Many homosexual people marry an heterosexual a partner  Due to family and societal pressures, affection for  

the partner, desire to have children or even negative

feelings about a homosexual lifestyle

o 13 states recognize same-sex marriage

o Abundance of research that shows that children raised by  openly homosexual partners are not different from children raised by heterosexual parents

 Media Portrayal of Homosexuals

o Hollywood movies have began to show gay couples o TV shows portray homosexuals in serious roles

Can Sexual Orientation Be Changed?

 Most changes are conducted by religious groups

 Efforts to change sexual orientation are ineffective

 People cannot choose to be gay or straight, nor can they be  changed through therapy

Chapter 10: Life-Span Sexual Development

 Early Infancy (Ages 0-1)

o Ultrasound recording have discovered that male fetuses  have erections months before they are born

o After birth, baby boys often have erections before the  umbilical cord is cut

o Baby girls can have vaginal lubrication in the first 24  months after birth

o An important part of emotional development involves the  amount of hugging and cuddling that an infant has

o As soon as infants gain control over their movements, they  begin to touch all their body parts

 They may stimulate themselves

 This happens because the nerve endings in the  

genital areas have already developed

 Their behavior is aimed at find pleasurable physical  sensations, not expressing sexual desires

 Early Childhood (Ages 2-6)

o Children being to paly with others and their curiosity  extends not only to their own bodies but other kids

o Interest in genitals is very common during this age  o Young children re interested in the physical differences  between boys and girls and will play games that allow for  sexual exploration

o What may be harmful is parents reacting too strongly when they “catch” their children engaging in sex

o Sexual exploration games are often played with the same  sex

 Allowing children to explore their bodies will make  

them more comfortable with their bodies as an adult

o Family plays a large role in the sexual impact of the child  The Initial School-Age Years (Ages 7-11)

o Freud believed that this was the time of “latency” when  children ere not concerned with sexuality

o Children have developed a sense of modesty

o Several studies of adults recollections show they there was  a large majority of sexual interaction before puberty

o Children tend to segregate by sex by age 9

o Girls are normally treated more harshly than males o Although the amount of overtly sexual play may decrease  during the initial school age years, curiosity about sex does not and children often ask where babies come from

o Abundance of evidence that sexuality developed steadily  throughout childhood

 Puberty (Ages 7-15)

o The time in life when an individual first shows sexual  attraction and becomes capable of reproduction o Process lasting several years

o First stage, the adrenal glands start to mature when  children are between the ages of 6 and 8. The adrenal  glands secrete androgen hormone DHEA which is then  converted to testosterone and estrogen, at this stage the  girls and boys experience an increase in androgens  (“male” hormones)

o Second stage, testicles and ovaries mature. The pituitary  gland begins to secrete FSH in high doses, stimulating the  production of sperm and maturation of ova in girls

o Secondary sex characteristics: bodily changes that  occur during puberty and differentiate men and women o Changes in girls

 First sign is the development of breast buds average  age of about 10

 Growth spurts start- starts earlier than boys

 Girls generally stop growing by age 16

 Increase in estrogen levels also causes an increase in fatty deposits in the hips and buttocks

 Pubic hair followed by underarm hair appears  These hormones cause the sweat glands and  sebaceous glands to develop, so that body odor and  acne often become new sources of concern

 Menarche: the term or the girls first menstrual  period

 Average age occurs between 12 and 13

 The rise in estrogen levels causes the vaginal walls  to become thicker and more elastic

 The average age for menarche has been dropping  over the last few centuries

 Reason for this is better nutrition resulting in an  earlier acquisition of some minimally required  

amount of body fat (the putative signal that tells the  brain to start releasing FSH)

o Changes in boys

 Pubertal development in boys lags about 2 years  behind development in girls

 First change is growth in testicles and scrotum, result of increased levels of testosterone

 Testosterone them stimulates growth of the penis,  prostate gland and seminal vesicles

 Growth of testicles begins ages 11-12 and is done by  age 15

 Nocturnal emission: an ejaculation that occurs during sleep in teenaged boys and men; “wet dream”

∙ Occurs during REM

 Many boys also develop temporarily enlarged breasts during puberty called gynecomastia

 Pubic hair develops but underarm and facial hair  generally do not appear for another 2 years

 Amount of body hair is determined by hereditary  Deepening of voice, a result of testosterone  

stimulating the growth of the voice box

o Precocious and Delayed Puberty

 Precocious puberty: a condition in which puberty  begins before the age of 8 in girls and 9 in boys

∙ This is due to premature activation of adrenal  

or pituitary hormones and is 10 times for  

common in girls than in boys

∙ The youngest girl to have given birth was 5  

years old

 People speculate that early development of  

secondary sex characteristics is due to early weight  gain, hormones in meat and milk or what are called  environmental estrogens, chemical pollutants that  

resemble the female hormone estrogen

 Delayed puberty: a condition in which the  

appearance of secondary characteristics and physical growth do not being until ell after they have begun in most children

∙ The usual treatment is to administer  

gonadotropin-releasing hormone or  

testosterone

o Sexual Behavior

 Several studies have shown that children’s first  

sexual attraction occurs at age 10

 Children have no understanding of sex, but they do  know that the are attracted to boys or girls

 This occurs well before gonadarche and is true for  both heterosexual and homosexual attraction. It  

coincides with rising androgen levels due to the  

maturation of the adrenal glands- further evidence  

that Freud’s latency theory is incorrect

 In the developmental process, sexual attraction is  followed in order by sexual fantasy and sexual  

behavior

 Adolescence (Ages 13-17)

o The time of life between puberty and adulthood

o Most important issue in their life is self-identity

 Because of their rapidly changing bodies, the search  for self-identity first focuses on body image and  

physical characteristics

o Self-esteem is generally based on his or her subjective  views of physical attractiveness

o Girls are often viewed as sexual objects

o Masturbation

 For many, the first experience with orgasm occurs  during masturbation

 A lot of guilt is tied to it

o Pattern(s) of Sexual Initiation

 Petting: non-coital sexual contact below the waist  Necking: erotic physical contact above the waist  (kissing, touching breasts)

 The average age at which teens first have sexual  intercourse has been dropping and is now about 16  or younger

 There is only a small difference between boys and  girls

 Besides sexual pleasure, reasons for sex include  desire for intimacy and an increase in social status

 Men generally have more pleasure and less guilt  Some teens post pone having sex till marriage for  religious reasons  

o Peer Pressure

 Expectations by one’s peer group about how one is  suppose to behave

 The more friends a teen has who are sexually active,  the more likely they will engage in sex

 Emerging Adulthood (Ages 18-25)

o The median age for marriage is 26 for women and 28 for  men

o Extended period of being a single adult that occurs  between adolescence young adult hood

o Freedom from parental restraints and more opportunity for  privacy than in the past

o By age 20, 75% of emerging adults are sexually  experienced and having sex regularly and most emerging  adults have had multiple serial sexual partners during their short lifetimes

o Hooking up: non-relationship sex without any commitment o Serial monogamy: the practice of having a series of  monogamous sexual relationships

 Young Adulthood (Ages 26-39)

o By age 44, 95% of Americans have engaged in premarital  sex

o Marriage

 The frequency of sex during the first year of marriage is usually high

 Sex has to compete with other demands such as  careers, children

 Sex becomes less exciting, sometimes done at the  same time every day (at night for couples with  

children)

o Living Together (cohabitation)

 2/3 of couples who marry live together outside of  marriage

 The increase in the number of couples living together may be one reason for the older age of couples today who marry for the first time

 Living together can be a test or trial period before  marriage

 Studies have found that couples living together  

before marriage have more marriage instability

 Divorce rate is higher for those that live together  before marriage and who have children before  

marriage

o Extramarital Sex- In supposedly monogamous  marriages

 In Americans, the prevalence of an affair is high

 Men may solely have sexual affairs, whereas women  most likely have emotional affairs as well

 Women are more concerned about emotional  

infidelity than men

o Extramarital Sex- Consensual arrangements  Open marriages: a marital relationship in which the couple agrees that it is permissible to have sexual  

relations outside of marriage

 Swinging: A type of open marriage relationship in  which a couple has extramarital relations together  

with other couples

∙ Couples get together by answers ads in  

newspapers

∙ Men often watch the women have sex with  

each other

 Middle Ages (Ages 40-59)

o Frequency of Sex

 A recent nationally representative survey found hat  about 56% of men and 70% of women aged 50-70  

years had engaged in sexual intercourse in the past  year

 While there is a decline as people get older, it is  gradual

 There are many more single women than single men  Older women have a harder time finding partners  than older men

o Female Sexuality: Physical Changes with Age  Menopause: the term for woman’s last menstrual  cycle

 The changes that occur in the few years that precede and the first year that follows is called the  

climacteric

 4/5 of women experience menopause between 44  and 55 with an average of age 51

 Women will experience hormonal changes

 Hot flashes

 The loss of estrogen also causes the vagina to  

become thinner and less elastic, with a marked  

decrease in the amount of vaginal lubrication during  sexual arousal

 For many women, menopause causes no change in  interests in sex

o Male Sexuality: Physical Changes with Age

 Men show a gradual decline in testosterone levels  that begins in their late teens

 By age 55, 20% to 50% of men have testosterone  levels that are below the normal range for young  

adult men

 This decrease in testosterone will result in some  physiological changes as men. This is often referred  to as andropause

 The changes include decreased sensitivity of the  penis, a longer time to become erect and a less firm  erection, shrinkage of the testicles, less forceful  

ejaculation, longer refractory period

 Some doctors advocate for testosterone replacement therapy

 The Elderly Years (Ages 60+)

o In our culture, people believe sex is only enjoyed by young  people

o Among people in their early 60s, 70% are having sex  regularly

o 2/3 say sexual relations are satisfactory and as good or  better as when they were younger

o The women to men ratio is unfavorable- women outlive  men

o Sexual problems are common (erectile dysfunction) o Major factor preventing elderly from having sex is the lack  of privacy if one is dependent on others for care o Sex will probably continue throughout life if couples have a positive attitude about sex when they were younger and  are healthy

Chapter 11: Adult Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes

 What is Normal?

o Historical era plays a role in normality

o During the Victorian era, moralists and scholars argued  that only true normal sexual behavior was heterosexual  vaginal intercourse in the missionary position

o Freud said that kissing was a preliminary to sexual activity o Now a days people regard a variety of sexual activities as  normal

Masturbation

 Attitudes about masturbation

o Some people find it acceptable, others are bothered by it o Masturbation: self-stimulation of ones genitals

o Negative aptitudes about masturbation has been handed  down from generation to generation

o Similar views are around today of religious people

 Incidence of Masturbation

o 92% of men surveyed had masturbated by age 20

o generally the first sexual experience for boys

o only 1/3 od women by age 20 did it but another 1/3 had  done so by 40

o men are more likely to masturbating before sex than  women

o monthly rates of masturbation tend to increase for both  men and women as they move through their teens and  then it begins to drop during their 40s

o men do it more often

o demographic variables including education level and  ethnicity are also variables

o does not cause any health problems

 Methods of Masturbation

o Men display less variation that women

o Men may differ in bow much of the penis they stimulate or  the rhythm/pressure

o Men fantasize or look at sexually explicit pictures

o 40% of homosexual men use vibrators

o women stimulate their clitoris, labia minora and the entire  vulva

o 50% of women use vibrator

 Functions of Masturbation

o 66% of men and 67% of women still masturbate while in  sexual relations

o masturbation and oral sex are more common among  higher-educated groups

o the more sex a person has, the more they masturbate

o people masturbate for variety

o some therapists prescribe masturbation as part of their  treatment for orgasm difficulties in women and for greater  ejaculatory control in men

Sexual Fantasies

 Peoples sexual fantasies are put into four categories: o Sexual intimacy (known partner)

o Sexual exploration (group sex)

o Fantasies about impersonal or forbidden sex (fetishes) o Fantasies with submission dominance themes  

 Sexual intimacy is more common for both men and women  Replacement fantasy: sexual fantasy in which one imagines  oneself having sex with someone other than the current partner  (98% men and 80% women)

 Women’s sexual fantasies contain more romance, commitment  and affection

 Men’s fantasies are more explicit and visual imagery   Dominance fantasy is more common in men

 Submission is more common in women

 Fantasies can be deliberately generated or triggered by any  external event

 Sexually intrusive thoughts (STIs): sudden, involuntary,  unwanted, disruptive, sexual thoughts (large majority of men and women experiences this)

 When a sexual fantasy or thought causes interest or chronic  distress that there might be a need for intervention

Sexual Intercourse

 Frequency and duration

o 95% say that their sexual activity always or usually  includes vaginal intercourse  

o Average couple engages in sex 1-3 times a week

o sex fluctuates due to

 Health issues

 Pregnancies

 Financial worries

 Energy

o Single people don’t have sex as often as married couples o Sex normally lasts 3-13 minutes

o Duration declines with age

 Coital Positions and Locations

o Coitus: sexual intercourse

o Missionary position: face-to-face in which the woman  lies on her and back and the man is on top

o Preferences for sexual intercourse positions differ across  cultures and are undoubtedly affected by the gender roles,  sociocultural norms and expectations about sexuality and  relationships

o Woman on top is recommended for optimal sexual arousal  in both participants

o People choose different potions because their sex life has  become boring and ritualized  

o People have sex in different locations as well

Oral-Genital Sex

 Fellatio: oral stimulation of a man’s genitals

 Cunnilingus: oral stimulation of a woman’s genitals  Some women and men say its more pleasurable than intercourse  Some people have reservations about it cause of cleanliness  Mouth-genital contact is no less hygienic as many germs as the  genital orifices

Anal Sex

 Anilingus: oral stimulation of the anus

 The anus has numerous nerve endings

 Common among male homosexuals

 People in serous relationships are more likely to have anal  Some people have it for dominant reasons

 Bacteria in the anus can cause infections

Preferred Sexual Behaviors

 Vaginal intercourse is the most preferred

 Anal is least preferred

 33% of younger women liked oral sex

 50% of younger men rates receiving oral sex as very appealing  Watching the partner undress was the second most preferred  activity overall

The Sexually Healthy Person

 Someone who feels positively about his or her sexuality and feels free to choose whether he or she wishes to engage in any  particular sexual behavior

 Doesn’t have to engage in sex to be sexually healthy

Laws Against Consensual Sex

 As of 2013, a dozen of states still have laws that make sex out od wed lock or cohabitation illegal

o Penalty is 3-6 months in jail

 Adultery is a crime in 23 states

 Sodomy laws: laws that prohibit oral and/or anal sex

Chapter 13: Sexual Problems and Therapy

Individual Differences and Relationship Conflicts  Different expectations

o Women look for affection and are interested in what their  partner thinks

o Men engage in sex for physical experience

o Every women expressed a desire for the male to take his  time

o Both men and women say they would prefer 18 minutes of  foreplay

 Usually lasts 11-13 min

 Different Assumptions

o Males think that women enjoy having their genitals  vigorously stimulated where they actually don’t

o Women think men like gentle stimulation, when that may  not be the case

 Differences in desire

o Differences in the frequency with which sex is desired  This can lead to sexual and relationship  

dissatisfaction

o Desire for sex varies on the circumstances

 Differences in Preferred Behaviors

o It is common for a couple to be upset over differences in  sex position desires

 Relationship Conflict

o If a couples relationship is good, this generally carries over  to good sexual relations

Sexual Therapy

 Cognitive-behavioral therapy: therapy that views problems as resulting from faulty learning and that focuses on specific sexual  behaviors and how we feel about them. It does not focus on past  events

 Medical model: attributing sexual problems to medical causes  and treating them with medical techniques

o Viagra  

 Several things wrong with the medical approach:

o Medical doctors have not received the necessary training in how to deal with sexual problems

o Most men treated with drugs alone eventually become  dissatisfied

o Ignores the interpersonal and psychological aspects of  sexual behavior

 Biopsychosocial approach: sexual therapy for which the cause and symptom-structure of a dysfunction entail some combination of biological, psychological and social factors

 Sex therapy is only going to work for a couple if they are in a  committed relationship

 Couples therapy: therapy that focuses on the overall  relationship and communication skills between two people Sexual Therapy Techniques

 Medical History

o Circulatory problems, hormone abnormalities or anything  that causes damage to the central nervous system

o Alcohol and drugs can cause sexual impairment

 Sexual History

o Past experiences

o Prefer to work with couples because a persons partner is  involved in the problem in some manner

o Its common for the other partner to develop a sexual  problem  

 Sensate Focus

o Many people are foal or performance oriented so they  never learn how to give or receive physical pleasure

o Therapist instruct couples to use non-demand mutual  pleasuring techniques when touching each other

o Sensate focus exercises: exercises designed to reduce  anxiety and teach mutual pleasuring through non-genital  touching in non-demanding situations

 Specific Exercises

o Therapists recommend woman on top or side by side,  where neither partner is in total control

o They believe that these positions have much more erotic  potential than the missionary position

Classification of Sexual Disorders

 Sexual problems are defined as the various ways in which an  individual is unable to participate in a sexual relationship as he  or she would wish

 Classified according to the sexual response cycle

Male Sexual Problems

 Low and Hypoactive Sexual Desire

o A sexual problem characterized by persisting and  

pervasive absence of sexual fantasies and desire

o 16% of men under age 60 have this

o About 28% of men 60-75 have little or no interest in sex

o Primary hypoactive sexual desire (never have sexual  desire) is much more common in women than men

o Secondary or acquired hypoactive sexual desire is  sometimes due to organic factors such as low testosterone  level or antidepressant drugs  

o Often associated with depression, conflict with ones  partners, sever stress or sexually repressive upbringing o Sexual aversion: an extreme form of hypoactive sexual  desire in which an individuals avoidance of sex becomes  phobic

 Erectile Dysfunction

o A sexual problem in which a man has persistent or  recurrent difficulty getting and maintain an erection o Primary (always), secondary (recently), global (problems  occur in all situations), situational (cannot during sex but  can during masturbation)

o Must be persistent or recurring for at least 6 months and  causes distress or interpersonal difficulty

o Physical problems

 Erectile dysfunction, neurological disorders, prostate  surgery, low testosterone levels and groin injuries

 Decreased penile sensitivity

 Medications

 Alcohol, drugs, obesity

o Vacuum devices, medical injections, penile implants,  Viagra

o Performance anxiety: a fear of failure during sexual  relations that can lead to erectile dysfunction in men and  inhibited orgasm in women (men with secondary orgasm is due to this sometimes)

o Spectatoring: observing and elevating ones own sexual  response. This generally causes distraction, with  

subsequent erectile and/or orgasm problems

 Premature Ejaculation

o A recurrent and persistent absence of reasonable voluntary control of ejaculation

o 80-90% ejaculate within 60 seconds and the remained  within 2 minuets

o Absence of reasonable voluntary control

o Often leads to relationship problems  

o Develop low self esteem and anxiety

o Life long (primary

o Acquired later in life (secondary)

o Sometime its due to psychological factors and other by  organic factors

o Some injuries and illness cause this

o Medications, drugs

o Sometimes genetic

o Pharmaceutical delay ejaculation therapies

o “Squeeze technique”

 Male Orgasmic Disorder

o A condition in which a man has difficulty reaching orgasm  and ejaculating in a woman’s vagina

o Either primary or secondary

o Often referred to as ejaculatory incompetence

o Associated with strict religious upbringing, fear of getting a woman pregnant, negativity and hostility towards the  partner, maternal dominance

o “Bridge maneuver”

 Sexual Pain Disorders

o Painful intercourse is called dyspareunia

o Common causes by a physical problem- prostate, bladder  or urethral infection

o Phimosis: a condition in uncircumcised men in which the  foreskin of the penis is too tight, causing pain during  

erection

o Peyronie’s disease: curvature of the penis due to fibrous  tissue despots around the corpora cavernosa

o Priapism: a painful condition in which the penis remains  erect for a prolonged period of time, sometimes days

 Results from damage to the valves regulating blood  flow away from the penis and can be caused by  

tumors, infection, not to mention inconvenient and  

men with this condition would gladly trade it for a  

normal erection

o Benign coital cephalalgia: severe headaches that start  during or slightly orgasm, usually in men

 Most are men who are middle ages, obese and  

hypertensive

 Treatment may include the teaching of relaxation  

techniques, medication for high blood pressure or  

anti-inflammatory drugs  

Female Sexual Problems

 Classification of Sexual Disorders

o Emphasis on the criterion of subjective experience and  personal distress

o For many women, its not expressed by personal distress o Greater importance is also given to the relationship and to  the contextual assessment of stimuli

 Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder

o The persistent of recurrent deficiency of sexual  

fantasies/thoughts and/or desire for our receptivity to  sexual activity, which causes personal distress

o Relationship dissatisfaction, history of abuse, depression,  fatigue and stress and dissatisfaction with physical  

appearance

o Persistent sexual arousal syndrome: persistent genital  arousal without subjective feelings of desire

 No feelings of sexual desire

 Female Orgasmic Disorder

o A persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence or, orgasm  following normal sexual excitement phase and which  

causes personal distress

o Primary or secondary or situational  

o Question is if the woman is getting enough stimulation  during sex

o Over half the women want men to take their time

o Performance anxiety because the woman’s pattern  demands that she has an orgasm

o Sensate focus exercises

 Sexual Pain Disorders

o Dyspareunia: recurrent or persistent genital pain during  intercourse

o Inflammation of the vestibular bulbs- can be alleviated with medications of surgery

o PVI, endometriosis, yeast infections, UTI

o Vaginismus: recurrent or persistent pain experienced  during attempted sexual intercourse

 Caused by involuntary contractions

 Treatment is systematic desensitization by gradual  dilation of the vagina  

o Non-coital sexual pain disorder: recurrent or persistent  genital pain caused by sexual stimulation other than  

intercourse

Postcoital Dysphoria

 Feelings of sadness, anxiety, and/or irritability after sexual  intercourse that was otherwise physically satisfactory

 Least studies sexual problem and little is known about why  people sometimes experience these negative emotions after sex

Hypersexuality: Compulsion, Addiction, or Myth?  Hyper sexuality: a term reserved for people who engage in sex  compulsively, with little or no emotional satisfaction. Sometimes  called sexual addiction

 Engage in sex repeatedly and compulsively to reduce anxiety  and distress, usually finding little or no emotional satisfaction  Sex is used to avoid emotional intimacy and in fact, comorbidity  with alcohol, drugs and/or major depression is common  Internet makes it very easy

 Frequently found to be victims of childhood abuse or neglect   Therapy is multifaceted and often includes approaches that have long been used for alcohol and drug addiction but rather than  have individuals abstain completely from sex, therapist attempt  eliminated unwanted behaviors  

o Internal discomfort and helping the individual find healthy,  adaptive ways of dealing with emotions and needs as well  as teaching cognitive-behavioral strategies to help the  individual abstain from the addictive behavior

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