Bio 1030 test 1 study guide
Bio 1030 test 1 study guide Biol 1030
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80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Harbert Stromberg on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 1030 at Clemson University taught by Kristi James Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
• Describe seven properties common to all life. 1. There is a certain amount of order and organization to all living things 2. Reproduction 3. Growth and reproduction—most things grow in a controlled manner 4. Energy processing i.e. cellular respiration/photosynthesis 5. Regulation: temp. control, osmosis 6. Response to environment 7. Evolutionary adaptation: ensures the survival of the species • Describe the levels of biological organization from molecules to the biosphere. Atom, molecule, organelle (in eukaryotes), cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere • Define the concept of emergent properties and describe an example of it. Properties that emerge at each new hierarchy ex. Life=emergent property at the cellular level • Explain why cells are a special level in biological organization. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cells are special because this is the first level at which life emerges. All cells have DNA and a membrane but Eukaryotes are larger and have membrane bound organelles and prokaryotes do not so they are generally smaller. • Compare the ways in which energy and nutrients move through an ecosystem. How are producers, consumers, and decomposers involved? Nutrients are converted into energy energy flows in and out so it is never lost forever, but it can be converted into heat energy and therefor not transferred to the next consumer in the cycle. Producers are primarily plants and they capture energy from the sun and transfer it through photosynthesis to chemical energy (glucose) to be used as energy. Consumers, primarily animals, capture energy energy from these producers by consuming them. However, not all the energy from the sun is transferred to the consumers because some of that energy was converted to heat energy by the producer. Decomposers, think bacteria, capture energy from dead consumers and producers. • Compare the three domains of life. Be able to describe the differences between the four kingdoms (one is technically a group of kingdoms) in the domain Eukarya also. 1. Bacteria (prokaryotes) —single celled 2. Archaea (prokaryotes)—single celled, live in extreme environments 3. Eukarya (eukaryotes)—everything else aka protists, kingdom plantae, kingdom fungi, kingdom animalia • Describe the process and products of natural selection. 1. A population has varied traits certain traits prove better for survivability and those organisms produce passing along their traits to their offspring this enhanced the frequency of these traits throughout a population evolution is not passive, you cannot pick and choose which traits one wish to pass on • Distinguish between an observation, a scientific theory, and a hypothesis. An observation is passive. It is merely watching something to take notes. A hypothesis is a testable prediction giving a proposed explanation of phenomena. Scientific theories also offer an explanation but contain multiple hypotheses that have evidence to support them (ex. Gravity). • How do science and technology differ? Science: the goal is to understand nature and its interactions. It is driven by curiosity and provides discoveries. Technology: the goal is to take science and apply it. Because it is driven more by meeting the needs of the population it leads to inventions. • Explain how evolution impacts the lives of all humans. Humans put a great deal of pressure on the organisms around us forcing it to evolve ex. Bacteria and antibiotics • What are the three states of matter? 1. Gas 2. Liquid 3. Solid • What are elements? Which elements make up over 96% of the weight of the human body? How do elements and compounds differ? Elements are things in the work that cannot be further broken down by normal means. Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen make up 96% of the weight of human bodies. Compounds are more than one element in a fixed ration ex. H2O. they have emergent properties ex. 2 hydrogen atoms combined with one oxygen atom = water • What are trace elements? Trace elements are elements in the human body that make up only a small proportion but are essential for life because without them the body would not function properly ex. Calcium, phosphorous • Describe the structure of an atom. Include in your description the mass, charge, and location of electrons, protons, and neutrons. An atom is made up of the nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons. There is something called the electron cloud where electrons orbit or “buzz” around the nucleus. The mass number refers to the amount of protons AND neutrons. The charge comes from the amount of protons, which have a positive charge and electrons, which have a negative charge. If their number is equal the atom has a neutral charge. If there are more protons than electrons then the atom has a negative charge and vice versa if there are more electrons than protons then the atoms has a negative charge. • Define and differentiate between atomic number, mass number, and atomic mass. Atomic mass is the number of neutrons contained in the nucleus. The mass number is the number of neutrons AND protons in the nucleus. The atomic mass is the weight of the atoms which is almost always approx.. equal to the mass number. • Why is the atomic mass of an atom approximately equal to its mass number? (two reasons were given in class) They are approx. equal because both protons and neutrons weight one Dalton (the unit used to measure atomic weight) and therefore we can just add up the number of protons and neutrons. The other reason is because electrons are so small that they are not counted towards the weight of the atom. • How do isotopes of the same element differ from one another? An isotope is an atom with a different number of neutrons than it originally has. • What is meant by stable vs radioactive isotopes? In a stable isotope the nucleus does not degrade as in a radioactive isotope whose nucleus is unstable therefore causing it to decay. • Which of the subatomic particles impacts the chemical properties of an atom? Only electrons • Be able to explain the arrangement of electrons in an atom. Include explanations of electron shells and orbitals. What is the valence shell? How does the number of electrons in the valence shell impact the reactivity of the atom? Electrons travel around the nucleus in shells. The charge is not evenly distributed across the molecule. Within these shells are orbitals, which are places where it is estimated that the electrons spends most of its time. Each shell has a certain amount of orbitals it can hold and every orbital must be filled before there can be the pairing of electrons i.e. the first shell can only contain two electrons because it only holds one orbital and when it does it is considered stable. This means that the likelihood of this atoms bonding with another atom is slim since the purpose of atoms bonding is to make stable valence shells. The number of unpaired electrons in a valence shell tells us how many bonds can be formed • What are chemical bonds? These are bonds that form when two unpaired electrons react (donate, share, or receive) so the BOTH have a full valence shell. • Be able to explain and differentiate between covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds. Covalent bonds are the strongest type of bond. They are formed when two electrons SHARE electrons to form a complete valence shell. In covalent bonds the sharing is not always equal. If one atom has more electronegativity the electrons spend more time closer to that atoms creating a charged molecule known as a polar molecule. The end of the molecule that contains the atom with the stronger electronegativity has a negative charge and the other end with the less electronegativity has a slight positive charge due to the smaller concentration of electrons at that end. Ionic Bonds: This is where one electron it either donated or received. If one atom has a much greater electronegativity then it receives the electron and the atom with the lesser electronegativity donates its electron. This type of bond results in ions (a charged particle). These are different than polar molecules because it is now two separate ions but they are held together not by the sharing of electrons but by the fact that they are two oppositely charged particles. Hydrogen bonds: These bonds are called hydrogen bonds because they involve hydrogen atoms. These are the weak bonds but are usually responsible for giving larger molecule (protein molecules) their structure. They are held together by the positive side of one molecule and the negative side of another • Define polar and nonpolar covalent bonds. How does electronegativity of the atoms play a role in these types of bonds? Explain what is meant by the fact that water is a polar molecule. *See one above* this means that water sticks to itself and this is what creates water tension • In chemical reactions, what happens to the matter? Chemical reactions are the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. Matter cannot be created not destroyed but in a chemical reaction matter undergoes a change in composition. • What are the life supporting properties of water? What characteristics of water is/are involved in each of these properties? 1. Cohesion: the hydrogen bonds make water stick to itself 2. Resistance to temperature change: for water’s temperature to rise hydrogen bonds must be broken and for them to do so they must absorb heat. Therefore a large amount of heat so it warms only a few degrees. 3. Water is less dense as a solid than a liquid: freezing creates stable hydrogen bonds but makes the molecules more spaced out causing water to be less dense. 4. Water is a universal solvent: this is because water molecules are polar • What is cohesion? Molecules sticking to themselves • How do heat and temperature differ? Heat is the energy associated with molecules and atoms moving in matter. Temperature is the intensity at which these particles are moving (are they moving very fasthot or are they moving slowercooler) • Why is ice less dense than liquid water? Freezing make s stable hydrogen bonds but making hydrogen atoms stable causes them to be more spaced out so there are less molecules of water per given area making water less dense when frozen. • Understand the pH scale (what the units indicate, which numbers represent acidic, neutral, and basic pH values). A pH of 7 is neutral. The lower the number the more acidic and the higher the number the more basic. He number equates to the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule (i.e. the smaller the number the smaller the concentration of hydrogen). Every time the number changed there is a 10x difference…that’s why even a small change in pH it can make a huge difference (think fish and the ecosystem in water). • What is an acid? What is a base? What is a buffer? Acid: a substance with a high concentration of hydrogen ions. Base: A substance with a smaller concentration of hydrogen ions. Buffer: Neutralizes the amount of hydroxide ions in a substance. • Why do many biological fluids contain buffers? Because a change in pH can be detrimental to a cell’s/organism’s biological functions Chapter 3: • What characteristic of carbon makes it so important for molecular diversity? It can form up to four covalent bonds (singe double triple) so there is lots of potential for diversity • In what ways can a carbon skeleton vary? A carbon skeleton can vary in length; they can be branched or unbranched; they can have double bonds, and they can be ringed structures • What are isomers? These are compounds that have the came chemical formula but differ in structurediffer in function • What are functional groups? Be able to name and recognize the different functional groups that are important in macromolecules. Know the properties for each that were discussed in class. Hydroxyl —has an OH attached, Carbonyl—a carbon with a double bond to an O, Carboxyl—has a COOH attached, Amino—has an NH2 attached, Phosphate—has OPO3 attached, Methyl has a CH3 attached but it is not polar and therefor it does not attract other polar molecule, but since you have changed its structure you do change its function. Only the first five are polar. • How are polymers made and broken? Be able to recognize and/or describe the reactions involved. Polymers are formed by a synthesis reaction called dehydration where a water molecule is taken out of the reactants. They are broken down by a degradation reaction called hydrolysis where a water molecule is added to the reactants. Enzymes aid both of these processes. Enzymes are proteins that are involved in reaction but are not changed by them. • What are the specific “building blocks” for each of the four macromolecules? Be able to recognize the structural (chemical) formulas and/or major components of each “building block” and associate each one to the correct macromolecule. Lipids: subunits— glycerol and fatty acids (fats), Carbs: subunits—monosaccharides (polysaccharides) proteins: subunits—amino acids (polypeptide), Nucleic acids: subunits—nucleotides (DNA, RNA) • What are the two functions for polysaccharides? 1. To act as a place for storage of energy and carbon 2. Provide structure (cellulose in plants) • Compare and contrast starch, glycogen, and cellulose. All three of these are made up of polymers of glucose molecules, but they are linked together in different ways. Starch: a long string of glucose monomers, typically used as energy storage for plants, Glycogen: a long string of glucose monomers but there are now branches coming off of it. This is how animals store energy. Cellulose: a long string of glucose monomers, but with hydrogen bonds in between them. Used as a structural component of plants. Humans cannot digest cellulose by ourselves, but some of the bacteria in out gut can. • Describe and compare/contrast fats, phospholipids, and steroids (in terms of structure and/or function). All are hydrophobic and are made through nonpolar covalent bonds of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Fats: used for long term energy storage, made of glycerol and fatty acids linked by a dehydration reaction. They have three chains of fatty acids attached to the glycerol and can either be saturated-they have all single bonds between the carbons meaning that they have the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms attached- or unsaturated-they have at least one double bonds between the carbons (giving it the bent shape) this means that they do not have the maximum amount of hydrogen attached. Phospholipids: only have two fatty acids chains attached to the glycerol and attached to the head of the glycerol is a phosphate group. These are a major component in cell membranes. Steroids: these are very different. It is made up of four fused rings. An example of a steroid is cholesterol and it helps stabilize the cell membrane • Why does the structure of phospholipids contribute to the formation of lipid bilayers? Phospholipids have a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail and since most cells are aqueous both inside and outside of the cell both layers need to be hydrophilic • What impact do R groups have on amino acids? R groups give amino acids their specific characteristics • What happens when a protein is denatured? What is the result of protein denaturation? What conditions cause denaturation? When a protein is denatured it is exposed to a stress (heat, pH change, or chemical stressor) and unfolds. This disrupts the structure so the protein is no longer functional. • Know the four levels of protein structure. Be able to describe each. 1. Primary-just the amino acid sequence 2. Secondary-the interaction between the amino acid sequences (coiling/folding) 3. Tertiary-looks at the entire structure in 3D specifically the functional groups 4. Quaternary-looks at the interaction of polypeptides (some proteins only have one polypeptide which means they don’t have a quaternary structure) • What is the central dogma of biology? DNA is transcribed to RNA and RNA is then translated into proteins. • How do DNA and RNA differ? (there were several ways discussed) DNA is inherited and directs its own replication. It contains the sugar deoxyribose. RNA is the intermediary between DNA and proteins and it contains the sugar ribose. DNA has thymine as a nitrogenous bas and RNA has uracil instead. DNA is a double strand and RNA is a single strand. • Which nitrogenous bases are purines? Pyrimidines? How do they differ? What are the base pairing rules? What is meant by the term “complementary” in terms of DNA? Nitrogenous bases are the bases used for pairing DNA strands to other DNA strands and RNA. The sequence of these bases is what creates diversity. Purines are adenine and guanine and are double-ringed. Pyrimines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil and are single ringed. The pairing rules are A—T (in DNA), A—U (in RNA), G—C. THEY ARE CONNECTED THROUGH HYDROGEN BONDS in C and G there are 3 and with A and T/U there are only two. • Why do we study cells? Life begins at the cellular level • Define magnification and resolution. Magnification is what makes the object look better and resolution is what distinguishes the two objects and allows you to see them clearly • Compare and contrast the different types of microscopes discussed in class. Light microscope: shines light through an object and is then bent by a glass lens to create magnification. Can magnify up to 111x greater. Electron microscope: shines electrons through an object instead of light can magnify 100,000x greater transmission— good for seeing the inside of an object and scanning—good for see external structures • Explain what impacts the upper size limit of cells. Why is being small an advantage? The upper limit of how big a cell can be is that the cell cannot be too big that the cell cannot control its internal processes. A cell also has to be big enough to fit the organelles • Describe, in detail, the structure of the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is the bilayer of phospholipids that separates the outside from the inside of the cell. It is selectively permeable and there are proteins are attached or embedded in the membrane • Compare and contrast the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Be familiar with the specific parts of the prokaryotic cells (nucleoid, capsule, etc). Both have plasma membranes, chromosomes, ribosomes, and cytoplasm. In prokaryote you will find the nucleoid, which is just a concentration of genetic material because they have no true membrane bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus and bound organelles. • What are the four functional categories that eukaryotic organelles fit into? Know some examples organelles for each category. 1. Nucleus and ribosomes—gives control to the cell 2. ER, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, and lysosomes—make distribute and breakdown molecules 3. Mitochondria—energy processing pants have mitochondria and chloroplasts 4. Cell membrane, cytoskeleton, *in plants-cell wall*--gives cell form and structure • Explain the connection between the nucleus, the nucleolus, mRNA, and rRNA. The nucleus if the cell directs the synthesis of mRNA and the nucleolus is contained within the nucleus and is where rRNA is made. • What types of proteins are made by free ribosomes? Bound ribosomes? Where are the free and bound ribosomes found within the cell? Free ribosomes are found floating around in the cytoplasm. They make proteins (usually enzymes) that are used with in the cell’s cytoplasm. Bound ribosomes are bound to rough ER. They make proteins that are meant to be used somewhere else (either secreted outside the cell or within a certain organelle). • How does rough and smooth ER differ in structure and function? Rough ER=ribosomes are connected, can be involved in making phospholipids, helps make proteins that need to go somewhere else in the cell; Smooth ER=no ribosomes attached, involved in making enzymes that help detoxify drugs, make steroids, and break down lipids • Describe the steps involved in synthesis and packaging of a protein by the rough ER. A bound ribosome is attached to the rough ER that translated mRNA that came from the nucleus. As this translation happens the polypeptide (may or may not be a protein) that is produced enters the ER. Undergoes some modification (usually means that carbohydrates are added so that it become a glycoprotein). A vesicle detaches from the ER containing this protein and goes to the Golgi apparatus. • Explain how the Golgi apparatus accepts, finishes, sorts, and ships products from the ER. The protein is accepted by the vesicle fusing with the Golgi apparatus and the protein is dumped. It is further modified (puts a label on the protein telling it where it needs to go) the Golgi apparatus sorts the proteins and is then transported through another vesicle forming from the Golgi apparatus. If this is a secretory protein then the vesicle travels to the cell membrane and fuses with it to dump the protein out of the cell. • Describe the connections between organelles in the endomembrane system (how would a secretory protein be made, processed, finished, and secreted?). The nucleus would synthesize mRNA which is then translated to rRNA where is is read by the bound ribosomes the rRNA is now tRNA and is transported to the ER where is is synthesized further into protein and a vesicle blebs off and carries this protein to the Golgi apparatus where is is finished, labeled, and sorted. Then a vesicle containing the protein blebs off and transports it to the organelle where is is needed ot to the plasma membrane if is is a secretory protein. The protein is delivered by the vesicle fusing with the membrane and then dumping the protein before the membrane pinches off again sealing the protein inside the organelle or outside the cell. • How do lysosomes act as digestive and recycling centers? The lysosomes contain enzymes that breakdown the material inside the organelle. • How do lysosomes act as an example of the benefits of compartmentalization within eukaryotic cells? The enzymes contained within this organelle would kill the cell if they were not contained within the organelle. • How does structure support function in both mitochondria and chloroplasts? Both have double membranes with the internal membranes that are folded, which increases surface area meaning there is more space for internal processes. • Explain the endosymbiont theory. What characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts support this theory? This throy suggests that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once single celled prokaryotes that were at onetime taken in by a bigger Eukaryotic cell. This was a symbiotic relationship because the bigger cell provided protection and the smaller prokaryotes were extremely efficient at producing energy in a form the cell could use. They then adapted so that neither is able to live without the other. This is supported by the fact that mitochondria contain both DNA and ribosomes similar to that of prokaryotes. They reproduce similarly to prokaryotes (clone themselves) • Describe the three types of filaments found in the cytoskeleton. 1. Microfilaments—made of actin subunits, gives cell shape 2. Intermediate filament—made of fibrous subunit and help keep organelles in place 3. Microtubule—made of tubulin subunit, give the cell some of its rigidity and stability • Compare and contrast cilia and flagella. Cilia are short and numerous hair-like structures. They beat in rhythmic motions. Ex. Our throat cells are lined with cilia to help move mucus up and out of our throats. Flagella are longer and there is usually just one or just a few per cell. They move in whip like motions to propel the cell. Ex. Sperm cell • What are the functions of the extracellular matrix? Functions of the cell wall? The extracellular matrix is only found in animal cells. Its two main functions are 1. To hold cells together to form tissue 2. To protect the plasma membrane. The cell wall is only found in plant cells and its two main functions are 1. To protect the cells 2. To provide support and structure. • Describe the four types of cell junctions (3 in animal cells and 1 in plant cells). Animal cell junctions: 1. Tight junctions—keep things from getting through the network of cells ex. Epithelial cells keep particles from leaving the gut 2. Anchoring junctions—holds cells and tissues together 3. Gap junctions—small holes in between cells that lets things pass and aids in communication between cells. Plant cell junctions: plasmodesmata—similar to gap junctions • What is the difference btw a nucleoid and a nucleolus? The nucleoid is where the prokaryote cells have their genetic information. A nucleolus is found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and is where rRNA is synthesized.
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