Psychology Exam 3: Chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 14
Psychology Exam 3: Chapters 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 PSY 2012
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by ChrisT Gao on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Gina O'neal Moffitt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 252 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Chapter 9 Intelligence amp IQ Testing Define The ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt when facing novel conditions 0 Different cultures have different definitions of intelligence 0 Physiologists can t agree on a precise definition Identify the different models and types of intelligence 0 o Galton s Theory people with better senses acquire more knowledge gt Research showed different sensory capacities were only weakly related to each other 0 Measures of sensory ability are not highly related to intelligence 0 understanding theoretical concepts 0 Most agree that intelligence has something to do with capacity to understand theoretical concepts abstract thinking 0 Focused on higher mental processes reasoning understanding judgement o 0 Positive correlations among items on IQ tests led to Spearman s development of G amp S o Comprised of one overarching ability that underlies other abilities 0 General intelligence G overall differences in intellect among people gt Identify G by Factor Analysis I A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items factors 0 Specific abilities S particular skills Distinguish between and o Cattel amp Horn theorized that quotintelligencequot is a mix of two capacities o Fluid intelligence capacity to learn new ways of solving problems 0 Ex Sudoku Raven Matrices o Crystallized intelligence accumulated knowledge of the world gained over time o Fluid intelligence quotflowsquot into crystallized intelligence over time Know the 8 intelligences included in o Gardner s quotframes of mind ways of thinking about the world 0 Autistic savants provided support for different types of intelligence gt Autistic savants individuals with autism who have extraordinary skills not exhibited by most people 0 Emphasized fairly unrelated nature of some types of intelligence 0 Ex Some experts are totally normal outside their expertise Linguistic Speak and write well LogicoMathematical Use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems Spatial Think and reason about objects in 3D space Musical Perform understand and enjoy music BodilyKinesthetic Move body in sports dance and physical endeavors Interpersonal Understands and interacts effectively with others lntrapersonal Understands and possess insight into self Naturalistic Recognize identify and understand animals plants environment Differentiate the 3 intelligences included in o Sternberg believed that having one does not ensure you have the others Analytical intelligence quotbook smart Ability to reason logically Practical intelligence quotstreet smart Ability to solve real world problems Creative intelligence quotcreativityquot Ability to come up with novel and effective answers 0 Several weaknesses 0 Not independent of G Causal relationship between job performance and practical intelligence is unclear 0 Not as distinct as theorized Determine how psychologists calculate IQ and know what the deviation IQ eliminates 0 Development of norms allow us to compare a person s results to others 0 Binet s concepts of mental age led to development of the intelligence quotient IQ Mental age X 100 IQ Chronological age 39 0 Works on children but NOT adults 0 Use deviation Ichat eliminates age effects Compares each person to what s normal in their same age group o Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS IQ test for adults 0 15 subtests that give 5 scores I Overall IQ verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory and processing speed 0 CultureFair IQ Tests consist of abstractreasoning items that don t depend on language 0 Cultural factors can affect people s familiarity with test materials and influence test performance Define the Average IQ of the population has been rising by about 3 points every 10 years 0 Most likely result of environmental changes 0 Increased test sophistication Increased complexity of modern world 0 Better nutrition 0 Changes at homeschool Additional Notes 0 Biological Bases 0 Brain volume correlates positively with measured intelligence I 3 4 correlations don t explain all and may not be directly causal Evidence suggests cerebral cortex development is slower in gifted children 0 Prefrontal cortex active during quotGloaded tasks 0 Higher intelligence show quicker reaction time think quicker more intelligent 0 Working memory is closely related to intelligence 0 Testing Intelligence Selfreports correlate only 2 3 with objective measure of intelligence 0 Double curse of incompetence people are unaware of their incompetence due to their incompetence inability to do something successfully I Metacognitive skills lead to incompetence o Eugenics Movement 0 Led to worry about quotlow IQ in certain groups and the eugenics good genes movement 0 Forcible sterilization and immigration laws were most visible impacts on society 0 Genetic Influences on IQ 0 Family studies confirm that IQ runs in families 0 High levels of environmental deprivation may swamp out effects of genes 0 Environmental Influences 0 Children from larger families have slight lower IQ than those form smaller families 0 Schooling seems to exert a causal influence on IQ 0 Early intervention programs produce short term increases in IQ Chapter 10 Human Development Define Study of how behavior and mental processes change over life span Differentiate the continuity vs stage view of development change is uniform and gradual change can be rapid with qualitatively different stages evident across lifespan Contrast crosssectional designs and longitudinal designs examines people of different ages at a single point in time 0 Ex Comparing 20 yr olds with 75 yr olds 0 NOT intraindividual change can t measure how a single person changes 0 Disadvantages 0 Don t control cohort effects examines development in the same age group of people on multiple occasions over time 0 Studies intraindividual changes 0 Disadvantages o Costly and time consuming 0 May suffer from selective attrition lose people through people leaving study or by death What are Set of people who lived during one period can differ in some systematic way from sets of people who lived during a different period 0 Ex 75 yr olds are not as technology savvy as 20 yr olds Define Mental representations of the world 0 Ex Dog represents all furry fourlegged animals 0 Organize and interpret info quotmental filters 0 Children form schemas naturally change over course of development Differentiate assimilation from accommodation new info is interpreted in ways that fit existing schemas 0 Make experiences fit schema Ex Zebra Horse existing schemas adjusted to fit new info 0 Make schema fit experience Ex Zebra at Horse State of how the mind develops As children age they advance through different stages of cognitive development 0 Each stage is characterized by different type of thinking and is qualitatively distinct 0 Advance through stages in the same order Know including which ages each is associated and the defining characteristics of the stage Table 102 1 Sensorimotor infants understand the world through their own actions 0 Lasts from birth to age 2 0 Have object permanence and deferred imitation 2 Preoperational children learn to construct mental representations of experience imagination and pretend o Lasts from age 2 to about age 7 o Capable of symbolic behavior ex Banana phone 0 Limits egocentric and lacks understanding of conservation 3 Concrete operational children become capable of logical reasoning pertaining to physical objects 0 Age 7 to about age 12 o Reversibility and understands conservation 4 Formal operational children become capable of abstract reasoning ex Hypothetical situations and logic 0 Problem solving involves logic not triaIamperror Understand object permanence and deferred imitation the awareness that objects continue to exist even when they disappear from view ability to imitate behavior that was observed at an earlier time Understand egocentrism and conservation unable to adopt the perspective of another person concept that physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in appearances ex Same size cups but different physical properties likes taller cup Know some of the limitations to Piaget s theory of development 0 Cognitive development is much more continuous than suggested by Piaget s theory 0 Research shows that children may show some cognitive abilities earlier than Piaget thought State of how children s thinking develops Different children develop skills in different domains at different rates 0 Social structuring on the part of the parent facilitates children s learning and development Define Parents provide initial assistance to children s learning bur gradually remove structure as children become better able to complete tasks on their own De ne Phase of learning which children can benefit from instruction 0 Receptive to learning a new skill but are yet successful at it Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers deep emotional bond that is first developed with primary caregiver solid attachments form a secure base from which an individual can explore the world and return to rest and restock depleted resources solid source of support to which to turn in times of trouble 0 Ex Return to mom secure base when tiredscaredetc Explain how attachment influences social development eg Harlow s experiment with monkeys o warmth and comfort are important components of bonds between animals and humans 0 Harlow s experiment with monkeys 0 Prior belief was that nourishment was key to attachment o Monkeys preferred clothwrapped artificial mother over wire artificial mother that provided food Differentiate the three different types of attachment styles 0 Refers to how infants react when separated from primary care giver 0 Strange Situation procedure designed to evaluate attachment style by observing 1 yr olds reaction to being separated from and then reunited with their caregiver o 60 upset when mother leaves happy when returns 0 1520 indifferent when mom leaves and returns 0 1520 panics when mother leaves mixed feeling when she returns 0 May reach out to mother when she returns but squirms to get away after being picked Up Differentiate the four different parenting styles o tend to be lenient little discipline very affectionate Q o very strict punishing little affection gt o supportive but set clear and firm limits 0 Good parenting D o neglectful and ignoring 69 Additional Notes 0 Post Hoc Fallacy logical error where you assume that A causes B just because B causes A o Bidirectional Influences human development is almost always a two way street 0 Development influences experiences but experiences also influence development 0 Myths 0 Infant Determinism myth that the first 3 years of life are most influential in shaping us as adults 0 Childhood Fragility myth that children are delicate little creatures and are easily damaged I Children actually bounce back Chapter 13 Social Psychology Define Scientific study of how people influence our behavior beliefs and attitudes Identify three around which psychologists organize their research of social phenomena 0 Think about social thinking 0 Influence social influence 0 Relate social relations Define Explanation why we or others engage in a certain behavior 0 Made for negative events unexpected events or personally relevant events Distinguish between internal and external attributions o cause is internal to the person their own fault 0 Ex Poor memory lazy didn t study enough 0 cause is external to person out of their handsnot their fault 0 Ex Unfair test roommate kept them up got sick on test day Explain how the can affect our analysis of another person s behavior When we look at others behavior we 0 Overestimate impact of dispositional influences internal o Underestimate impact of situational influences external 0 Ex When someone cuts you off you instantly think they re a jerk fundamental attribution error not because they need to hurry due to an emergency or that they re late Define Belief that includes an emotional component may predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects people and events Explain how attitudes and behaviors influence each other Actionsbehaviors can affect attitudes and vice versa Attitudes Actions Explain the i Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from conflicting attitudesactions 0 Ex Hypocrisy 0 To escape tension we may change our attitudesactions Behavior amp attitude are inconsistent Cognitive dissonance Change something to reduce dissonance Differentiate the footinthedoor and doorintheface persuasion tactics the tendency for people who first agree to a small request to comply later with a larger request 0 Actions affect attitudes we start believing in our actions gaining compliance with a request by preceding it with a larger request one they re likely to turn down starting with a large request and bringing it down smaller 0 Reciprocity when asking for a large favor and decreasing size of favor to seem as if it s a compromise 0 Ex Asking for a donation of 30 then 15 then 5 then just 1 feels bad if you refuse Define conformity obedience prosocial behavior tendency to alter one s thinkingbehavior in response to group pressure following a group s behavior because everyone else is doing it uvior following the rulesinstructions from higher authority intentional benefits to others NOT to self 0 Altruism helping others for unselfish reasons Describe on conformity A test to see if a student would conform to others who are saying the wrong answer even though he knows the right answer 0 Match test line with the same one o 1 test subject 4 fake test subjects 0 4 fake test subjects purposely give the wrong answer and see if the real test subject will follow their answer or give the correct answer Differentiate between normative and informational social influence people conform because they fear social rejection or to gain social approval want to fit in people conform because they accept opinions of others everyone is saying it so it must be right Describe on obedience and identify some key influences on obedience Test to see whether people listened to people who have higher power 0 Test subject asks question to quotstudentquot there was no actual student o If answer is wrong test subject must shock quotstudentquot 0 Shocks goes up in voltage after each one 0 When test subject wants to stop higher authority experimenter Harvard professor etc tells them they must continue for the name of science and sees if the test subject continues Key influences authority of experimenter location of experimenter location of victim disobedient peers ex civil disobedience Describe the steps in the decisionmaking process involved in including factors that might prevent a bystander from assuming responsibility helping only occurs after all 5 are true 1 Notice Situation 0 Prevention large of people or distraction 2 Interpret as emergency 0 Prevention Pluralistic Ignorance error of assuming that no one in group perceives things as we do ex If no one else does anything the person won t either 3 Assume responsibility 0 Prevention Diffusion of Responsibility reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in presence of others ex Someone else will do it 4 Know what to do 5 Judge that costs are outweighed by benefits Define aggression prejudice stereotype and discrimination any behavior intended to harm another person who wants to avoid harm o Increases due to internal provocation frustration media influences aggressive cues arousal levels alcohol and drugs and temperature 0 Men engage in more physical aggression women in more relational agression generalized negative attitude towards members of a group ex Dislike of fat people generalized inaccurate m about members of a group ex All Asians like rice behaviors directed toward people on the basis of their group membership ex Not hiring someone because of their color Identify the different DIRECT Target is present INDIRECT Target is NOT present ex Gossiping REACTIVE Emotional reaction quothotquot PROACTIVE Motivated by other means quotcoldquot ex Money ACTIVE Ta king action PASSIVE H Failing to take action Describe the of prejudice motivational origins 1 We want to feel good about ourselves 2 Our identity partly comes from groups which we belong to 3 Seeing our group as better than the others raises selfesteem 0 Strong group identification leads to strong group prejudice 0 When selfesteem is threatened people look down at outgroup members Describe conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation or social loa ng tendency of people to become less productive in a group 0 Conditions people are not evaluated individually or people think their contribution is unimportany enhancement of performance brought about by presence of others Better performance if task is easywell learned Presence of Physiological gt others arousal Additional Notes 0 Social Dilemmas situation in which an individual profits from selfishness unless everyone chooses selfish alternative in which case the whole group lose 0 No perfect choice gt Both selfish nothing is won gt One is selfish one wins one loses gt None are selfish both wins but win is not as great o Pits individuals against group interest 0 Cognitive Origins o Categorization exaggerate differences between members of different categories underestimate within category differences 0 Illusory Correlation perceiving a correlation where none exist or overestimating its magnitude caused by quotdistinctivenessquot o Prejudice Reduction 1 Outgroup members have traitsabilities that challenge negative stereotypes Contact is supported by social norms Groups are of equal status in contact setting Contact occurs in personal interactions Groups engage in cooperative activities to achieve common goal Contact Hypothesis simply exposing people to members of different groups should reduce prejudice generally hasn t worked for not all contact is positive 0 Deindividuation tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities 0 People in groups feel anonymous gt Loss of selfawareness responsibility and evaluation apprehension Worse performance if task is hardunfamiliar 399 P9 P Chapter 11 Attraction and Close Relationships Describe four factors that 0 Proximity mere exposure effect 0 Similarity common attitudes beliefs andor interests 0 Reciprocity high degree of mutual acceptance 0 Physical attractiveness Know what factors 0 Symmetry Averageness composite face In women waisttohip ratio youth In men masculinity square jaw prominentjaw heavier eyebrows thinner lips Men prioritize attractiveness women prioritize statuswealth 0 But not always During ovulation women prefer masculinity 0 Men also prefer women near ovulation Know how men and women differ when it comes to engaging in relationships 0 Differ in standards for shortterm partners O O O O 0 Men more likely will want shortterm ex Sex 0 Similar for longterm partners 0 Dueto 0 Cultural norms not really found across cultures 0 Parent investment theory minimum consequences of sex women has more costs than men I Ex Women have to carry child for 9 months and have increased vulnerability 0 Error management theory is this person sexually interested or committed I Men overestimate partner s sexual interest but not commitment I Women underestimate partner s commitment but not sexual interest Describe the components of and how these components change over time o Passion physiological arousal sexual attraction necessary for beginning relationship 0 Intimacy feelings of closeness sharing support mutual concern necessary to maintain relationship 0 Commitment conscious decision to remain in relationship necessary for maintaining relationship 0 Passion starts high but declines while commitment and intimacy start low but increases over time Red passion Blue commitment amp intimacy Time List and describe the components of the o Satisfaction Are you happy 0 Available Alternatives Is there anyone else who s better 0 Investment How much was put into the relationship Mter 14 Personality Define Characteristic patterns of thinking feeling and behaving o Gives coherence to one s life 0 Reflects both nature genes and nurture experience 0 Individual difference and underlying processes 0 Personal tendencies and coping patterns Distinguish between the nomothetic and ideographic approach to studying personality 0 identifies unique characteristics and life history of one individual 0 Case studies 0 identifies general laws that govern behavior of all individuals 0 Good generalizability Describe the three major assumptions of 1 Unconscious motivation 2 Psychic determinism 0 quotWe aren t free to choose our actions because we re at the mercy of powerful inner forces that lie outside of our awareness 3 Symbolic meaning Describe Freud s view of personality structure in terms of the id ego and superego o I the most primitive part of personality 0 Fights for manifestation and satisfaction of unconscious psychic energy 0 Driven by quotpleasure principle 0 Instinctive and unsocialized o represents internalized rules and ideals pressed upon us by primary caregivers o Conscience guiltshouldnots o Egoideal idealsshould o our conscious self decision maker 0 Driven by quotreality principle 0 Tries to find socially acceptable ways of meeting demands of id List the order of Believed personality formed during first few years of life 0 Fixations occur as a result of unresolved conflicts affects personality Oral 018 months Pleasure centers on mouth sucking biting chewing Anal 1836 months Pleasure on bowel and bladder elimination coping with demands for control Phallic 36 years Pleasure in genitals coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency 6 to puberty Dormant sexual feelings Genital puberty on Maturation of sexual interests Define how the term is used in personality psychology Relatively stable predisposition to feel and act a certain way 0 Personality composed of many different traits Identify and define the dimensions 0 Each trait occurs on a continuum 0 Stable across gender age and some cultures in adulthood Openness to experience 0 Imaginative intellectual curious creative unconventional 0 Simple conventional downtoearth narrow interests closed to new ideas Conscientiousness o Cautious serious responsible thorough efficient organized discipline 0 Irresponsible careless lazy disorganized impulsive easygoing Extraversion o Sociable assertive energetic adventurous enthusiastic outgoing 0 Reserved reflective quiet prefers being alone or with few close friends Agreeableness o Goodnatured courteous sympathetic helpful 0 Irritable rude cold unkind demanding stubborn showoff Neuroticism o Nervous anxious excitable highstrung moody irritable o Calm composed relaxed stable flexible Identify the three components of the of personality Individuals and their situations always work together Personality emotional amp cognitive factors A gt Environment Behavior Differentiate internal and external locus of control Personality strongly influenced by our sense of personal control 0 I am controlled by my environment 0 I m able to control my environment
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