Exam 5 Study Guide
Exam 5 Study Guide PY 370
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steele in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Gestalt Psychology Setting the Stage Behaviorism dominated the US new thought in Germany Wundt and Titchener Believed in the individual parts Structuralism opposed to Gestalt ideology Gestalt Psychology mind and behavior as a whole foundation for study of perception Shift in focus from behaviorism Wundt and Titchener supported Structuralism opposition obstacle to spread 3 founders gGerman Max Wertheimer main founder previous interest in law Perceived motion of train lights I interest in study of perception I Phi phenomenon 2 images in succession appear to be in motion Ex apple startup wheel ip book etc Successful publication I establishment of Gestalt psych Kurt Koffka assistant family of lawyers spoke English I spread Gestalt psych in US US spread I global phenomenon Wolfgang Kohler assistant academic background applied Gestalt principles to learning animal studies Chimps build boxes to reach highup bananas Walk away from situation then build all at once I Insight learning Sudden realization aka eureka moment Answer appears to come out of nowhere Pyramid Trial and error at base low level cognitive effort Insight learning at peak higherlevel cognitive process Gestalt Hallmarks Holism opposite of Structuralism Insight learning Contradiction to Behaviorist trialanderror Prior education psychology has been ignoring higher processing state insight learning Hurdles to Gestalt Psvch in US Germany Persecution be Jewish US Behaviorism still dominated Watson and followers put up fight Behaviorists no innate knowledge learn through experience conditioning to learn responses Operant rewardpunishment Skinner Classical Trial and error Can take a long time Starting to fade out V Gestalt innate cognitive structures mental shortcut to fill in gaps of perception Growing in popularity less resistance from Watson Gestalt Principles of Perception g4 main Mental shortcuts automatic in brain 1 Closure looking at whole fill in gaps missing info ex IBM log unfinished panda 2 Similarity look at whole situation cluster similar events ex blackwhite dots I rows not individual dots 3 Continuity intersection of objects brain makes assumption that object continues on 4 Figure and ground Figure stands out from the ground Ground background Automatic assumption Useful for survival threat protection ex snake in grass Camou age messes with this perception Kurt Lewin founder of social stchologV Germany I US army intelligent Social psychology study of group dynamics Whole is different from parts look a group as a whole not individuals Group behavior Applicable in the workplace Gestalt therapy awareness holistic perspective not just 1 issue Self Environment Relationships HOLISM whole gtgt individual components problemsolving therapy perception observable behaviors I inner workings of mind Behaviorism Gestalt and more Behaviorism Watson s in uence declining WWI Franics Sumner father of black psychology lst African American to get PhD and in psych Stanley Hall mentored Opened field to more blacks in uenced a lot of students Inspired Kenneth Clark Doll Study 1st time psych data used in Supreme Court Case Brown V Board ending segregation in schools Testing Happened during WWI useful avenue for psych partic in academia Evaluate Select 3 groups tested military personnel mental capacity of recruits not just physical capacity immigrants children Robert Yerkes partnered APA W US gov to test recruits and define treat PTSD APA president codeveloper of YerkesDawdson Law Worked With Titchener PTSD Faced by many returning soldiers Stems from earlier concept of shell shock Men came back couldn t sleep eat strange behavior Thought at first that physical disease Realized that ore psychological Yerlltes Armv Testin2 Proiect Testing army recruits HUGE undertaking 17 million took manually graded 2 versions 1 Alpha test basic mental capacity can they do the job Verbal skills Arithmetic Directions 2 Beta test designed for the illiterate if failed alpha Problems resistance resentment from commanders Lack of interest in psych test ASVAB Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery modernday army test College Entrance Exams Military testing I inspiration for universities Wanted to select attract the best Psychological input I development SAT Newer version of army Alpna test Ellis Island Mental Testind Brief mental examinations of immigrations upon arrival Marked X if possible mental illness l further testing done Intelligence tests Puzzles probemsolving etc Problem STRESS l misleadingly bad results Increased popularity of psych testing in other settings Iowa Child Welfare Research Station Studying mental ability and child development longitudinal studying kids over time several year period rst time funding of this magnitude intelligence in children orphanage v adoption Findings orphanage kids IQs low and stayed low IQs skyrocketed after adoption IMPORTANT conclusion IQ can change based on ENVIRONMENT 1 of 1st studies to demonstrate that environmental factors are key in child development Laid foundation for Head Start program to provide intellectual stimulation for lowincome kids Controversial Increased perception of usesfulness of psych Businesses more commonly hiring psychologists Hawthorne Experiment phone company psych study to increase productivity Test does changing brightness of lights impact productivity Findings brightness caused no difference Observation productivity increased under all conditions Hawthorne Effect observation leads to change in behavior PostWWI l39l more in the US l39l Development of New Psych Fields Sports psych increased interest hiring of psychologists Want athletes to reach full potential Social psych more popular Social facilitation people perform better around others Ex faster running on track with others than on track alone Social loa ng people are less helpful in groups Ex tugof war players pull harder by themselves than when in teams
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