ERTH101-Study Guide Chapter11,12, and 13.pdf
ERTH101-Study Guide Chapter11,12, and 13.pdf ERTH 101IN-001
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Robinson on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ERTH 101IN-001 at Montana State University - Bozeman taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see The Earth System (lecture) in Earth Sciences at Montana State University - Bozeman.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
ERTH 101 Study Guide Chapters 11 12 and 13 Chapter 11 Questions 1 What are the two main energizing forces in the atmosphere 2 What is the difference between humidity and relative humidity 3 Explain why there is less oxygen to breathe at the top of Mount Everest than at sea level given that the composition of the air is the same 4 The way air pressure decreases with increasing altitude is smooth but nonlinear Explain why 5 Name the three major families of clouds and describe their general difference 6 What is the Bergeron process and what role does it play in the formation of raindrops 7 Name the four temperature layers of Earth s atmosphere in order of altitude starting with the lowest Give the approximate altitudes where one temperature zone passes into the next and the name of the boundary in each case Important Info gaseous envelope that surrounds a planet The Sun s energy 0 Warms the atmosphere 0 Energy source for clouds rain snowstorms wind and weather tiny suspended liquid or solid particles humidity from evaporation force exerted by weight of overlying air moist air cools slower as it rises because of release of heat during condensation rising air becomes saturated unsaturated air cools as it rises eXpands Clouds are classified on the basis of shape appearance and height Clouds are Visible aggregates of minute water droplets ice crystals or both 0 When air is compressed it warms 0 When compressed air eXpands it cools 0 Warm air rises but since air pressure decreases the air eXpands and cools 0 Cool air descends but with increased air pressure it compresses and warms The over these processes is called Dry adiabatic lapse rate unsaturated air Moist adiabatic lapse rate saturated air E J r 39i a O absorbe short wavelength ultraviolet rays 6 Il m rattles namemediumquotg J WF39iFvVM MWFmWE1 More Important Info Earth had a primary atmosphere that was stripped away by solar Winds early in solar system history Hadean n Archean EGO 2500 million 4550 3800 million 39 Multice lled irnave ri amatEs 7 Phanerozoto 542 million HDFEEEHI D a Proterozoic 215007 542 million Chapter 12 Questions 1 Explain why air density and air pressure are related 2 What are the five factors that are used to describe weather 3 What is a monsoon 4 What is a katabatic Wind and Chinook Wind Difference 5 What are the five main types of deserts 6 How do the trade Winds arise 7 List the four main categories of air masses and their characteristics 8 What are five types of severe weather Important Info state of the atmosphere at a given time and place Variables Include 1 Temperature 2 Air pressure 3 Humidity 4 Cloudiness 5 Wind speed and direction Sea Breeze Top Land Breeze li39air flows Olin the sea Bottom a Night Air cooled by adiabatic expansion Warmer air 39 W Cool air sinks rises r p r r r 1 at night r k h I I r a tCooler iiig pressuiei Warmer low ressure l V 39 Cool air flow out from the iandx CLIMATE SYS TEM AND ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION HUMAN SYSTEMS AND ACTIOle Anthropogenic Forcings I Temperature Precipitation 0 Wind and storms Solar radiation i Longawave radiation 5 Atmospheric C302 39 I Population I Values and beliefs 0 Government institutions I Economic systems I Laws and regulations O Technology p ECOSYSTEME a Food fiber fuel clean air and water I Biogeochemical cycles and greenhouse gas fluxes 0 Surface energy balance I Biodiversityi 0 Soil Systems Chapter 13 Questions 55 9 How might we try to obtain an estimate of ice age land surface temperature by studying fossil pollen grains Describe two types of records kept by humans which can by used to study past climates What effect can large volcanic eruption have on climate What is a Dansgaard Oeschger event Describe some of the important positive and negative feedbacks in the carbon cycle that have an in uence on climate Is there any evidence of glaciations older than the Pleistocene Epoch What is a Heinrich event How do scientists obtain analyses of the greenhouse gas compositions of ancient atmospheres How are variations in temperature precipitation and seasonality denoted 10 What are the five basic climate categories in the Koppen system Important Info The ocean serves as a great reservoir of thermal energy that helps moderate climate Measurements of oxygen isotopes in glacier ice enable scientists to estimate air temperature when the snow accumulated External causes result in changes in the amount of solar radiation 0 Axis of rotation wobbles 0 Precession of the equinoxes 0 Tilt of the Earth s axis varies 0 Eccentricity of Earth s orbit in uences how much solar radiation reaches Earth when the ocean conveyor system is operational when the ocean conveyor system has shut down causes of climate change
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