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Study Guide #2

by: Elizabeth Notetaker

Study Guide #2 WLDF 365

Elizabeth Notetaker
GPA 3.9

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Dr. Kristen Kling
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Notetaker on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WLDF 365 at Humboldt State University taught by Dr. Kristen Kling in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Ornithology in Wildlife at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
WLDF 365  Exam #2 Study Guide Fall 2015 Mark Colwell  SENSES: Interspecific variation due to diurnal or nocturnal activity, feeding underwater or from the air,  etc. Q: What percentage of the cranial volume can the orbitals take up? ­up to 50% Locations of the Eye: 1) Side a) =monocular, but panoramic view 2) Front a) =binocular view b) Eye Structure: ● Sclerotic ossicles ○ like reptiles  ● Iris  ○ colored or dark ● Pupil ○ large ○  increased light cast on retina ○ precise image control ● Pecten ○ like reptiles ○ likely nutritive function ● Cones and rods ○ for color and night vision ○ 4 types of cones (including UV sensitive cone) ● Retinal fovea ○ high cone density for acuity Flicker­fusion frequency ­high in birds for resolving high speed information ­relationship between body size and perception of temporal change  smaller birds have higher flicker fusion ­varies by species Eye shapes:  1) Flattened= wide­angle lens  a) short optical axis = small image and enhanced scanning b) EX: Sparrow 2) Globose = zoom lens  a) long optical axis= large image b) curved cornea gathers light  c) EX: Hawk 3) Tubular= zoom and low f­stop a) long optical axis b) greatly curved cornea and lens gather light c) many rods d) EX: Owl Underwater Vision ● cornea alters refractive index ● compensate for sudden change in refractive index from compressed cornea ● rapid lens adjustment with ciliary muscles ● EX: Brown Pelican Q: What muscles are involved in rapid lens adjustment needed for underwater vision? =ciliary muscles Owl Adaptations: ● asymmetric skull  ● binaural fusion ● facial disk to acquire sound ● binocular vision ● acoustic “crosshairs”  Mechano­reception: 1) Skin/feather follicles  2) Herbst corpuscles in tip of bill, tongue 3) Feet Olfaction ● generally small olfactory bulb, which relates to poor smell ● exceptions: kiwi, vultures, shearwaters Q: Which bird is used to find natural gas leaks? =Turkey Vulture Paratympanic Organ (PTO) =innate barometer ­senses changes in atmospheric pressure  Taste ­birds have few taste buds  Q: What group of birds is considered most intelligent? =pigeons or corvids Q: What group of birds has best spatial memory? =corvids, parids ­have well developed hippocampus Q: What part of the avian brain is most involved with avian intelligence? =corpus striatum ­birds with greater striatal development performed more accurately on tests ­lesions in the striatal region interfere with learning COMMUNICATION: Vocal Learning among Taxa: 1) taxa with little learning abilities  2) taxa with rich vocal repertoires and learning a) Restricted to brief period b) Learn until a young adult c) Learn for 1­2 years d) Learn forever Q: What part of the avian brain is associated with song?  =HVC Areas of Sound Production: 1) Feathers 2) Feet  3) Air Sacs  Song + Call  ● under influence of gonadal hormones ● evidence: ○ Castration done to male ■ led to no song, or no alternate plumage ○ Castration + testosterone given to male  ■ still had song ○ Testosterone given to female ■ led to song in female Reasons for mimicry in birds:  ● non­adaptive by­product of learning  ● sexually selected signal repertoire ● species recognition (especially in brood parasites) ● manipulation Q: What are some examples of bird mimics?:  =Lyre Bird, Northern Mockingbird, Brown Thrasher, corvids, parrots, mynahs, etc Q: What is the difference between a song and a call? ● song ○ complex ○ used for acquiring a mate ○ generally given by males  ● call ○ simple ○ communicates territory  ○ contact call ○ alarm call ○ used in diversity of situations ○ given by individuals of varying ages and sexes Q: What types of birds have primitive syrinxes? =owls, pigeons, swans Song Dialects: ● within species variation ● regional and localized differences in song ● relationship to model? ○ accuracy of learning ○ distance of dispersal ○ timing of dispersal relative to learning Adaptive Significance of dialects:  ● maintains species or subspecies boundaries  ○ mate with “like­song” types  ● can cause rapid speciation or hybridization  ○ can be caused by female incorrectly song recognition Q: Why is the oscine group so diverse? =diversity of song development AVIAN REPRODUCTION: Weight­saving Adaptations: 1) Oviparity 2) Seasonal atrophy 3) Asymmetry of reproductive organs Male Reproductive System: ● Homogametic (ZZ)  ● slight asymmetry (L ­> R) ● seasonal atrophy and recrudescence  ● intromittent organ in some species (to facilitate sperm transport) ● testes size correlates with mating system ○ increases in polyamorous systems ○ driven by sperm competition ● cloacal protuberance ○ house seminal vesicles  ○ cools sperm ○ swells seasonally ○ useful in sexing most passerines  Female Reproductive System: ● heterogametic (ZW) ● strong asymmetry  ○ left functional ovary ● strong seasonal changes in size ● born with set # of follicles  ● follicles produce one ovum at a time  ● laying intervals  ≥ one day ● sperm storage capabilities  ● chicken senescence (end of ability to produce eggs)  ○ doesn’t happen in wild Copulation:  ● preceded and followed by courtship behavior ● juxtaposition of male and female cloacae ● timing coincides with female fertility period Q: What are some female adaptations to polyandrous mating system? =females usually lay smaller eggs, females sing, arrive earlier than males in spring Sections of Oviduct: 1) Infundibulum 2) Magnum 3) Isthmus 4) Uterus 5) Vagina/Cloaca Medullary Bones:  ● long bones (tibia and femur) involved in embryo growth  ● store calcium ● mobilized during laying by hens  What is the difference between Precocial and Altricial young: ● Precocial  ○ high yolk investment ○ already mostly developed at hatch ○ chicks feed themselves ○ nidifugous young ■ =young leave nest shortly after hatch ○ EX: waterfowl ● Altricial ○ low yolk investment ○ hatched poorly developed  ○ develop rapidly after hatch ○ chicks fed in nest by adults ○ nidicolous young  ■ =young stay in nest after hatch ○ EX: songbirds  Q: What is the definition of “fledge”? =when a check leaves the nest/is flight capable Types of “Double­Yolkers”: 1) Monovular a) monozygotic  ● 1 blastoderm ● fraternal twins b) bizygotic ● 2 blastoderms  ● fraternal twins 2) Binovular ● fraternal twins from 2 yolks Parts of Egg:  1) air cell 2) yolk 3) chorion 4) amnion 5) amniotic fluid 6) embryo  7) allantois 8) shell 9) albumin Shell Structure:  1) Cuticle  2) Spongy layer 3) Mammillary layer 4) Shell membrane Development: 1) Chick punctures air cell with beak 2) Starred egg= rough edges on outside of egg  3) Pipped egg= puncturing of membrane, then crack shell and head comes out Q: Where does respiration occur in the egg before the chick hatches?  = mostly through the shell membrane ­has pores that permit passive respiration via capillaries of chorio­allantoic  membrane ­until the chick pips, then the chick will start to use lungs Q: What are some techniques used to age eggs? =egg floatation and candling Q: What is the largest bird in recent times? = the Elephant Bird What are some Selective Pressures on Eggs?: 1) Clutch size 2) Egg size 3) Shape  4) Color Q: What is the definition of fitness related to birds? =number of young  Clutch= # of eggs laid by a single female in a reproductive attempt (nest) ● variations:  ○ Brood parasites (cuckoos, cowbirds) ○ Cooperative breeders (anis, woodpeckers) Egg Laying Patterns: 1) Determinate=fixed # of eggs  a) EX: Seabirds, shorebirds 2) Indeterminate= variable # of eggs a) EX: Waterfowl, songbirds  Q: What experiment can be done to distinguish between determinate and indeterminate layers? =remove eggs from nest during laying period and see how female reacts  ● if she replaces the removed egg, then she is an indeterminate layer ● if she does not replace the removed egg, then she is a determinate  layer Timing of Egg Laying: ● Many species lay 1 egg/day ● Some lay 4­8 eggs )*()* ● Usually laid during morning Q: What are some arguments for variation in clutch size? 1) Population control 2) Food limitation 3) Physical ability to cover eggs 4) Lack’s hypothesis a) # of young fledged drops in large clutch sizes 5) Other hypotheses/amendments a) annual vs.  Egg Laying in Dinosaurs: ● Clutch laid in a nest on or in the ground ● Paired oviducts that lay simultaneously Egg Laying in Reptiles: ● Clutch laid in a buried nest  ● All eggs laid at once  ● No evidence of medullary bone Incubation= the process by which eggs are kept at temperatures suitable for development in a  humid environment that is regularly changed to allow for gas exchange and during which eggs  are turned regularly.  Incubation Constancy: percentage of time a female sits on a nest What is the benefit/purpose of turning eggs? = keeps the embryo from adhering to the shell Types of Reserves:  ● Endogenous reserves ○ “capital”  ○ = reserves that are stored in fat within female  ● Exogenous reserves ○ “income”  ○ =energy comes from environment MATING SYSTEMS: Darwin’s influence:  ● in most birds:  ○ Males tend to have brighter plumages and compete for mates ○ Females are less colorful and care for young  ○ EX: Peafowl  ● Exceptions:  ○ female is brightly colored  ○ EX: Wilson’s Phalarope Mating System Constraints: ● Oviparity  ○ compared to mammals  ● Development of young  ○ among bird taxa  ■ altricial vs. precocial Parental Care Patterns:  1) Biparental  a) both parents are required to raise eggs and young i) EX: Emperor Penguin 2) Uniparental a) one sex emancipated from incubation and raising young  i) EX: ducks, hummingbirds, lekking species like ruff  and buff­breasted sandpiper, and a few handful of passerines.  Mating Relationships: 1) Monogamy  a) one male with one female i) Duration of pair bond:  (1) Lifetime  (a) EX: Swan, geese,  wrentit (2) Annual  (a) EX: Penguins, some  shorebirds, raptors 2) Polygamy a) Polygyny  i) one male with many females  ● EX: Red­winged Blackbird b) Polyandry i) one female with many males  ● EX: Wilson’s Phalarope  c) Polygynandry i) EX: European Dunnuck  ii) female territory overlaps with alpha male and beta  male  iii) males overlap with multiple females iv) males care for young in proportion to copulations d) Promiscuity i) often in lecking groups  3) Cooperative breeding  a) Helpers i) EX: Florida Scrub Jay ii) non­migratory population, longterm monogamy iii) includes parents, stepparents, distant kin iv) assist in raising young by defending territory or  resources, feeding young, acting as sentinels b) Communal Breeders i) EX: Acorn Woodpeckers  ii) granaries=limited resource, longterm investment,  center of social unit  iii) sisters with dominance relationships (1) submissive females start laying first (2) dominant females push eggs out of  nest (3) dominant females start laying their  own eggs in the nest Mechanisms of acquiring mates:  1) Resource defense  a) Resource Defense Polygyny: i) defends territory ii) EX: Passerines (Song Sparrow), dabbling ducks b) Resource Defense Polyandry  i) EX: Shorebirds (Spotted Sandpiper, Wattled  Jacana)  2) Mate access or defense a) Mate Defense Polygyny i) male defends females  ii) EX: Northern Pintail, Bank swallow  b) Mate Defense Polyandry i) females defend males  ii) sequential polyandry  iii) females do not defend territory iv) EX: Phalaropes  3) Dominance a) Male Dominance Polygyny: ● lek­based ● multiple arenas with males displaying to females ● uniparental care=female ○ males only do fertilization  ● EX: Ruffs and Reeves, Sage Grouse Cock­of­the­ Rock 4) Cooperation 5) Sequential polygamy  6) Simultaneous polygamy  Social Polygyny and Genetic Polyandry  ● males display on lek ● uniparental care=female  ● females mate with multiple males  ○ raises clutch of multiple parental genetics  ○ could visit lek multiple times or store sperm  ● EX: Prairie Chicken Q: What is the ancestral mating condition in believed to be in birds? =monogamy Q: What are two hypotheses supporting the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds? 1) Kin selection a) inclusive fitness  b) shared genes with kin 2) Ecological constraint a) individuals help because they have no other option b) habitat quality is usually bad  c) habitat is saturated Q: Under what circumstances will habitat limitations favor helping? 1) Dispersal rate is high 2) Probability of territory establishment is low 3) Probability of finding a mate is low 4) Probability of breeding is low  DEMOGRAPHY: Q: What is the definition of demography? =study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease  (= study of population biology) deme= group of interacting individuals Q: Why study demography? 1) Theoretical value  a) Life history strategies 2) Applied importance  a) Hunting b) Endangered species Q: How to study demography? 1) Mark birds 2) Track over time  3) Recaptures/Returns a) Look at Swainson’s Thrush tail feathers 4) Measure breeding success a) Capture young­of­the­year b) Swans, geese, and family groups r & K­selected Species: ● correlated with vital rates (productivity and survivorship) ● differ in age of first reproduction and clutch size 1) K­selected a) EX: Penguin  b) raise 1 young per year over long time period 2) r­selected a) EX: Sparrow  b) breed in the first year


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