POLI 360 - Exam 2 Study Guide
POLI 360 - Exam 2 Study Guide POLI 360 001
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POLI 360 001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by runnergal on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 360 001 at University of South Carolina taught by David C. Darmofal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see American Political Parties in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
POLI 360 – Exam 2 Lecture 8: The American Voter Party Identification Conception o Socializing Party Identification The classic conception of party identification is found in The American Voter by Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes in the 1960s and has sociopsychological roots. A person’s first exposure to political parties comes in childhood from one’s parents. This exposure is very influential and resilient because: 1. The connection between a parent and a child is one of the first social connections a child makes. 2. There is a very trusting relationship between a parent and a child. 3. The parentchild relationship generally does not compete with other political socialization influences. Party identification is particularly strong when both parents share the same party identification. Most people’s party identifications change as they move through adolescence and young adulthood, but it stabilizes by early adulthood. o Affective Attachment This theory relies on reference group theory. Citizens affectively (emotionally) identify themselves with a party, producing psychological benefits; no political content is necessary. o Stable Orientation Party identification is generally resistant to change because it is a socialized, emotional attachment. Reasons that Party Identification Would Change: 1. Idiosyncratic factors 2. Systemic factors o Funnel of Causality Earlier political and social influences produce a perpetual screen that influences the perception of subsequent political phenomena. Early childhood socialization party identification evaluation of subsequent political candidates and issues voting decisions. Lecture 9 o Measuring Party Identification The American Voter’s conception of party identification as a stable, long term identification shaped the measurement of party identification. This measurement is based on a 7point scale, with 1 = Strong Democrat, 4 = Pure Independent, and 7 = Strong Republican. o Challenges to The American Voter’s Conception of Party Identification The American Voter was written in the 1950s, which was a very stable time in America’s political history. In contrast, the 1960s was a more volatile period; some political scientists speculated that candidates influenced party identification. ShortTerm Political Influences The 1976 elections proved that candidate evaluations and party preferences influenced party identification (Page and Jones, 1979). Party identification displays both elements of The American Voter’s socialized identification and of a more immediate political attitude shaped by shortterm factors (Franklin and Jackson, 1983). More specifically, party identification is shaped by 1) past party identification (as a voter ages, past party identification becomes more influential on current party) identification and 2) current evaluations of parties’ policies positions. Essentially, party identification is shaped by both shortterm and long term influences. o Retrospective Evaluations Fiorina (1981) argues that party identification reflects a combination of factors: 1. Past party identification 2. Retrospective evaluations of past party performance (which effects the incumbent party). 3. Prospective evaluations of expected future party performance (which affects both parties). Evaluations are based on news, not personal experience (sociotropic voting). o Has Party Identification Declined? More people respond as independents, but overall party identification has not declined since most independents identify as Independent Leaners. Pure Independents show the least partisanship, while Independent Leaners often surpass weak partisans in partisanship. Citizens value both political independence and partisanship. Citizens may not view political independence as the absence of partisanship, but instead as being able to make independent decisions that are not completely determined by partisanship. Lecture 10 o Party Support and Realignment Party Coalitions: the socioeconomic groups that support a party. Coalitions the issues and positions that parties emphasize. o Types of Presidential Elections 1. Maintaining elections 2. Deviating elections 3. Realigning elections o The First American Party System (17891829) DemocraticRepublicans v. Federalists; main difference occurred between their views of the federal government. The Federalists declined as a party as DemocraticRepublicans got better at winning elections. o The Second American Party System (18291860) The DemocraticRepublicans could not manage all of the conflicts in its coalition. As a result, factions in the coalition split into two parties: the Democratic Party (majority party) and the Whig Party. Both parties attempted to avoid the slavery issue. Lecture 11 o The Third American Party System (18611896) The Republican Party was formed in 1854 in Wisconsin as an antislavery party. The rise of the Republican Party resulted in slavery becoming a central issue in the U.S., producing a realignment in 1860. The Civil War and its consequences dominated American politics for over three decades, but the Civil War diminished in importance as fewer people personally recollected the events. o The Fourth American Party System (18971932) The rural versus commercial divide reaffirmed itself with the industrialization of the U.S. William Jennings Bryan led an agrarian revolt against Eastern business interests in the 1896 presidential election. William McKinley, representing those Eastern business interests, won the 1896 presidential election by a large margin. As a result, Republicans became the clear majority party with the Industrial Realignment in 1896. o The Fifth American Party System (1933now) The 1932 presidential election was a referendum on Herbert Hoover’s policies; since the Great Depression happened under Hoover’s watch, FDR won by a landslide. FDR initiated the New Deal. FDR’s election ushered in the New Deal Realignment, where the Democratic Party embraced industrial workers and African Americans and usurped the Republican Party as the majority party. o Are We in a New Party System? White Southerners are significantly less Democratic now than they were in 1933. Additionally, AfricanAmericans are significantly more Democratic now than they were in 1933. There has been no clear change in which party is the majority party; there are still slightly more Democrats than Republicans in the U.S. Instead, there may have been a delaignment. o Realignments 1. Whig Realignment in the South and the Midwest in 1836 and 1840 towards the Whigs. 2. The Republican Realignment in the North and the Midwest 1856 and 1860 towards the Republicans. 3. The Jim Crow Democratic Realignment in the South from 1876 to 1904. 4. The Republican Industrial Realignment in the Northeast and north Midwest from 1896 to 1904. 5. The PostWorld War II Republican Realignment in the South from 1946 to 1952. o Issues produce realignment by: 1. Mobilization of previous nonvoters. 2. Conversion of active voters from one party to another. 3. Demobilization of previous voters. o Anderson (1979) The New Deal Realignment was created by Democratic mobilization of nonvoting citizens that had not yet been fully exposed to partisan politics. These citizens were more open to Democratic arguments because they did not have to overcome initial Republican Party identifications. Lecture 12 o Types of Primaries 1. Closed Primaries: one can only vote in the party’s primary with which he/she is affiliated. Types of Closed Primaries o Fully Closed primaries o Semiclosed primaries 2. Open Primaries: allows people to vote in either party’s primary without announcing a party affiliation. Types of Open Primaries o Semiopen primaries o Fully Open primaries 3. Blanket Primary: allows voters to vote in more than one party’s primary. This primary was used in California, an antipartisan state, but it was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court because the parties have no control. 4. Top Two Primary: All candidates appear on the same ballot. The top two votereceivers, regardless of party affiliation, continue on to the general election. 5. Unified/Unitary Primary: If a candidate receives more than 50% of the vote, then that candidate wins the whole election; there is no general election for that office. If no candidates receives a majority of the vote, then the top two votereceivers face off in the general election. o Parties and Primaries 1. Reasons Parties Dislike Primaries 1. There is a risk of unattractive nominees. 2. Primary voters are often more radical than the average voter. 3. It is difficult to recruit candidates. 2. Party primaries give citizens opportunities to challenge the majority party candidate. o Parties and Types of Primaries Reasons Parties Favor Closed Primaries 1. Closed primaries give parties a list of party identifiers. 2. Closed primaries ensure that party nominees are chosen by party members. Nonparty members that vote in primaries are: 1. Crossovers 2. Raiders o Crossovers and Raiders Most voters that vote in the opposite party’s primary are crossovers, not raiders. Lecture 13 o General Elections Election rules have political biases. The secret ballot/Australian ballot voting style increased voting costs and decreased voting benefits for lowerclass citizens, resulting in lower lowerclass voter turnout. Legislative redistricting occurs every 10 years after the census is taken. Redistricting occurs for both federal and state offices,. o Ballot Format Party Column Ballot Office Bloc Ballot o Partisan Gerrymandering Politicians draw districts to benefit their respective parties while also weakening the opposing party. Ways to Gerrymander 1. Divide pockets of the opposing party, forcing the party to compete in numerous districts. 2. Consolidate the opposing party into as few districts as possible. o Racial Redistricting The 1982 Voting Rights Act required states to construct districts that would maximize AfricanAmericans and Hispanic candidates’ chances of winning office, resulting in majorityminority districts. Those districts were primarily Democratic and consolidated the Democratic vote. Majorityminority districts were eventually challenged on constitutional grounds; the Supreme Court ruled that race cannot be the predominant factor in redistricting, but it can be a factor. Lecture 14 o Video Notes: Let the People Rule Roosevelt encouraged primaries in 1912 to increase his chances of winning after he realized that his friends, the current party bosses, would not support his candidacy for the Republican nomination. Selection of Nominees: 1. Stage 1 (17891832): party nominees were chosen through the King’s Caucus, where party delegates choose the party nominee. There is no input from the popular vote. 2. Stage 2 (18331912): Conventions comprised of delegates and prominent public officials choose the party nominees. There is no input from the popular vote. 3. Stage 3 (19131968): some states began to offer primaries due to Roosevelt’s support for primaries. This allowed voters to have a say in the primary process for the first time. 4. Stage 4 (1969now): was referred to but not discussed directly in the video. Probably refers to the Democratic change in primaries, where the outcomes of primaries must be held accountable to the voters during the Democratic convention. The 1912 Republican caucus was very raucous. Roosevelt tried to convince AfricanAmericans to join his side at the caucus, but he failed with the exception of eight delegates. Those eight that supported him were not allowed in the new party because Roosevelt was a racist and he also knew that he had no chance of winning any Southern elections anyway. Primaries allow fringe candidates to become president. Primary rules are created by the parties. Brokered Convention: this occurs when 1) the candidate with the most delegates does not have at least 50% of the delegates or 2) when a candidate has at least 50% of the delegates, but not all of those delegates vote for that candidate. Lecture 15 o Nomination Campaign Dynamics Positive Influences on Candidates’ Vote Shares: 1. Support in New Hampshire before the Iowa caucus, which is determined by the last poll taken in New Hampshire before the Iowa caucus. 2. Finishing second in the Iowa caucus. 3. Good standing in national polls; spent money can increase a candidate’s standing in national polls. o Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA) Sponsored by John McCain and Russ Feingold; also known as the McCainFeingold Bill. This act restricted soft money: unregulated money that individuals, corporations, and labor unions donated to parties. Changes to Soft Money Expenditures 1. Issue advocacy ads be funded through contributions subject to campaign contribution limits. 2. Raised the individual campaign contribution limit from $1,000 to $2,000 and is subject to inflation. 3. Prevented interest groups and corporations from buying issue advocacy ads that mention any candidate’s name 60 days before a general election or 30 days before a primary election. Intended to force campaigns to primarily raise money from small donors since soft money was now essentially illegal. o Citizens United v. FEC (2010) This decision by the Supreme Court essentially allowed corporations and labor unions to spend as much money as they want on supporting candidates, including spending money on the election or defeat of a specific candidate. o Super PACs Super PACs allow for unlimited corporation and union spending. They can spend money on advocacy, but they cannot directly coordinate with campaigns. They have not been very influential in the 2016 Republican nomination election. o Choosing Presidential Nominees Campaigns have developed effective small donor bases through the internet. Matching Funds Program 1. Funds primary candidates with taxpayer dollars in exchange for candidates building grassroots networks of voters. 2. Matches individual contributions up to $250 with taxpayer funds; this can comprise about 2530% of major candidates’ funds. 3. To qualify, candidates must raise at least $5,000 in $250 donations or less in each of at least 20 states. 4. Candidates must also limit personal contributions to his/her campaign to $50,000 and agree to abide by spending limits. 5. All of these spending limits are subject to inflation. Reasons Candidates Opt Out of the Matching Funds Program 1. Independent wealth allows candidates to spend more money than they could following the program’s rules. 2. Ideological reasons, i.e. taxpayers should not fund campaigns. 3. Personal Internet bases of voter contributions far surpass any help from this program. o FrontLoading Primaries Frontloading: primaries are increasingly scheduled earlier in the presidential election year. Frontloading makes early fundraising even more important, especially during the invisible primary period: the year before primaries. However, fundraising has not been especially important in the 2016 race.
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