New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

POLI 360 - Exam 2 Study Guide

by: runnergal

POLI 360 - Exam 2 Study Guide POLI 360 001


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide encompasses all of the notes for this exam. This is not a compilation of all of the previous weeks' notes, nor a phrase-by-phrase answer key to the study guide from class. Rather, ...
American Political Parties
David C. Darmofal
Study Guide
political science, Government
50 ?




Popular in American Political Parties

Popular in Political Science

This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by runnergal on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 360 001 at University of South Carolina taught by David C. Darmofal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see American Political Parties in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


Reviews for POLI 360 - Exam 2 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/27/16
POLI 360 – Exam 2  Lecture 8: The American Voter Party Identification Conception o Socializing Party Identification  The classic conception of party identification is found in The American  Voter by Campbell, Converse, Miller, and Stokes in the 1960s and has  socio­psychological roots.  A person’s first exposure to political parties comes in childhood from  one’s parents. This exposure is very influential and resilient because: 1. The connection between a parent and a child is one of the first  social connections a child makes. 2. There is a very trusting relationship between a parent and a child. 3. The parent­child relationship generally does not compete with  other political socialization influences.  Party identification is particularly strong when both parents share the same party identification.  Most people’s party identifications change as they move through  adolescence and young adulthood, but it stabilizes by early adulthood. o Affective Attachment  This theory relies on reference group theory.  Citizens affectively (emotionally) identify themselves with a party,  producing psychological benefits; no political content is necessary. o Stable Orientation  Party identification is generally resistant to change because it is a  socialized, emotional attachment.  Reasons that Party Identification Would Change: 1. Idiosyncratic factors 2. Systemic factors o Funnel of Causality  Earlier political and social influences produce a perpetual screen that  influences the perception of subsequent political phenomena.  Early childhood socialization  party identification  evaluation of  subsequent political candidates and issues  voting decisions.  Lecture 9 o Measuring Party Identification  The American Voter’s conception of party identification as a stable, long­ term identification shaped the measurement of party identification.  This measurement is based on a 7­point scale, with 1 = Strong Democrat,  4 = Pure Independent, and 7 = Strong Republican. o Challenges to The American Voter’s Conception of Party Identification  The American Voter was written in the 1950s, which was a very stable  time in America’s political history.  In contrast, the 1960s was a more volatile period; some political scientists  speculated that candidates influenced party identification.  Short­Term Political Influences  The 1976 elections proved that candidate evaluations and party  preferences influenced party identification (Page and Jones, 1979).  Party identification displays both elements of The American  Voter’s socialized identification and of a more immediate political  attitude shaped by short­term factors (Franklin and Jackson, 1983). More specifically, party identification is shaped by 1) past party  identification (as a voter ages, past party identification becomes  more influential on current party) identification and 2) current  evaluations of parties’ policies positions.  Essentially, party identification is shaped by both short­term and long­ term influences. o Retrospective Evaluations  Fiorina (1981) argues that party identification reflects a combination of  factors: 1. Past party identification 2. Retrospective evaluations of past party performance (which effects the incumbent party). 3. Prospective evaluations of expected future party performance  (which affects both parties).  Evaluations are based on news, not personal experience (sociotropic  voting). o Has Party Identification Declined?  More people respond as independents, but overall party identification has  not declined since most independents identify as Independent Leaners.  Pure Independents show the least partisanship, while Independent Leaners  often surpass weak partisans in partisanship.  Citizens value both political independence and partisanship. Citizens may  not view political independence as the absence of partisanship, but instead  as being able to make independent decisions that are not completely  determined by partisanship.  Lecture 10 o Party Support and Realignment  Party Coalitions: the socioeconomic groups that support a party.  Coalitions the issues and positions that parties emphasize. o Types of Presidential Elections 1. Maintaining elections 2. Deviating elections 3. Realigning elections o The First American Party System (1789­1829)  Democratic­Republicans v. Federalists; main difference occurred between  their views of the federal government.  The Federalists declined as a party as Democratic­Republicans got better  at winning elections. o The Second American Party System (1829­1860)  The Democratic­Republicans could not manage all of the conflicts in its  coalition. As a result, factions in the coalition split into two parties: the  Democratic Party (majority party) and the Whig Party.  Both parties attempted to avoid the slavery issue.  Lecture 11 o The Third American Party System (1861­1896)  The Republican Party was formed in 1854 in Wisconsin as an anti­slavery  party.  The rise of the Republican Party resulted in slavery becoming a central  issue in the U.S., producing a realignment in 1860.  The Civil War and its consequences dominated American politics for over  three decades, but the Civil War diminished in importance as fewer people personally recollected the events. o The Fourth American Party System (1897­1932)  The rural versus commercial divide reaffirmed itself with the  industrialization of the U.S.  William Jennings Bryan led an agrarian revolt against Eastern business  interests in the 1896 presidential election. William McKinley, representing those Eastern business interests, won the 1896 presidential election by a  large margin. As a result, Republicans became the clear majority party  with the Industrial Realignment in 1896. o The Fifth American Party System (1933­now)  The 1932 presidential election was a referendum on Herbert Hoover’s  policies; since the Great Depression happened under Hoover’s watch,  FDR won by a landslide.  FDR initiated the New Deal.  FDR’s election ushered in the New Deal Realignment, where the  Democratic Party embraced industrial workers and African Americans and usurped the Republican Party as the majority party. o Are We in a New Party System?  White Southerners are significantly less Democratic now than they were in 1933. Additionally, African­Americans are significantly more Democratic  now than they were in 1933.  There has been no clear change in which party is the majority party; there  are still slightly more Democrats than Republicans in the U.S.  Instead, there may have been a delaignment. o Realignments 1. Whig Realignment in the South and the Midwest in 1836 and 1840  towards the Whigs. 2. The Republican Realignment in the North and the Midwest 1856 and 1860 towards the Republicans. 3. The Jim Crow Democratic Realignment in the South from 1876 to 1904. 4. The Republican Industrial Realignment in the Northeast and north  Midwest from 1896 to 1904. 5. The Post­World War II Republican Realignment in the South from 1946  to 1952. o Issues produce realignment by: 1. Mobilization of previous non­voters. 2. Conversion of active voters from one party to another. 3. Demobilization of previous voters. o Anderson (1979)  The New Deal Realignment was created by Democratic mobilization of  non­voting citizens that had not yet been fully exposed to partisan politics.  These citizens were more open to Democratic arguments because they did  not have to overcome initial Republican Party identifications.  Lecture 12 o Types of Primaries 1. Closed Primaries: one can only vote in the party’s primary with which  he/she is affiliated.  Types of Closed Primaries o Fully Closed primaries o Semi­closed primaries 2. Open Primaries: allows people to vote in either party’s primary without  announcing a party affiliation.  Types of Open Primaries o Semi­open primaries o Fully Open primaries 3. Blanket Primary: allows voters to vote in more than one party’s primary.  This primary was used in California, an anti­partisan state, but it  was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court because the  parties have no control. 4. Top Two Primary: All candidates appear on the same ballot. The top two vote­receivers, regardless of party affiliation, continue on to the general  election. 5. Unified/Unitary Primary: If a candidate receives more than 50% of the  vote, then that candidate wins the whole election; there is no general  election for that office. If no candidates receives a majority of the vote,  then the top two vote­receivers face off in the general election. o Parties and Primaries 1. Reasons Parties Dislike Primaries 1. There is a risk of unattractive nominees. 2. Primary voters are often more radical than the average voter. 3. It is difficult to recruit candidates. 2. Party primaries give citizens opportunities to challenge the majority party  candidate. o Parties and Types of Primaries  Reasons Parties Favor Closed Primaries 1. Closed primaries give parties a list of party identifiers. 2. Closed primaries ensure that party nominees are chosen by party  members.  Non­party members that vote in primaries are: 1. Cross­overs 2. Raiders o Cross­overs and Raiders  Most voters that vote in the opposite party’s primary are cross­overs, not  raiders.  Lecture 13 o General Elections  Election rules have political biases.  The secret ballot/Australian ballot voting style increased voting costs and  decreased voting benefits for lower­class citizens, resulting in lower  lower­class voter turnout.  Legislative redistricting occurs every 10 years after the census is taken.  Redistricting occurs for both federal and state offices,. o Ballot Format  Party Column Ballot  Office Bloc Ballot o Partisan Gerrymandering  Politicians draw districts to benefit their respective parties while also  weakening the opposing party.  Ways to Gerrymander 1. Divide pockets of the opposing party, forcing the party to compete  in numerous districts. 2. Consolidate the opposing party into as few districts as possible. o Racial Redistricting  The 1982 Voting Rights Act required states to construct districts that  would maximize African­Americans and Hispanic candidates’ chances of  winning office, resulting in majority­minority districts.  Those districts were primarily Democratic and consolidated the  Democratic vote.  Majority­minority districts were eventually challenged on constitutional  grounds; the Supreme Court ruled that race cannot be the predominant  factor in redistricting, but it can be a factor.  Lecture 14 o Video Notes: Let the People Rule  Roosevelt encouraged primaries in 1912 to increase his chances of  winning after he realized that his friends, the current party bosses, would  not support his candidacy for the Republican nomination.  Selection of Nominees: 1. Stage 1 (1789­1832): party nominees were chosen through the  King’s Caucus, where party delegates choose the party nominee.  There is no input from the popular vote. 2. Stage 2 (1833­1912): Conventions comprised of delegates and  prominent public officials choose the party nominees. There is no  input from the popular vote. 3. Stage 3 (1913­1968): some states began to offer primaries due to  Roosevelt’s support for primaries. This allowed voters to have a  say in the primary process for the first time. 4. Stage 4 (1969­now): was referred to but not discussed directly in  the video. Probably refers to the Democratic change in primaries,  where the outcomes of primaries must be held accountable to the  voters during the Democratic convention.  The 1912 Republican caucus was very raucous.  Roosevelt tried to convince African­Americans to join his side at the  caucus, but he failed with the exception of eight delegates. Those eight  that supported him were not allowed in the new party because Roosevelt  was a racist and he also knew that he had no chance of winning any  Southern elections anyway.  Primaries allow fringe candidates to become president.  Primary rules are created by the parties.  Brokered Convention: this occurs when 1) the candidate with the most  delegates does not have at least 50% of the delegates or 2) when a  candidate has at least 50% of the delegates, but not all of those delegates  vote for that candidate.  Lecture 15 o Nomination Campaign Dynamics  Positive Influences on Candidates’ Vote Shares: 1. Support in New Hampshire before the Iowa caucus, which is  determined by the last poll taken in New Hampshire before the  Iowa caucus. 2. Finishing second in the Iowa caucus. 3. Good standing in national polls; spent money can increase a  candidate’s standing in national polls. o Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA)  Sponsored by John McCain and Russ Feingold; also known as the  McCain­Feingold Bill.  This act restricted soft money: unregulated money that individuals,  corporations, and labor unions donated to parties.  Changes to Soft Money Expenditures 1. Issue advocacy ads be funded through contributions subject to  campaign contribution limits. 2. Raised the individual campaign contribution limit from $1,000 to  $2,000 and is subject to inflation. 3. Prevented interest groups and corporations from buying issue  advocacy ads that mention any candidate’s name 60 days before a  general election or 30 days before a primary election.  Intended to force campaigns to primarily raise money from small donors  since soft money was now essentially illegal. o Citizens United v. FEC (2010)  This decision by the Supreme Court essentially allowed corporations and  labor unions to spend as much money as they want on supporting  candidates, including spending money on the election or defeat of a  specific candidate. o Super PACs  Super PACs allow for unlimited corporation and union spending.  They can spend money on advocacy, but they cannot directly coordinate  with campaigns.  They have not been very influential in the 2016 Republican nomination  election. o Choosing Presidential Nominees  Campaigns have developed effective small donor bases through the  internet.  Matching Funds Program 1. Funds primary candidates with taxpayer dollars in exchange for  candidates building grassroots networks of voters. 2. Matches individual contributions up to $250 with taxpayer funds;  this can comprise about 25­30% of major candidates’ funds. 3. To qualify, candidates must raise at least $5,000 in $250 donations  or less in each of at least 20 states. 4. Candidates must also limit personal contributions to his/her  campaign to $50,000 and agree to abide by spending limits. 5. All of these spending limits are subject to inflation.  Reasons Candidates Opt Out of the Matching Funds Program 1.   Independent wealth allows candidates to spend more money than  they could following the program’s rules. 2.   Ideological reasons, i.e. taxpayers should not fund campaigns. 3. Personal Internet bases of voter contributions far surpass any help  from this program. o Front­Loading Primaries  Front­loading: primaries are increasingly scheduled earlier in the  presidential election year.  Front­loading makes early fundraising even more important, especially  during the invisible primary period: the year before primaries.  However, fundraising has not been especially important in the  2016 race.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.