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Chapter 7 Study Guide

by: valerie zaid

Chapter 7 Study Guide SOC 10000 - 016

Marketplace > Purdue University > Sociology > SOC 10000 - 016 > Chapter 7 Study Guide
valerie zaid

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A complete study guide for chapter 7 based on class notes and the book.
Introductory Sociology
Dan M Weiss
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 10000 - 016 at Purdue University taught by Dan M Weiss in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 310 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 03/27/16
Sociology Exam II Study Guide Chapter 7-Stratification:  Stratification: stratified societies are those where human groups within them are ranked hierarchically into strata, along one or more social dimensions.  Views of inequality: o Jean-Jacques Rousseau argues that private property creates social inequality and that this inequality ultimately leads to social conflict o Ferguson and Millar agreed with Rousseau. They believe that private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and efficiency. o Thomas Malthus  Saw inequality as good, or at least necessary  Theory that suggests that a rising number of people on the planet will eventually use up all the available resources and bring about mass starvation and conflict  Overpopulation would create more and more human misery  Malthusian population trap: a situation in which population growth leads not to abundance but increased poverty. o Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel  Master-slave dialect: the slave is dependent on the master because the master provides food, shelter, and protection. The master is also dependent on the slave, who performs the basic duties of survival until the master can no longer function on his own. (mutual dependency)  Optimistic view of history, he thought that eventually notions of inequality would eventually lead to equality for all  Standards of equality: o Equality of opportunity  Idea that everyone has equal chance to achieve wealth, prestige and power because the rules of the game are the same for everyone  Some people have more wealth and income than others, but the rules of the game are still fair  Bourgeois society: a society of commerce in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive  Everyone who is willing can compete to become a heart surgeon, and eventually the most talented will rise to fill the most demanding position o Equality of condition  Idea that everyone should have an equal starting point  Affirmative action: when a person or group in a gatekeeper position actively selects some applicants who haven’t faced and even playing field due to racism or sexism in society o Equality of outcome  Most radical form of equality  Idea that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the “game”  Everyone contributes to society and to the economy according to what they do best  Nobody earns more power, prestige and wealth by working harder  Forms of stratification: o Estate system: politically based system of stratification 2 o Caste system: system of stratification based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity o Class system: an economically based hierarchical system of stratification o Karl Marx divided society into: the employing class (bourgeoisie or capitalist class) and the working class (proletariat) o Erin Olin Wright developed the concept of contradictory class locations which is the idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two “pure” classes o Max Weber argues that classes are based on grouping people according to the value of their property or labor in the commercial marketplace o Status hierarchy system: a system of stratification based on social prestige, not in political, religious or economic factors o Elite-mass dichotomy system: a system of stratification that has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold power in society  How is America stratified today? o Socioeconomic status: an individual’s position in a stratified social order o Huge income gap between high-income and low- income individuals which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years o Poverty: state that families usually shift in and out of throughout their history, and often a clear distinction does not exist between the working class and the poor  Patterns of Income Inequalities o 1974- the top 5 households earned 9.8 times more th than the bottom 5th o 2001- the top 5 earned more than half of all national income 3 o the rich have been getting richer, middle-income earners and the poor have been getting poorer  The American dream o We are all taught that if we work hard and persevere, we can become anything o We can become one of those millionaires o We are striving for vertical social mobility  Social mobility o Social mobility: Movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society o Structural mobility: mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy o Exchange mobility: mobility in which individuals trade jobs not one-to-one but in a way that ultimately balances out o Status-attainment model: approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and characteristics of people who end up in more desirable occupations.  Myths about the poor o Poor people are trapped in poverty o Welfare encourages married women with children to divorce so they can collect welfare, and it encourages single women on welfare to have more children o Welfare is a strain on the federal budget 4


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