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Exam 5 study guide

by: Nysheba Carter

Exam 5 study guide PSY 100-001

Nysheba Carter
GPA 3.2
Introduction to Psychology - SB
Douglas Krull

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About this Document

This def. helped me when I went back and studied after typing the study guide and if you go over it every night - that may help even more.
Introduction to Psychology - SB
Douglas Krull
Study Guide
exam 5, health, disorders
50 ?




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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nysheba Carter on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100-001 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Douglas Krull in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology - SB in Psychlogy at Northern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
Psy100 Exam 5 Study Guide Psychological Disorders and Treatments 1 Psychologists vs psychiatrists What is abnormal infrequent and detrimental distressing dangerous to self or others The DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersPsychologists or other mental health professionals gather information eg clinical interview MMPI and often use the DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to make a diagnosis Intern s Syndrome Rosenhan s 1973 researchMental health professionals are people too Models of psychological illness Biological genes neurotransmitters Cognitive dysfunctional thoughts Behavioral learning conditioned fear reaction Psychodynamic unconscious con icts Sociocultural poverty dysfunctional family systems Humanistic self distorted to gain regard from others Norcross amp colleagues 2005 Psychodynamic was most widely endorsed by clinical psychologists in 1960 cognitivecognitivebehavioral in 2003 Diathesis predispositionStress environment model BioPsychoSocial model Sayette amp colleagues 2011Cognitivecognitivebehavioral is dominant in clinical psychology PhD programs Many psychologists are eclectic Norcross amp colleagues 2005 8 Phobia spiders heights social causes include HPA overactivity conditioned fear reaction biased attention and interpretation treatments include benzodiazepines SSRIs exposure therapy 9 Panic Disorder chest pains sweating shortness of breathe also agoraphobia 12 13 causes include genesgaba dysfunction anxiety sensitivity interoceptive sensitivity and catastrophic misinterpretationsattacks treatments include benzodiazepines SSRIs interoceptive exposure cognitive restructuring ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder obsessions unwanted desires intrusive and compulsionsneutralizing acts causes include genes atrophy of some brain areas social poverty or death of a loved one overestimation of threat treatments include SSRIs exposure with response preventiontreatment of choice Major Depressive Disorder 2 weeks or more depressed mood lack of activites sleep problems retardation Seasonal Affective Disorder Dysthymia is less intense lasting gender difference risk is twice as high for women 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 causes include genes neurotransmitter dysfunction poverty and other social factors dysfunctional thoughts Beck s cognitive modelnegative cognitive triad self world future cognitive distortions and negative automatic thoughts treatments include SSRIs light therapy for SAD ECT if all others fail cognitive restructuring attribution retraining and change sleep or work schedule and hang with friends and family more Bipolar I Disorder periods of depression periods of mania for one or more week increased energy and increased need for sleep Bipolar II Disorder hypomanic episodes shorter or less intense subtypes cyclothymic disorder less severe but long lasting and normal mood causes include Biological highly heritable deterioration or dysfunction of certain brain areasSocial negative life events predict depression events that involve goal attainment predict maniaperhaps because bipolar is associated with reward sensitivity social rhythm disruptions predict mania expressed emotion criticism emotional overinvolvement predicts relapses treatments include mood stabilizers medication Schizophrenia psychotic disorder positive symptoms include hallucinations auditory most common delusions persecution police sirensdisorganized thinkinglanguage loose associations clanging word salad catatonic behavior and waxy exibility negative symptoms include at affect alogia and avolitionlack of motivation causes include genes and environmental factors prenatal exposure to infection stress dopamine hypotheses I Schizophrenia due to overactivity of dopamine dopamine hypothesis 2 Negative symptoms due to underactivity of dopamine in the frontal lobes positive symptoms due to overactivity in the striatum part of the basal ganglia associated with reward dopmanine hypothesis 3 Psychosis not just in schizophrenia is due to dopamine dysfunction in the striatum suggests this dysfunction affects how stimuli are evaluated irrelevant stimuli might seem important attention might be drawn away from family friends goals suggests problem begins with presynaptic accumulation of dopamine thus blocking it later might not solve the problem and might even make it worse Deinstitutionalizationmovement of patients from large state institutions into community based care unfortunately care was not always adequate and many patients ended up homeless Treatments of schizophrenia Family therapy psychoeducationteach family members reduce expressed emotionSocial skills trainingteach conversational and occupational skillsCognitive remediationaddress cognitive deficitsCognitive behavior therapymodify thoughts eg about delusions Trauma model suggests symptoms caused by traumatic stress Dissociative identity disorder multiple identitiesIdentities can be very different examples age gender handedness gestures possible brain differences 24 25 26 27 Sociocognitive model suggests symptoms caused by culture multiple personality in the media and therapists inducement of symptoms by therapists is called iatrogenesis in combination with other psychopathology ADHD 2 3 times more frequent in boys goes in to adulthood Causes include highly heritable maternal smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy perhaps poor family functioning not diet Dysfunctions in prefrontal cortex and poor executive functioning Treatment Stimulant medication improves executive functioning and behavior therapy eg train parents Health PsychologV 28 29 34 35 36 Biopsychosocial Model Theories about Health Behavior 1Perception of threat 2 Perceived severity of threat3 Pros versus cons of health behavior4 Cues to action Promoting Health Behavior Aversion treatment eg antabuse makes one ill if one drinks alcohol Instrumental conditioning eg reward oneself for studying or exercising Stimulus control eg don t keep open bags of chips and cookies nearby Contingency contracting eg get one CD back for every 2 pounds lost Modify one s thoughts eg I can do this cognitivebehavior therapy works for health too Abstinence Violation Effect Social Engineering Laws prohibit unsafe driving Many harmful drugs are illegal Many schools have physical education and nutrition requirements How far should we go in trying to encourage healthy behavior Sleep has stages that can be identified by brain waves Awake low amplitudehigh frequency beta and alpha waves In sleep waves become larger but less frequent NREM 1 Theta waves NREM 2 Sleep spindles bursts of activity and Kcomplexes single large waves appear NREM 3 Largeslow delta waves The person then cycles back through NREM 2 and enters REM Rapid Eye Movement REM is called paradoxical sleep because the brain waves look like the waking state People have a loss of muscle tone in REM except those who have REM Sleep Behavior Disorder A complete cycle takes about 90100 minutes but as the night goes on we spend less time in NREM 3 and more in REM Sleep deprived students have lower grades Sleep deprived students are more likely to have traffic accidents Obesity serious health risk eg heart disease diabetes and is estimated to be responsible for up to 300000 deaths per year 37 38 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Body Mass Index BMI is a better measure than weight weight in poundsheight in inchesheight in inches703 Causes include genes Hebebrand amp Hinney 2009 leptininsulin insensitivity Levin 2005 reward sensitivity stronger reaction to positive outcomes Davis amp colleagues 2007 external eating eating based on external cues such as the sight of food Brignell amp colleagues 2009 variations in the CLOCK gene Garaulet amp colleagues 2010 and circadian desynchrony Wyse 2012 unhealthy eating Farley amp Cohen 2001 and too little exercise Farley amp Cohen 2001 Sustained weight loss is difficult but possible Weiss amp colleagues 2007 Suggestions mostly from the Harvard School of Public Health Set goals Slow and steady wins the race Exercise Think about why you re eating eg bored eating mindlessly while watching TV Eat healthier foods eg whole grains fruitsvegetables Eat your calories drink water Be wary of unhealthy snacks and large portions Out of sight out of mind store leftovers and snacks out of sight QOQG NUIBUJNr t Eating Disorders 90 of people with eating disorders are female Eating disorders are partially genetic but are also in uenced by culture exposure to thin fashion models increases negative affect and body dissatisfaction in women and these predict eating disorder symptoms Ahern amp colleagues 2008 Stice amp Shaw 1994 Symptoms for anorexia include resistance to maintaining a healthy weight intense fear of becoming overweight illusions about weight or body shape and for females infrequent or absent menstrual periods Might also use extreme weight control methods examplesvomiting laxatives Other symptoms brittle hair weakening of the bones muscle weakness fatigue Mortality rate is approximately 12 times higher than for females 1524 Symptoms for bulimia include binge eating eating a huge amount of food with a feeling of being out of control and compensatory behavior eg vomiting at least twice a week for 3 months Other symptoms decaying teeth gastrointestinal problems dehydration People with bulimia often weigh in the normal range Smoking is a serious health risk eg heart disease cancer and is the leading preventable cause of death 440000 deaths per year Second hand smoke 38000 deaths per year Infant deaths because mother smoked during pregnancy 910 per year Smoking is a health risk stains one s teeth costs money and probably isn t enjoyable at first People smoke because 1 Advertising Fischer and colleagues 1991 91 of sixyearolds could match Joe Camel with a cigarette Prevalence of smoking varied with advertising campaigns directed to men or women Pierce amp Gilpin 1995 2 Portrayal of smoking by celebrities and in the media Teenagers have greater intention to smoke after depictions of smoking in films Pechmann amp Shih1999 Celebrities who smoke encourage adolescents to smoke Distefan amp colleagues 2004 3 Peers and parents Adolescents are more likely to smoke if their friends smoke Bernat amp colleagues 2008 Adolescents overestimate peer smoking Edwards amp colleagues 2008 Children are more likely to smoke if their parents smoke the effect is stronger for biological but even holds for not biologicallyrelated Keyes amp colleagues 2008 4 Physiological factors Drug use is maintained by positive reinforcement drug sensations and negative reinforcement removal of withdrawal symptoms Affect regulationsmokers smoke more when they are in a negative mood Brandon 1994 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 65 66 Alcohol abuse using alcohol in a manner that interferes with one s life Alcohol abuse is a health risk eg cardiovascular disease liver disease Alcohol increases the risk of traffic fatalities and violent crime eg sexual assault Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause Fetal Alcohol Syndrome People drink because of the sensation and also because of peers Alcohol Treatment Behavioral techniques aversion treatment stimulus control contingency contracting Why is stress bad for you Behavioral Stress promotes unhealthy behaviors eg poor lack of exercise increased smoking Physiological Ader and Cohen 1975 showed that learning could affect the immune system Health experts estimate that 6090 of doctor Visits colleagues 2005 nutrition reduced sleeping are stressrelated Benson amp Three Cs of Psychological Hardiness 1 Challenge 2 Control 3 Commitment Coping with stress techniques Progressive muscle relaxation Deep breathing Guided imagery Selfaffirmation Biofeedback Coping with stress social support Lower risk of coronary heart disease Berkman 1985 Less pain medication and faster recovery from surgery Kulik amp Mahler 1989 Cancer patients live longer Helgeson amp colleagues 1998 Female students who do a Math task have lower heart rate if a friend is with them Kamarck amp colleagues 1996 Coronary Heart Disease Leading cause of death for both men and women and for all ethnic groups Uncontrollable risk factors 1 Age most people who die are over 60 0 2 Sex men die from CHD about 10 years earlier However CHD is leading cause of death for women too 0 3 Heredity and Ethnicity Race Partially genetic Day amp Wilson 2001 0 AfricanAmericans have highest risk several causes e g behavior SES discrimination 67 Controllable risk factors 0 Lower risk Good nutrition exercise adequate sleep 0 Higher risk Obesity smoking alcohol abuse 68 Depersonalization 0 Examples Where s my arm 0 Straub 2007 suggests depersonalization helps medical staff to work efficiently and to reduce the stress of having to work on a person rather than for example a car but it can still be unpleasant for the patient


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