Nutrition in the Lifespan Uzcategui
Nutrition in the Lifespan Uzcategui NSD 225
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Holden Hershey on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NSD 225 at Syracuse University taught by Uzcategui in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Science and Dietetics in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Nutrition in the Lifespan Exam 2 Study Guide Premenstrual Syndrome What nutrients effect symptoms Women with high levels of calcium and Vitamin D are less likely to experience symptoms Consume whole grains and lean protein Reduce caffeine intake exercise consume 200mg of Magnesium per day calcium and vitamin D Vitamin B6 alleviates symptoms Nutritional Culprits of Infertility for Men and Women Signi cant weight loss 1015 total body weight Oxidative stress Celiac Disease Inadequate body fat or too much body fat Inadequate selenium Vitamin C Vitamin E Side Effects of Hormonal Birth Control Fluctuations of different hormones estrogentestosterone Suggested that oral contraceptive stops 2 months before conception Heavy bleeding irregular periods Hair growth or hair loss alopecia Nutritional Intervention for PCOS and Diabetes Improve insulin resistance through medication exercise or weight reduction Improve body lipids aerobic respiration Increase protein omega 3 fatty acids whole grains ber monounsaturated fat intake Decrease intake of saturated fats trans fats and glycolipids Svmbtoms Indicators of PCOS Waist circumference Men40quot Women35quot Triglycerides gt 150mgdL HDL Men lt40mgdL Women 50mgdL BPgt 13085 Fasting Glucose gt 110mgdL Physiological Changes of Pregnancy Increase in blood volume by 50 Hemodilation lowered levels of hemoglobin albumin water soluble vitamins Increase in fats Triglycerides cholesterol free fatty acids Increased pulse rate Lowered blood pressure for 1st 6 months of pregnancy Decreased GI motility to increase amount of nutrient absorption quot Can lead to heartburn and constipation Nutritional Needs for Pregnancy Carbohydrates 4565 Proteins 1035 Fats 2035 Normal pregravid weight 2535lbs Overweight pregravid weight 1525le Obese pregravid weight 1120le 25le should be gained during the 1st Trimester Additional 1bs per week for 2nCI and 3rd Trimester Energy Needs 1st Trimester No additional caloric needs 2nCI Trimester 340kcal 3rCI Trimester 452kcal lncrease 1 serving from each food group Increased lipid consumption is necessary for hormonal balance Lipid increase is essential for increase in maternal fat stores Fluid Needs 35ml40ml per kg of weight along with one additional cup of water per day Thirst sensation may not accurately keep up with body s need for water Folate and Iron Requirements Folate 600 ug per day lron 27mg per day Iron de ciency can lead to preterm low birth weight Preeclampsia Caused by oxidative stress in ammation blood vessel spasms Alteration in hormonal control and balance Alteration in calcium regulated hormones Reduced Calcium excretion Cured by delivery of the child At risk underweight gestational diabetes diet inadequate in antioxidants and calcium Gestational Diabetes mellitus Prevalent in diets low in ber Need to focus on controlling blood glucose Carbohydrate Metabolism during Pregnancy Increase in CHO to fuel fetal metabolism 1st half of the pregnancy insulin is produced because of estrogen and progesterone quot Causes an increase in glycogen and fat 2ncl half of the pregnancy Fat increase insulin increase because of rapid growth in the third trimester Inadequate consumption of CHO causes ketones to be present in the urine quot Can cause growth retardation impaired intellectual capabilities Iron Consumption Bioavailability Calcium Zinc Magnesium compete for bio absorption Need to get at least 9mg per day when breastfeeding Necessary to intake 27mg per day when pregnant Nutritional Factors in Male Fertility Inadequate Zinc intake causes lowered sperm count semen production Zinc is a cofactor for many enzymes used to produce testosterone DNA replication and protein synthesis are dependent on zinc Food Sources Oysters lean protein yogurt nuts Antioxidants are needed to protect sperm improve sperm count 17 of males have a low sperm count Obesity in males lowered sperm count Nutritional Factors in Female Fertility Oral contraceptives delay fertility Obesity general problem Lowered levels of sex hormones estrogen and progesterone More testosterone and estrogen could be a factor Irregular ovulation cycles Nutritional intervention for PCOS Supplement protein 3035 daily value Increase consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids Increase consumption of whole grains Lower consumption of saturated fats and trans fats Foods to Avoid During Pregnancy Fish high in mercury Sword sh Lunch meats unpasteurized milk soft cheeses Toxoplasmosis Foods with strong odors Women who are pregnant are 320 times more likely to contract a foodborne illness SGA Small for Gestational Age Dependent on nutrient availability oxygen levels energy levels pSGA Physical Appearance small shorter in length smaller head circumference Caused by longterm malnutrition quot Poor maternal weight gain chronic alcohol exposure m Physical appearance wasted wrinkled skin Small abdominal circumference lack of liver glycogen to process fat fat stores Caused by short term malnutrition maternal weight loss inadequate weight gain in the 3rd trimester Risks at birth include hypoglycemia and hypothermia Potential to develop academic disabilities Type II Diabetes Miletus Hypertension Cardiovascular disease Hormones involved in Lactation Pituitary gland produces Prolactin and Oxytocin Prolactin Stimulates milk production Oxytocin Stimulates milk release Bene ts of Breastfeeding for the Mother Delay in monthly ovulation Psychological bene ts Increased energy needs can lead to loss of maternal weight Bene ts of Breastfeeding for the Child Nutritionally superior Ant infectious factors immune cells Won t overfeed the child Least allergenic Promotes mother to child contact Bioavailabilitv of Nutrients in Breast milk Fat soluble and water soluble vitamins B12 and Folate Low in sodium 55 Fat 39 Carbohydrate 6 Protein Zinc and Fluoride T Cells Lactoferrin enzymes Because breast milk in low in sodium and protein it limits the renal solute load Assessment of Adequacy of Milk Production Typical Production in the 1st month 600ml per day 45 months 750800ml 6 months 4501200m Increased production in response to need Reasons for Inadequate Milk Production Hyperthyroidism hypertension Caffeine Illness poor diet Stress anxiety drugs Energy Needs for Lactation 500kcals per day for the rst 6 months 400kcal to allow gradual weight loss 670kcal burned per day for milk production Women need 2400kcal per day when breast feeding Grains 8 oz Vegetables 2 cups Fruits 2 cups Milk 3 cups Meat Beans 6502 Oil 7tbsp Neonatal laundice 50 mortality rate for pathological conditions 13 infants get jaundice within the rst 3 weeks Liver is not developed enough to process fats Treat by increasing breastfeeding Supplemental food may be necessary If not resolved bilirubin can cause nerve damage Allergies Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months protects against allergies Effected by genetics duration of breastfeeding
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