PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 3 Lecture Notes UGA
PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 3 Lecture Notes UGA Psych 3230
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Snyder on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3230 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Lecture Notes, Week 9 October 14, 2015 Chapter 10—Substance Use Disorders What is a drug? o Not always illegal (nicotine, caffeine) o Substances may cause temporary changes in behavior, emotion or thoughts o Can understand consumption use by both positive and negative reinforcement o Substance use disorders o Tolerance o Withdrawal o Signs of addiction o About 9% of all teens and adults in the US have substance use disorder Few people receive treatment Most: Native Americans Least: Asians (possible biological reason—alcohol dehydrogenase deficiency) Depressant substances o slow activity of the Central Nervous System o depress the areas of the brain that produce anxiety and stress o alcohol in the US, more than half of all residents drink alcoholic beverages from time to time o binge-drinking episodes 5 or more drinks in a session 2% of people in the US will report binge-drinking once a month Nearly 7% of people report binge drinking at least 5x each month Considered heavy drinkers o binge-drinking episodes 5 or more drinks in a session Most dangerous activity 2% of people in the US will report binge-drinking once a month Nearly 7% of people report binge drinking at least 5x each month Considered heavy drinkers VIDEO: binge drinking at a tailgate at Michigan State University o 1/3 of college students binge drinking Alcohol o Takes effect in blood stream and central nervous system o Helps GABBA (an inhibitory messenger) shut down neurons and relax the drinker o Concentration in the blood Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase BAC = 0.06 relaxation and comfort BAC = 0.09 intoxication BAC > 0.55 death October 16, 2015 Alcohol Use Disorder o One of the most dangerous recreational drugs o Men outnumber women 2:1 Men are more likely to have gene mutations that put them at a predisposition for alcohol addiction o Alcohol is commonly involved in crimes o Age at which you have your first drink is a significant predictor of whether or not you will develop an addiction Individual patterns of alcoholism vary Autopsies of alcoholics show shrinkage of brain—literal loss of brain volume as a result of their addictions Withdrawals can be fatal o Delirium tremens: when people with severe alcohol addiction have seizure-like symptoms during withdrawal periods Alcoholism destroys families, social relationships, careers Cirrhosis—damage to the liver caused by alcohol addiction Korsakoff’s Syndrome: o Nutrition disorder—long time malnutrition of the brain o Causes memory loss o In severe causes, sufferers can lose HUGE gaps of time in memory o Common in long-time alcoholics o Sometimes developed by anorexics VIDEO: In Search of Alcoholism Genes o Genetic Coding o Interaction between genes and environmental interaction – idea that ½ of addiction is your environment but ½ is genetic o Study done where thousands of mice were given genetic coding alterations at random and then observed in their preferences between alcohol and plain water o Mouse—unusual behavior Consumed 85% of liquid intake a day from feeder containing alcohol Proof that alcoholism isn’t just a social problem but a biological disorder o Genome-wide association studies Comparing genetic info from people with and without diseases o There is not a single determining gene but several, each with a small effect—when combined, multiple genes can tip the scale and push a person towards addiction o Man in video did have some genes linked to alcoholism Lecture Notes, Week 10 October 19, 2015 Having genes that predispose you to alcoholism increase the likelihood by 20% Stimulants o Increase activity of the CNS (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate) o Cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine Cocaine o Several ways to ingest—powder form, liquid form (heating and inhaling the fumes—crack—cheaper) o Increasing dopamine levels @ key receptor sites—dopamine “flooding” o Increases norepinephrine and serotonin o Cocaine intoxication Hallucinations and/or delusionsdrug induced psychosis o Withdrawals/crashes can be very dangerous + Depresses the brain’s respiratory function, can stop breathing o High may not be euphoric, can just intensify emotions (angry outbursts instead) VIDEO: “Street Interview w/ a Cocaine Addict” – https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=R3GYI-Kpf5M Very well spoken guy—mentions drug use as being similar to a “nervous tick,” uses it to not think about is past o “brain gets fuzzy…I can only focus on the moment, can’t think about the past or the future” Drugfreeworld.org – has very helpful information and videos on several types of drugs Amphetamines o Intoxication and psychosis o Methamphetamines—most common amphetamine o Highly addictive o Some are legal—ADHD drugs Used to be in diet pills, available over the counter o Gaining popularity in recent years o First few times using is an actual frontal lobe decision With continued use, brain moves the desire for the drug to the area of brain that controls need for basic necessities—food, water, shelter etc. VIDEO: Meth Addict Going Crazy – https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=WoRc0UHjHkA Hallucinogens o Psychedelic drugs “trips” can last for a long time, 6-12 hrs Can have “bad trips” – scary hallucinations, paranoia Natural hallucinogens Mescaline—peyote (cactus) Psilocybin—mushrooms Laboratory produced hallucinogens LSD—Lysergic acid diethylamide MDMA—ecstasy o Similar to amphetamines but plus hallucinations o Can stop people from sweating which can create a problem if people drink too much water, resulting in hyponatremia (too little sodium in blood bc of dilution) o LSD Comes from a fungus—can be ingested in a crystalized, liquid or tab form Synesthesia—merging of senses during a trip (hearing colors, tasting sounds) Binds to serotonin receptors in visual and auditory tracts, disrupting senses Less addictive, less deaths caused directly by LSD, injuries are usually caused by hallucinations Not usually any withdrawal symptoms or a tolerance build up Flashbacks can occur—disruption of senses/visual hallucinations after drug has left system o Cannabis—classified as hallucinogenic but is very mild) Comes from hemp plant Hashish—gummy resin Marijuana THC—tetrahydrocannabinol Reduces anxiety/irritability Hallucinogenic, depressant and stimulant effects High can last 1-2hrs all the way up to 5-6hrs Users can develop a tolerance but it’s not considered a very addictive drug HEAVY users report withdrawal symptoms Paranoia, panic, poor concentration, impaired memory, lack of ability to control impulses Today’s weed has 2x+ the THC that weed had in the 70s October 21, 2015 What causes substance use disorders? o Best explanation: a combination of factors o Genetic predisposition DRDZ gene on chromosome II—majority of alcoholics have this gene and most nonalcoholics don’t Abnormal dopamine receptors Key neurotransmitter Affects other areas of the brain Twin studies Monozygotic—more likely to be similar in habits Dizygotic—less likely to be similar Reward deficiency syndrome: sufferer’s brains are not AS stimulated, so they end up turning to drugs to receive the same stimulation that the rest of the population receives naturally Hypersensitivity to the substances shuts down neurotransmitter production so people are literally addicted to the drug and why they experience severe withdrawal symptoms Causes of substance disorders o Sociocultural views Lower socioeconomic status Poverty Social environments where substance use is valued/accepted/encouraged o Cognitive behavioral views Operant conditioning Using has positive effects (pleasurable/enjoyable feelings) positively reinforced Also negatively reinforced—being stressed out and feeling relieved after smoking a cigarette Cognitive expectancy for reward develops The expectations of feeling good on their second, third, fourth etc. time using People with other disorders are likely to self-medicate How are substance use disorders treated? o Typically a combination of inpatient and outpatient treatment Inpatient programs are usually more successful It’s very hard for people with a substance abuse disorder to change friend groups etc. o Detoxification o Denial – huge obstacle First step is admitting you have a problem—alcohol use is widely accepted in our society, making it hard for people to see/think that they have a problem when they see everyone else drinking too o Agonist substitution Substituting in a less addicting drug Common among heroin addicts Weening an addict off a drug o Medications Alcoholics take anibuse—makes a person sick if they ingest alcohol o Diversion therapy Pairing the addictive stimuli with an unpleasant result Ex. smelling cigarette smoke = nausea after smoking a whole pack in a controlled setting (which is dangerous) Treatment o Contingency management Clean urine testsrewards o Relapse-prevention training o Self-help and residential treatment programs Most common: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Most people drop out of the program and relapse Chapter 11: Disorders of Sex and Gender Disorders of sex & gender o 2 general categories of sexual disorders Sexual dysfunction Paraphilic disorders Sexual Dysfunctions o Cannot respond normally in key areas of sexual functioning 31% of men and 43% of women o Typically very distressing, most sufferers have a desire for a healthy sex drive o Cycle of 4 phases Desire Excitement Orgasm Revolution o One or more of the first three phases Different Types of Sexual Behavior o Kinsey Study late 1940s and early 1950s Highly controversial findings about sexual behavior in the US Info collected through interviews VIDEO: Kinsey Movie Trailer from 2004 o Stars Liam Neeson o Masters and Johnson Late 1960s Sexual acts in the lab while connected to a machine o The Janus Report – 1993 Surveyed, confidential, 3,000 people worldwide October 23, 2015 Male Motivation o Men are more likely to masturbate o Men spend more time and money trying to get sex o Men, when surveyed, instigate sex more often and say no to sex less often than women VIDEO: Sexual Motives and Responses – Psychological science o Video watched in class—not a single girl said yes to the stranger asking them to have sex with him o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gxyySRgrYsU (different video, same concept) VIDEO: Attitudes toward Sex, do men and women differ? http://www.macmillanhighered.com/launchpad/comerfund7e/1874644#/launc hpad/item/ANGEL_psychportal-comerfund7e- master_012C2DC620ABF1C5E6DE311BA346004C? mode=Preview&includeDiscussion=False&renderFNE=True&renderIn=fne Disorders of Desire o Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Lack of interest in sex but function normally during sex ~16% of men suffer Some studies are being done about hyperactivity disorders— very controversial o Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Desire Rarely initiate sex ~33% of women Lack of desire + lack of physical arousal o Biological, sociocultural and psychological factors in both disorders Some medications (SSRIs, birth control, antidepressants and illegal drugs) Anxiety, depression, anger, memories, fears Higher estrogen/progesterone = lower sex drives Higher testosterone = higher sex drives Sex drive can decrease with age There are no biological differences between heterosexual and homosexual people Disorders of Excitement o Men: erections o Women: vaginal lubrication, swelling of clitoris and labia o Men can have trouble achieving and/or maintaining erections and it be totally normal Emotions: it’s almost impossible for a man to maintain an erection and simultaneously be angry at someone Around ½ of all adult men have had this problem at some time Erectile Disorder (ED) o Persistent inability to attain/maintain an erection o 10% of general male population o Biological causes Hormonal imbalances Vascular problems Medications/substance abuse VIDEO: Viagra http://www.macmillanhighered.com/launchpad/comerfund7e/1874644#/launc hpad/item/ANGEL_psychportal-comerfund7e- master_012C2DC620ABF1C5E6DE311BA346004E? mode=Preview&includeDiscussion=False&renderFNE=True&renderIn=fne o Discovered in search for drugs to help relieve constriction of blood vessels around the heart o VERY rare to take dysfunctional tissue and return it to normal functioning o Viagra is over prescribed o 9% of men have ED o Sold be Pfizer o Nocturnal Penile Tumescence (NPT) Natural during REM sleep for a person to experience sexual arousal Device that measures the diameter of the penis throughout the night Used when trying to find cause of ED—physical or mental/emotional? o Psychological Causes Depression Performance anxiety – “am I doing it right?” Spectator role – feeling detached during the sexual encounter rather than a participator Disorders of Orgasm o Men: semen is ejaculated o Women: outer ½ of vaginal walls contract Premature Ejaculation o Persistent reaching of orgasm and ejaculation within one minute of beginning sexual activity or before he wishes to o Mostly attributed to younger/less experienced men and hurried masturbation experiences o 30% of all men sometimes experience ED o May be the result of “over arousal” – emotionally OR physically (especially sensitive penile nerves) Lecture Notes, Week 11 October 26, 2015 Female Orgasmic Disorder o Persistent failure to reach an orgasm o Could also be low intensity orgasms or extreme delay in orgasm o Must produce some sort of distress or dysfunction in sufferer’s life in order to be diagnosed o ~24% of women o Often attributed to lack of experience or little/no sexual education Treatment for Sexual Dysfunction o Behavioral therapy (1950s and 1960s) Relaxation training Systematic desensitization (if problem is rooted in a fear) Misinformation Lack of effective sexual techniques o 1970s: Human Sexual Inadequacy Masters and Johnson Sensate focus—learning to relax and focus on sensations that are happening in the present, learn “what feels good” Vacuum constriction devices—used to produce an erection Squeeze technique—used to reduce arousal “stop/start” technique Planned Parenthood website – “read about anything to do with sex, A to Z!” Paraphilic Disorder o Intense sexual urges, fantasies or behaviors that involve objects or situations outside the usual sexual norm, including children, nonconsenting adults, nonhumans, or the experience of suffering/humiliation o Most common in men – “8 or 9 of 10 people diagnosed with paraphilic disorders are men” o Typically impulsive personalities o Significant distress/impairment OR a risk of harm Might not cause distress to sufferer, but may cause distress to partner (ex. young boys) o Often, sexual arousal depends on out-of-the-norm sexual preferences Fetishistic Disorders o Nonliving objects, often the exclusion of all other stimuli o Learned from classical conditioning o Aversion therapy o Masturbatory satiation o Orgasmic reorientation—therapy patient is asked to masturbate to a fantasy of something they wish to be aroused by that is more appropriate (ex. girlfriend, wife, etc.) Transvestic Disorder o Also known as Transvestism or cross-dressing o Dressing in clothes of the opposite sex in order to achieve sexual arousal People with this disorder don’t desire to be the opposite sex o Men dressing as women is a lot more common 2/3 of those diagnosed are heterosexual males Gender Dysphoria o Feel that they have been born to the wrong biological sex, gender change would be desirable VIDEO: Chaz Bono’s Story – ABC News o http://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/video/chaz-bonos-story-13567424 o Social responsibility o Sonny didn’t mind Chaz dressing/acting like a boy, Cher did October 28, 2015 DSM-5 categorization of the disorder is controversial Anxiety and depression May have genetic or prenatal factors Hormones for genetic reassignment surgery Exhibitionistic Disorder o Exposure of genitals in a public setting o Provoke shock or surprise o They are aroused by the reaction of other people o Almost exclusively males Immature/lack of social skills Learned behaviors Voyeuristic Behaviors o Observe people as they undress or engage in sexual activity o “peeping toms” Frotteuristic Behaviors o Repeated and intense fantasies, urges or behaviors involving touching & rubbing against a nonconsenting person Pedophilic disorder o Fantasies, urges or behaviors involving sexual arousal from a prepubescent or early pubescent children Usually males Generally considered a learned disorder “to catch a predator” Chapter 12 – Schizophrenia Psychosis o A state defined by a loss of contact with reality o May be substance induced or caused by a brain injury/tumor/cyst o Most appear in the form of schizophrenia Schizophrenia o Severely disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, inability to separate reality from fantasy Paired with mood disorders Schizoaffective disorders Disorganized and Delusional thinking o Many homeless people have schizophrenia o Common for people to go off their medications because the disorder causes them to think irrationally Categories of Schizophrenia o Disorganized Incoherent speech Flat emotions Flat affect o Catatonic Psychomotor skills are greatly reduced May hold a pose for hours Move slower Speak slower Act agitated Not a separate category in DSM-5 o Paranoid Delusional thoughts Husband trying to murder you / doctor trying to poison you October 30, 2015 – FALL BREAK – NO CLASS / NO NOTES Lecture Notes, Week 12 November 2, 2015 Positive Symptoms – excess of or additions to normal behavior o Delusions: thoughts are disconnected from reality Delusions of grandeur Delusions of persecution o Hallucinations—brocas area of the brain Through any senses Many times auditory (hearing voices) Sometimes taste/smell Sometimes visual o Disorganized speech and thinking Shifting topics when speaking very quickly, making speech very hard to follow Loose associations—very loose connections between topics and ideas, shows distorted though processes Perseverations—repetition of words or phrases Clang—rhyming speech Negative symptoms o Poor attention, flat affect (little emotion, face doesn’t really move when speaking, monotone pitch), poor speech production (alogia—speaking slowly, long pauses between words/statements) What is the course of schizophrenia? o Usually appears later in life, late teens—mid-thirties Type I – positive symptoms o Biochemical abnormalities—dopamine o Prognosis is better o Onset tends to be later Type II – negative symptoms o Structural abnormalities o Earlier onset VIDEO: A Beautiful Mind Trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aS_d0Ayjw4o VIDEO: Instructor video—interview with John Nash (real-life guy from A Beautiful Mind) Heard voices—aliens th Symptoms started shortly after 30 birthday After insulin shock treatments, described as “like a zombie” Nash’s son also has schizophrenia o Face twitching in son—psychomotor conditions Can sometimes be exacerbated by medicine used for psychosis symptoms “reasoned” his way out of delusions Type one schizophrenia Diasthesis-Stress Model o Diasthesis: genetic predisposition to the development of a disorder o Protective effect of a healthy family o Lower socioeconomic status (SES) higher incidence of schizophrenia o Expressed emotion—higher expressed emotion indicates a more dysfunctional family that is openly/verbally critical o Ideas of downward drift—schizophrenia pulls people from the upper or middle class into a lower class Biological Views o The more genes that are shared with a person in your family that is schizophrenic, the more likely you are to develop schizophrenia o Polygenic disorder—several genes have been identified as important to the development of schizophrenia Genes on chromosome 6 and 8 % risk chart from book Monozygotic twins—highest at 48% Both parents being schizophrenic – 46% Fraternal twins (17%) share the same amount of DNA that regular siblings (9%) do…why do they have a higher risk rate? Idea of the same uterine environment having huge role in development of schizophrenia o Biochemical abnormalities Dopamine hypothesis—certain synapses An excess of dopamine-neurons fire too often Antipsychotic medications that are most effective in treating schizophrenia are dopamine antagonists Parkinson’s patients have abnormally low levels of dopamine Given dopamine stimulators, induced temporary schizophrenia Amphetamine psychosis—symptoms similar to schizophrenia but it is drug induced o Modern medication Atypical antipsychotics or 2ndgeneration antipsychotics Bind to D-1 and D-2 (dopamine) receptors and to some serotonin receptors More effective Tend to see less tardive dyskinesia (psychomotor twitching) November 4, 2015 VIDEO: Can cannabis use trigger schizophrenia? Guy in video started smoking skunk 4 years ago About a year after he began use, he started having delusions about God Delusions began only when high but started happening all the time after continued use Voices were talking to him through the radio and TV, telling him to clean or throw things away He was prescribed antipsychotics, which helped o One female voice still lingers telling him to commit suicide Extremely hard to prove a causational relationship between cannabis use and psychosis—chicken and egg question Normal people’s lifetime prevalence of developing schizophrenia is 1% occasional cannabis users, 2% heavy users, 6% Abnormal Brain Structures o In particular cases with negative symptoms (type II) o Enlarged ventricles (space between brain structures that is filled with cerebral spinal fluid with the purpose of nourishing and removing waste from brain cells) Synaptic purging—process that occurs during sleep, where unused or disintegrating synaptic connections are destroyed and used connections are strengthened o Smaller temporal and frontal lobes o Smaller amounts of grey matter (brain matter containing mostly cell bodies) o Poor cell migration (less dense cell concentration in cortex of brain) Prenatal factors nd o Mother having flu while pregnant, especially during the 2 trimester o Extreme stress or duress during second Psychological Views o Cognitive view (how thoughts influence disorders) Biological factors produce symptoms Misunderstanding symptoms can exacerbate Cognitive-behavioral symptoms Pretty effective to directly confront the accuracy of delusions/hallucinations o Behaviors addressed can include Personal hygiene Eating habits Aimless wandering Not going to class/work VIDEO: What it’s like to have schizophrenia: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Ob5vubKWIac Positive symptoms vs. negative symptoms Delusions of reference o TV talking to you—“what are you looking at?” Brain scans prove that schizophrenics are not hearing external voices, but that their brain is producing them internally o Sufferers don’t understand/realize that the voices aren’t actually external o Voices often have a magical quality to them When a violent criminal has a mental illness, it is usually schizophrenia Care in the Past o Institutionalization in state run mental hospitals Care Today o Milieu Therapy: patients thrive in environments conducive to mental health Peaceful, serene, stress free, productive, homey, supportive Jobs, increases social skills More successful than other treatments, especially when used in combination with other treatment methods o Token Economies: therapy based on reward systems for positive behaviors (or rewards + punishments) Works best in institution settings List of rules Given tokens when abiding by rules Tokens taken away when rules are broken Antipsychotic Drugs o 1 antipsychotic on the market in 1954, chlorpromazine (Thorazine), dopamine antagonist o Drug therapy is therapy of choice for schizophrenia o Phenothiazines – 1960s, 1970s and 1980s “conventional” antipsychotic drugs Aka neuroleptic drugs – unwanted side effect of motor movementndtwitching etc.) o “atypical” or 2 generation psychotic drugs are most recent
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