PAD520 Week3 Assignment 1
PAD520 Week3 Assignment 1
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Date Created: 11/06/15
ARGUMENT MAPPING 1 ARGUMENT MAPPING Week 3 Assignment 1 Joseph Brown Dr Richard Freeman PAD 520 April 23 2013 ARGUMENT MAPPING 2 Create an argument map based on the in uence diagram presented in Case 13 and complete all the criteria provided in the exercise beginning with this claim The US should return to the 55 mph speed limit in order to conserve fuel and save lives The law was a response to the 1973 oil embargo and its intent was to reduce fuel consumption In the year after the National Maximum Speed Law was enacted road fatalities declined 164 from 54052 in 1973 to 45196 in 1974 Friedman amp Hedeker 2009 In 1974 the federal government passed the National Maximum Speed Law which restricted the maximum permissible vehicle speed limit to 55 miles per hour mph on all interstate roads in the United States According to the Environmental Protection Agency you can assume that each 5 mph you drive over 50 mph is like paying an additional 025 per gallon for gas in additional driving each vehicle reaches its optimal fuel economy at a different speed gas mileage usually decreases rapidly at speeds above 50 mph Aggressive driving to incudes speeding rapid acceleration and braking wastes gas Sensible driving can lower your gas mileage and also safer for you and others so you may save more than gas money Some studies show that drivers are Changing their habits or lifestyle in a number of ways to offset gas prices According to an AAA national survey of 1011 adults in March consumers reported Changing their habits in the following ways 86 Driving less 54 driving a more fuel efficient cars 33 carpooling and 15 using public transportation ARGUMENT MAPPING 3 US gasoline demand has been relatively low at about 83 million barrels a day recently compared with a more typical 9 million barrels per day said John Zehler Jr president of Virginia Fuels Inc of Mechanicsville a fuels distributor One expert says reducing highway speeds from 70 mph to 60 mph would reduce gasoline consumption between 2 and 3 That could translate into a price reduction of as much as 10 At today39s price almost 38 cents a gallon But on the other hand James Baxter is opposing such Mrs Baxter is currently the president of the National Motorists Association which lobbies to preserve the rights of drivers According to him Cars going 55 mph get noticeably better mileage than cars going 75 mph With arbitrary low speed limits that advantage is reduced by interrupted traffic ow darting weaving braking and accelerating as faster traffic beats its way through slower traffic scattered across all lanes of the highway Compare this with a highway with a more reasonable and accommodating speed limit where the traffic moves more in sync and there is less braking and accelerating and the slower traffic stays out of the left most passing lane His meaning argument is that a lower speed limit cannot have a material effect on fuel consumption besides being ignored by motorists is that the preponderance of motor fuels is consumed on streets roads and highways that already have lower speed limits and more importantly lower speeds He continue to say that only 20 to 25 percent of all traffic volume is on highways with speed limits above 55 mph and this traffic is already achieving superior fuel economy to that of traffic plodding along in urban and suburban areas Only 12 percent of the nation39s 38 million roadway miles are interstate highway Baxter 1999 He explained that in conditions like congestion and bad weather where speed limits become even more irrelevant and ARGUMENT MAPPING 4 it should become obvious that changing numbers on speed limit signs on roads where perhaps 15 percent of all fuel is consumed will not yield the nirvana of quotenergy independencequot Anyone who would propose a increase in the speed limit to save time and be on time has overlooked the obvious cost of slowing down the entire country The faster freight and people move across America has increase fuel cost and so on Reducing speed limit as a solution to OPEC oil has all the logic of lowering the cost per oil barrier Sen John Warner R Va cited a study by the Congressional Research Service that showed that the 1974 law which set a national speed limit of 55 mph saved 167000 barrels of oil per day 2 percent of US highway fuel consumption quotGiven the significant increase in the number of vehicles on America39s highway system from 1974 to 2008 one could assume that the amount of fuel that could be conserved today is far greaterquot Coile 2008 Many states objected to the 1974 law states like Montana and Kansas barely complied with the national speed limit law doing the 70 s The new bill threatens to withhold federal highway funds and even risk having their highway construction funds shifted to transportation safety and education projects if they refuses to comply under the new bill Since the enactment of the 1974 law on national speed limit of 55 mpg the federal government has been doing research upon researches to better proof the significant of the law A federal study in 1982 found that 83 percent of vehicles monitored on New York39s interstate system were exceeding the 55 mph limit But the law39s supporters point out that lower speed limits succeed in reducing fatalities on highways A National Academy of Sciences study found that the 55 mph limit saved between 2000 and 4000 lives each year ARGUMENT MAPPING 5 Assume that the original qualifier was certainly indicate whether the qualifier changes as we move from a simple static uncontested argument to a complex dynamic and contested argument Consumer Reports tested the effect of higher speeds on gas mileage David Champion director of auto testing found that boosting the highway speed of a 2006 Toyota Camry cut gasoline mileage dramatically 3955 mph 403 miles per gallon 3965 mph 349 miles per gallon 3975 mph 298 miles per gallon On a hypothetical 1900 mile round trip from New York City to Disney World in Florida the Camry would use 47 gallons of gas at 55 mph But at 75 mph it would burn nearly 64 gallons which is a 70 difference If everyone could reduce their driving by just 10 percent the savings would total nearly 1 million barrels of gasoline every day If the federal government was serious about critically reducing motor fuel consumption it could start by redirecting the money being wasted on ticket writing campaigns laser guns stealth cruisers ticket cameras and related wages and redeployed such funds investment strategies to better move traffic in urban and suburban environments where most fuel consumption actually occurs According to Baxter 2009 there are huge savings to be realized by simply synchronizing and coordinating traffic signal systems Cities that have started this process are not only reaping benefits like reduced fuel use they are also realizing improved air quality significantly faster commute times far less congestion and less wear and tear on vehicles Removing obstacles to smooth traffic flow including most stop signs and traffic quotcalmingquot ARGUMENT MAPPING 6 devices and scrapping other strategies intended to interrupt and disrupt traffic would dramatically improve fuel economy for the entire vehicle eet Write an analysis of 12 pages that uses critical thinking to assess the overall plausibility of the claim The con ict in Bosnia is somebody else s trouble The US should not intervene militarily The United States has no strategic interest in the Balkans that justified going to war No Peace no peace dividend Unlike Saddam Hussein Milosevic poses no threat to the world oil supply or to any other important resource or line of communication He poses no military threat to the US allies or to the US Here in the United States the Bush Administration had decided not to become militarily involved in Balkan con icts The US had fought the Gulf War in 1991 and coming off that war the Bush Administration was of the opinion that con icts in the Balkans should be settled by the powers in Europe and it was encouraged in this decision by European powers agreeing that it should be they who intervened in the Balkans rather than the United States But with the failure of the Europe to stop the ethnic cleansing the concentration camps and the massacres of hundreds of thousands of civilians the United States had to change its decision taking on a leadership responsibility in ending the war in Bosnia The strategy of muddling through that had characterized US policy since the beginning of the con ict clearly was no longer viable The president made clear to his senior advisers that he wanted to get out of the box in which US policy found itself This box had been created by an unworkable diplomatic strategy of offering ever greater concessions to Serb President Slobodan Milosevic just to get the Bosnian Serbs to the table by the long standing refusal to put US troops on the ground by allied resistance to using force as long as their troops could be taken ARGUMENT MAPPING 7 hostage by a UN command that insisted on quottraditional peacekeeping principlesquot even though a war was raging and by a US Congress bent on taking the moral high ground by unilaterally lifting the arms embargo on the Bosnian government without however taking responsibility for the consequences of doing so Smitha 2011 The US as sole superpower must lead the effort to redress intervention First the US must develop a National Security Strategy and supporting National Military Strategy that are based upon clearly defined interests Definition of interests is tantamount to a declaration of pursuit of interests and effects credibility capability and strategic direction Ong Webb 2009 These interests must be realistic limited to those that are achievable and sustainable within US capabilities and supported by the intangibles of national will and culture Interests require resolution to avoid contradiction and opportunistic interpretation These interests should be limited to survival stability and prosperity Humanitarian concerns should be recognized as values but not interests Second the US must avoid the quagmire of the defector legitimization of self determination People around the world always have different opinions about everything that the United States does One of the ongoing debates right now that people are discussing is whether or not the United States should intervene in the internal con icts of the Balkans There are several assumptions and questions that should be eXplored The United States should not intervene in the Balkans because This area has always had a history of problems and has always worked it out before The United States is being affected negatively It is great that the US wants to help but we are not able to help all the way and If the emotion and opinions are taken away it comes down to whether or ARGUMENT MAPPING 8 not it is lawful or justified under the UN charter for the US to intervene I believe that the United States should not intervene so much in the internal con icts of the Balkans Complete an argument map to illustrate your analysis IJUIIIUIIIJ I thtehoehes the hussiiahs Wight the the same ARGUMENT MAPPING 9 References Baxter James 2009 55 MPH Speed Limit Is Unenforceable and Counterproductive Retrieved on April 25 2013 from httpwwwusnewscomopinior articles2009072755 mph speed limit is unenforceable and counterproductive Coile Zachary 2008 Speier seeks national speed limit to save gas Retrieved on April 25th 2013 from httpwwwsaferoadsorgspeier seeks national speed limit save gas 0 Environmental Protection Agency 2011 Driving More Efficiently Retrieved on April 24 2013 fromhttpwwwfueleconomygovfegdrivehabitsshtml Dunn W N 2012 Public policy analysis 5th ed Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Education Inc Friedman L S amp Hedeker D 2009 Long Term Effects of Repealing the National Maximum Speed Limit in the United States American Journal Of Public Health 999 1626 1631 Ong Webb Graham2009 Credibility over Courage NATO s Mis Intervention in Kosovo Retrieved on April 27 2013 from httpwwwacademiaedu412046Credibilitv over CourageNATOsMis InterventioninKosovo Smitha FE 2005 2011 War in Bosnia Retrieved April 27th 2013 from Macrohistory and Word Reporthttpwwwfsmithacomh2ch35 3 htm
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