CH 13 section 4,5,6 part 2
CH 13 section 4,5,6 part 2 BIOL 3303 - 001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Banks on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3303 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Perry Fuchs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see DRUGS AND BEHAVIOR in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
DRUG AND BEHAVIOR TEST 3 CHAPTER 13, 4, 5, 6 SedativeHypnotics, Stimulants , Opiates, Hallucinogen Chapter 13 pgs 315327 Chart • 70 million American suffer from insomnia • 12% 8thgraders in 2011 used inhalant sometime in their life • 1000’s household products contain toxic substance Sedativehypnotics= nonopioid, nonalcoholic depressant drug Bayer laboratory in Germany The first true barbiturate, diethylbarbituric acid, was marketed under the name Veronal •https://quizlet.com/101528661/drugsandbehaviorchapter13pg315327flashcards/ • Drug that calm us down and produce sleep • Also called tranquilizers or antianxiety drugs o Barbiturates: derived from barbituric acid –derived from urine ▪ Categories of Barbiturates ▪ Before for insomnia • Based on relative duration of action • Chart 15.1 (don’t need to memorize) • Phenobarbital (sedative and anticonvulsive) long duration with low potential for abuse • Short acting 15mins, intermediate 30mins, long about 1 hours • Withdraw is detrimental ▪ Acute effects of Barbiturates: very similar to the effects of alcohol (increase dose of drug effects display below) o Normal o Relief of anxiety o Disinhibition o Sedation o Sleep o General anesthesia o Coma o Death • Don’t take it barbiturates and alcohol because of synergetic effects • Suppress REM (dream) sleep ▪ Chronic effects of barbiturates • Nausea and vomiting • Hallucination • High fever • Tolerance • Physical dependence o Vomiting, convulsion etc. • Psychological dependence o Positive reinforcement • Half life 1040 hours • Injectable is shorter acting than oral o Nonbarbiturate sedativehypnotics ▪ Chloral hydrate ( knockout drops or Mickey Finn) • Short onset (3o mins) • Produces sleep within 12 hours • can cause severe irritation of the stomach ▪ Methqualone (Quaalude) • Schedule 1 drug o Antianxiety drugs ▪ Nature of anxiety • Generalized anxiety disorder o Freefloating anxiety • Phobic disorder o Specific focus of fear o Height, arachnophobia, etc. • Panic disorder and agoraphobia o Physical symptoms of anxiety/leading to agoraphobia • Obsessive compulsive disorder o Obsessionsunwanted thoughts o Compulsionsuncontrollable action • Biological factors o Genetic predisposition, anxiety sensitivity o GABA circuits in the brain • Conditioning and learning o Acquired through classical conditioning or observational learning o Maintained through operant condition o Operant condition: maintain of phobic fear ( negative reinforcement) o Benzodiazepines ▪ Drugs that decrease anxiety without out the major sedative effects ▪ Selected effect on anxiety itself instead of producing a generalized reduction in the body’s overall level of functioning ▪ More of “tranquilizing” than sedative effects that made it appealing ▪ Diazepam use for quick effect ▪ Longactingrecommended for relief from anxiety ▪ Shorter actingrecommended for sleeping problems (effect quickly and wear off well before morning) ▪ Acute effect of benzodiazepineslow absorbed and long lasting effects • High level of safety compare to barbiturates and other anxiety drugs • Safe only if no alcohol or other antidepressant drug is used • Slow to eliminate in elderly could cause a build up ▪ Chronic effects no tolerance if TAD but there is tolerant to sedative effect ▪ Withdrawal: anxiety follow by insomnia, restlessness, and agitation ▪ NT GABA, increase function of GABA Thursday 1022 CHAPTER 4 STIMULANT COCAINEstimulant • History (coc0Cola , Freud, etc) • From coca leaf • Last 1530min snorted 510 min if smoked or injected • Acute/chronic toxicity • Acutesuppress respiratory o Overdose potential high o Stroke o Paranoia o Hallucination o Lose dopamine receptors • Withdrawal syndromedysphoric, depression, anxiety, boredom, lack of pleasure • Chronic effect fetus ,psychosis • Acuteeuphoria • Highly addicted physical and psychological dependent • Mechanism of actionDa (dopamine) Reuptake blocker • TreatmentDa blocking drugs, antidepressants, therapy, etc Amphetamines • Similar to cocaine • CNS stimulant • Bennies • Used by US, German, and Jap soldiers • Popular in 1960’s • History o Chine medicinal tea from ma huang (ephedra) ▪ Primary active ingredient of ma hang is ephedrine ▪ Illegal by FDA april 12,2004 ▪ April 13 2005 overruled ban in OTC, can be sold 10mg or less ▪ Contain pseudoephedrine o 1920 synthesis of amphetamine o 1960 i.v use of amphetamine (speed) o Street name “crank” o Late 1980s : smoking of methamphetamine known as “ice” o Need ephedrine, anhydrous ammonia ( fertilizer), lithium battery for meth o Figure 13.7 number of lab in 2004, Texas has 434 o Shake and bake meth method o Change of peripheral circulationlesion or sore o Bath salt is more powerful form of meth –methylcathinone • Different forms of amphetamine ▪ Dextroamphetamine ▪ Methamphetamine ▪ Minic • Dopamine • Norepinephrine ▪ X is a methylene form of methamphetamine • Mechanism ▪ Presynaptic storage mechanismstore amphetamine causes more dopamine to be release ▪ Block reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine • Medical uses for Amphetamine o Confident increase, talkative, etc o Mood goes up but go lower than before after o Make depress as usage increase o Weight control ▪ After 4 week, divergent about 23 lb ▪ Not very efficient for weight loss at therapeutic does • Narcolepsyfalling asleep o Hyperactive children ▪ Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Amphetamine, etc ▪ Low lvl of attention • Smart pills o Stimulate to not sleep o May see impairment • Atheltics o Causes for concern o Acute toxicity: closely resembles cocaine o Chronic toxicity: amphetamine psychosis, compulsive and repetitive actions o Dependence potential: same issues as cocaine Meth is used 23 hrs during the day Tues 10/27/15 Stimulants Amphetamine: potency issue History: us military used amphetamine to stimulate soldiers, ww2 jap pilots used methamphetamine Acuteresemble cocaine, increase temp, decrease in appetite, boost you up chronic toxicityhallucination, psychosis, violence Withdrawal syndromesame as cocaine, crash, intense depression, hunger, agitation, and anxiety within 14hrs Highly addictive psychological and physical dependence (meth) Connection to Parkinson Mechanism of action Amphetamine (DA reuptake blocker plus presynaptic mechanism Therapeutic use of amphetamine (ADHD, narcolepsy) Suppression of child height and weight NARCOTICS: OPIUM, MORPHINE and HEROIN Opium cultivation in Afghanistan 2008 Poppy grows in specific environment, 2008 90% are from Afghanistan , shifting to marijuana Natural origins • Opiumno legal restriction on the importation or use of opium until early 1900’s • Phenanthrene: morphine (heroin, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, oxycodone (Percocet), hydrocodone( Vicodin)) , codeine and thebaine • 1800’s 4% of women was addicted • Main reason for restriction of opium was antiChinese sentiment • Restriction on marijuana due to antiMexican sentiment ( not opiate) • Methadone is replacement for heroin Thebainenot used therapeutically, converted to variety of compound such as codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodeone, naloxone and naltrexone Antagonist of heroin/morphine Codiene • Compared to morphine, produces less analgesia, sedation and respiratory depression • Often prescribe to the relief of moderate pain, either alone or in combination with aspirin or acetaminophen • Effective cough suppressant • Causes constipation Morphine • Principle constituent of opium • One of the most effective drugs for pain relief • Administered orally, subcutaneously, or i.v • Tolerance and dependence can develop Effect of Narcotics on mind and body • Initial feeling of intense euphoria followed by drowsiness • Release of histamine • Pupillary constriction • Depressed breathing and blood pressure, constipation, nausea and vomiting • Little concern with chronic toxicity (damage to tissue or organ systems. Main issue of needles • Narcoticsmall pupil • Stimulantlarge pupil • Max dose is when patient stop breathing • No chronic toxicity with the drug itself but other factor such as HIV, bacterial infection, etc. Medical uses: • Treatment of pain • Treatment of diarrhea • Very good cough suppressant ( although typically use dextromethorphan) • Affect Central neurogenic pain (MS) and peripheral neurogenic pain ( stabbing pain, pen and needle) • Placebo doesn’t really work as well for CNP • Placebo relatedly close to actual narcotic use HOW OPIATES WORK IN THE BRAIN • 1970’s discovery of opiate receptors in the brain “why is the receptor present?” • 1974 isolation of leuenkephalin and metenkephalin o Isolation of morphinelike substances called endorphins Narcotic Definition: Natural form of narcotics History (Laudanummedicinal drink combination opium, wine, and assortment of spices), USA use/policies) Regan first ladywar on drugs Therapeutic benefitsmixture of stimulate and alcohol Acutedangerous Chronic no issue with chronic toxicity (no liver or kidney damages) Tolerance and withdrawal Analgesic properties Mechanism of action (opiod ) Treatment Cause of concern • Tolerancecan overdose with taken same amount as usual in novel environment • Physical dependencesimilar to 24 hr. flu • Methodone substitute for heroinshaky, crappy person • Animal selfadministerpositive reinforcement • Taking drug to get rid of side effectsnegative reinforcement Treatment and longterm recovery progress • Narcotic antagonist • Methadone for heroin/morphine maintain with counseling • LAAM used in the treatment of heroin abuse • Rapid oxidation LSD and HALLUCINOGENS • Drugs that produces distortion in perception and body image at moderate doses • Acetylcholine botanic acidamanita muscaria mushrooms –dangerous if not prepared correctly • Psilocybinrelated to serotoninmushrooms Serotonin related hallucinogen • Lsd – mot potent hallucinogen, first synthesized from ergot (fungus) alkaloids, extracted from mold found on rye grain, serotonin related • Discovery and early research o 1938 by hoffman o Scientific literature ▪ Use to induce psychosis in animals ▪ Treat for alcoholism ▪ Use to treat cancer patient ▪ CIA research mkultra or mkultra ▪ Recreational uses o Acute effect of LSD ▪ Low toxicity, lethal dose 300600 of X’s effective dose ▪ Rapid tolerance + cross tolerance ( Sunday would require twice the amount of Saturday dose) ▪ No evidence of physical dependence or addiction ▪ Dilate pupil, increase body temperature and blood pressure ▪ Activate a subset of serotonin receptor ▪ No sign of physical or psychological dependent o Mescaline norepinephrine related o MDMA neurotoxin that crease from 1995 to 1999 of 24k to 900k dose units, norepinephrine related o PCP (anesthetic hallucination) and ketamine (animal tranquilizergive near death experiences)
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