exam 3 study guide
exam 3 study guide GEOG 103 001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 319 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE GEOG103 Test Tuesday Population Geography ∙ The world is NOT overpopulated; we do however have a distribution issue. ∙ Demography scientific study of population characteristics ∙ More people live now than ever before! ∙ Some countries are facing overpopulation Population 1) hina 1.37 billion 2) India 1.31 billion 3) U.S 321 million Distribution 1) East Asia 1/5 world pop. (urban) 2) South Asia 1/5 word pop (rural) Factors influencing population density ∙ limate o Low density: cold, hot, dry o High density: warm mid latitudes ∙ Topography & Soils o Flat areas, fertile soil, accessible to water Ecumene portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement Has steadily increased over time crude birth rate (CBR) number of births per 1,000 people per year (crude meaning everyone) crude death rate (CDR) number of deaths per 1,000 people per year global death rate & U.S death rate are both 8/1,000 death rate has gone down globally natural increase rate (NIR) % by which a population grows in a year global NIR is 1.2 % total fertility rate ( average number of ids a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (ages 1549 on avg) infant mortality rate (IM annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births life expectancy average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels (worlds life expectancy is 70, U.S is 79) lowest life expectancy in subSaharan Africa ∙ infant mortality rate best reflects a country’s health care system and can tell you if a country is developed or not developed Why is Population Increasing at Different Rates? Demographic transition a process of change in a society’s population from a condition of HIGH CBR/CDR with a low NIR and low total population to a condition of low CDR/CDR with a low NIR and a higher total population Stage 1: Low growth; low population Stage 2: High growth Stage 3: Moderate growth Stage 4: Low growth, high population ero population growth (ZPG) **KNOW DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION CHART** Stage 1: hunting & gathering, agricultural revolution ∙ birth rates and death rates are very high but equal ∙ when a country moves into stage 2 the death rate begins to drop Stage 2: industrial revolution, medical revolution ∙ death rate drops ∙ todays developed countries moved into stage 2 when the industrial revolution (1750) hit them but the rest of the world was still stuck in stage 1 until the 1950s when the medical revolution hit ∙ every single country has experienced the medical revolution so NO country is left in stage 1 today Stage 3: birth rate drops,social changes ∙ infant mortality rates drop and then the number of kids woman are having also drops ∙ when countries move from stage 2 to 3, people start having as many children because they are being industrialized ∙ not every country has made it to stage 3, but every single one has made it to stage 2 Stage 4: lifestyle changes, (woman in the work force) ∙ things even back out Stage 5: death rate goes higher than the birth rate which results in population Population pyramids a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age & sex Ex) Cape Verde (stage 2) large base on a graph indicative of high birth rates, Chile (stage 3) , Denmark (stage 4) Dependency ratio number of people too young or too old to work, compared to number of people in their productive years Why are birth rates so high? ∙ Lack of development= little/no education as to where babies come from ∙ incorrect/lack of knowledge about contraception & other birth control ∙ religious beliefs forbid contraception (Roman Catholicism) ∙ son mania= abortion of girls or infanticide (abandoning/killing the baby somewhere) ∙ High IMR= remains high b/c women have babies so rapidly that bodies cannot recover ∙ Male chauvinism= no access to contraception (male dominant attitude what he says goes as to how many kids they’re having) ∙ Number of children= cultural status of women (more children the more popular etc) ∙ #1 REASON: Low status of Women globally (LDCs much worse than MDCs) Population Futures ∙ world population will still increase BUT at a slower rate ∙ growth depends on the total fertility rate (right now is 2.5) ∙ MDCs may move into Stage 5 ∙ orld Population is aging ∙ ndia & China will heavily influence population prospects (National Family Planning V. One Child Policy) Culture & Identity: Cultural geography: how cultures vary over space Culture: understandings, behavioral patterns, & material artifacts that make up a society’s way of life (cultivate) o learned behavior, not biological o not static (diffusion) Parts of Society: ∙ language, religion, government, economy, food, clothing, architecture, family life Culture Traits: behavioral patterns that people repeat over time ∙ habits vs customs ∙ how/where we eat, how we greet each other, religious beliefs/ holiday celebrations, leisure time spent Cultural Landscape: human imprint on the landscape Folk Culture vs. Pop Culture Folk ∙ mall, homogenous groups ∙ rural areas ∙ small distribution ∙ preserves traditions ∙ self sufficient ∙ varies from place to place ∙ urvival is threatened ∙ sensitive to environment (don’t waste as much because they don’t consume as much) Pop ∙ large, heterogeneous societies ∙ urban ∙ wide distribution ∙ embraces conformity ∙ nfluenced by mass media ∙ aries fromtime to time ∙ dominant culture ∙ hreatens the environment The Amish best example of folk culture in the U.S ∙ 1600s Switzerland, NE France, & SW Germany ∙ Immigrated to NW Europe in 1700s for religious freedom (cultural pull) ∙ International Migration (economic pull) to North America in 1700s & 1800s ∙ Interregional Migration (economic pull) to Kentucky & Tennessee, was originally most populated in Pennsylvania ∙ Generally operate with horses & buggies w/ no cars Soccer, Football, Futball? ∙ Hearth: England 1000’s ∙ Danish invasion of England English played Kick the Dane’s Head (boys imitated soldiers w/ cow bladder) ∙ Mob scenes, 2 rival villages, banned by King Henry II in 1100s ∙ King James I legalized it in 1603, still a folk custom ∙ 1800s Industrial Rev. more leisure time/higher income…participate or view sporting events...pro players hired at played events ∙ all organized sports= POP culture ∙ 1 American football: Rutgers vs. Princeton Food Preferences: ∙ people adapt their food preferences to conditions in the environment o ebrews no pork (meat spoils quickly) oMuslims no pork (competed w/ humans for water, not very useful in farming) o Hindus no cattle (need large supply to plow fields at same time...during monsoons!) Taboo restriction on behavior imposed by social custom Ex Japanese have taboo on not eating otters bc they are forgetful Pop Clothing ∙ Milan, Paris, London – centers for pop clothing Clustered vs. Dispersed ∙ solation promotes cultural diversity ∙ Pop culture is extremely widely dispersed largely because of mass media ∙ V & Internet Diffusion o 1995 40 million users worldwide o d iffusion of internet took a decade Globalization of Pop Culture ∙ 1.Threats to folk culture: o cultural imperialism o rising incomes rising demands of material possessions o adoption of western dress o modern role of women o DCs dominate TV industry in LDCs Cultural imperialism leads to cultural extinction (diffusion challenges stability) ∙ 2.Environmental Impacts: o does NOT consider physical features, considering social/economic features o depletion of natural resources o increased energy consumption o se of animals (minx, lynx, jaguar) o eat consumption: strains grain supply o pollution ∙ 3. Uniform Landscape o pop cultural promotes it o product recognition o gas stations, super markets, motels, restaurants Evolutioni cultural change is embedded in cultures; change is internally determined from within Diffusioni aspects of culture spread from spaces of origin; change iswithout from Acculturati adoption of aspects of the surrounding culture while retaining one’s original culture minority adopts dominant culture Assimilati adoption of aspects of the surrounding culture causing loss of one’s original culture complete integration Cultural Idensexual orientation, gender, language, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnicity, political affiliations, nationality “iceberg analogy” surface culture food, flags, festivals, music etc, deep culture intrinsic, attitudes toward certain things, communication styles/rules etc LANGUAGE Language system of communication through speech w/ collective sounds that people understand to have the meaning ∙ Over history there has been 10,000 languages spoken through history ∙ 6,0007,000 spoken presently (assimilation happened/pop culture took over) ∙ distribution of language results from isolation & interaction ∙ preliterate societie people who have a spoken, but not written language ∙ literary traditioa system of written communication ∙ first two languages: cuneiform (ancient Samarians) & hieroglyphics (Egyptians) ∙ only 12 languages are spoken by more than 100 million ∙ mandarin is the largest most dominant Chinese language, saying “Chinese” isn’t accurately a language United Nations Languages 1) mandarin 2) Spanish 3) English (U.S & UK) 4) rabic 5) Russian 6) rench ∙ Made up of the U.N political security council Language family: collection of languages related through a common ancestry that existed before recorded history (trunk) ∙ nly 20 ∙ roadest way to classify languages ∙ Mandarin is the most spoken language on the planet**** ∙ English is most diffused (spread out) on planet Know first 3: 1) Indo European: 46% (English, Spanish, Hindi) 2) Sino Tibetan: 21% (Mandarin) 3) Afro Asiatic: 6% (Arabic...Hebrew) Language branch collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago (branch) Language group collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past & display relatively few differences (leaves) Diffusion of English ∙ Spoken by 1 billion people, most widely diffused language ∙ Invasions: German (angles), Norman, Viking ∙ iffusion from British Isles in 1600s ∙ iffused from England to o Ireland o .A o South asia o outh pacific o outhern Africa ∙ English the official language in 57 countries ∙ No official language of the United States Global Dominance of English ∙ Relocation, hierarchical, & contagious diffusion ∙ Lingua franca language of international communication (English, Swahili, Russian) ∙ Pidgin parts of 2 or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary nd (never born learning to speak this, language) (not usually complete sentences) ∙ creole language language that results fromixing of a colonizing language with the indigenous (smaller language only spoken by a handful of people/tribe/group etc) language and is adopted as the native language ∙ English has increasingly become integrated with other languages: o Franglais, Spanglish (cubonics), hinglish, denglish o not pidgins Variations of a Language ∙ British vs. American vs. Australian OR regionally within a country (matter of scale) ∙ Standard Language: the accepted dialec of the official language that is promoted as the norm (British Received Pronunciation (BRP)) ∙ *****STANDARD AND OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ARE NOT THE SAME THING***** ∙ Dialect a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, & pronunciation (speed & rhythm) ∙ Vernacular nonstandard indigenous language/dialect indicative of socioeconomic/educational levels o Social dialects (interchangeable term w/ vernacular) ∙ Bidialectic use standard English outside of community, but use their dialect at home ∙ sogloss a word usage boundary line ∙ Isophone a word pronunciation boundary line Language Diversity & Change ∙ solation v. interaction ∙ Monolingual states (one language) – very few still out there ∙ Multilingual states (1+ lang) – most places out there (ex. Belgium, Switzerland) ∙ extinct languages no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world (Latin is actually NOT dead) o ex gothic (east Germanic), formerly Hebrew ∙ only 300 languages safe from extinction ∙ revival techniques: compulsory in schools, road signs, TV/radio stations, church services, music groups isolated languages unrelated to any other languages Basque, Japanese, Korean, islandic ∙ mobilityall movement from 1 place to another ∙ cyclical movement movement occurring regularly (daily, monthly, annually) (going to work/school) ∙ periodic movement movement occurring periodically (seasonally) (going to college in SC if you’re from far away) ∙ migration long term permanent movement from one location to the next ∙ emigration migration FROM a location (exit) immigration migration TO a location (into) ∙ net migration difference between emigrants & immigrants ∙ gross migration total movement of people ∙ ^^^^^ RELOCATION DIFFUSION Characteristic of Migrants ∙ males ∙ adult individuals (workers, not dependents) ∙ employment in farms & clothing factories ∙ U.S – now more women & children ∙ Employment is the number 1 reason why people migrate Push factor: an event or condition that induces people to move OUT of a location (centrifugal), generally negative Pull factor: an event or condition that induces people to move INTO a location (centripetal) generally positive ∙ More people move because of ECONOMIC reasons Economic push loss of job, high unemployment rates, poor overall economy Economic pull job opportunity, perception of economic plenty, new factory opening, college etc Cultural push slavery, political instability, wars, ethnic/religious persecution (negative) Cultural pull lure of freedom/personal choice, democracies (often result of push) Environmental push adverse physical conditions (harsh climate, allergies, disasters etc) Environmental pull attractive environment (mountains, oceans, warm climates, dry health areas etc) Voluntary migration vs involuntary migration (economic) (cultural) ∙ Refugees : people forced to migrate from their home country & cannot return for fear of persecution Distance of Migration ∙ International migration permanent movement from one country to another ∙ International migration permanent movement within the same country Chain migration china town, little Italy etc in many places Migration Transition ∙ Changes in society comparable to those in the demographic transition ∙ tage 1: cyclic & periodic mobility ∙ Stage 2: international migration ∙ tage 3 & 4: intranational migration Intranational Migration ∙ Historically rural to urban ∙ Suburbanization ∙ Counterurbanization ∙ U.S Population Center International Migration ∙ % of people ∙ DCs to MDCs ∙ Net out migration= Asia, Latin America, Africa ∙ ** study map on this slide ** ∙ largest number of migrants is in the U.S ∙ U.S much smaller percent than most MDCs ∙ Highest percent of immigrants – 50% in middle east Obstacles to Migration ∙ Immigration policies of host countries ∙ Quotas: laws placing maximum limits on number of ppl that can enter a country each year Impacts of Migration ∙ Transport of culture emigration of millions from Europeans has profoundly changed world culture ∙ Family reunification ∙ Brain drain large scale emigration by talented people ∙ readmittances affecting 2 economics ∙ job competition ∙ undocumented immigrants: illegal immigrants ∙ marriage abuse ∙ xenophobia hatred of fear of foreigners through politics ∙ political divides among host countries Political Geography political organization of space (how humans define & control land & its resources) Boundaries ∙ Historically frontiers not boundaries separated states ∙ Frontier zone where no state exercises complete political control ∙ can generate conflict direct physical contact ∙ usually imaginary, but also can be built ∙ gives distinct shape Physical Boundaries ∙ water can make a good physical boundary b/c it’s not a direct contact, but they can also be weird because they can dry/shift etc. ∙ International law of the sea country that meets the ocean boundary possesses 12 nautical miles out ∙ EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone goes out 200 nautical miles ** know this** ∙ Basic physical borders water, desert, mountains Cultural Boundaries ∙ Language division (developed largely after WWI w/ Yugoslavia) ∙ Religion borders (Ireland & UK) ∙ Geometric borders (straight line border between Egypt & Sudan) Stages of Boundary Making 1) Definition process of negotiating borders ∙ Literally people on both sides have to have discussions 2) Delineation take a map out and literally draw lines on it (would use GIS now) 3) Demarcation actual marking of the boundary ∙ doesn’t always happen because not all boundaries are marked 4) dministration deciding who controls/monitors it ∙ Changes given the political atmosphere Contemporary World Map ∙ world map shows habitable land belongs to a country ∙ state political boundaries reflect cultural geography not physical Qualifications for a Country (state) ∙ state:an area organized into a political unit & ruled by an established gov that has sovereign control over its internal & foreign affaicountry) ∙ even though you may have a physical boundary as your border there are still cultural ramifications going on Size of States: Largest: Russia, Canada, US, China, Brazil Smallest: Vatican City, Monaco, Nauru, Tuvalu, San Marino ~ microstates Morphology shape of state *** KNOW SHAPES*** (review slide) ∙ compact (Bulgaria), fragmented (Philippines), prorupted (Namibia), perforated (south Africa, Italy), elongated ∙ many states that only apply to one, but there are also some that fit multiple Landlocked states worst situation a country can have because of economics and no access to ocean (suffer w/ international trade) Nation: group of people sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, & history (group of people not physical borders, not same thing as a country!!) Nationstate: a political unit equaling a nation’s territory Who lives in Iceland? Icelandic, Japan? Japanese (modern examples of a nation state & also Lithuania) ∙ other than that all other states are multinational Who lives in Spain? Spanish but NOT a nation state because not everyone shares Spanish nationality Catalan separatist movement Multinational state 2 or more nationalities with traditions of self determination within the same country ∙ obviously, U.S would be an example of this; also Cyprus & Russia stateless nation an ethnicity without a corresponding territory ∙ groups of people who want to govern themselves but they live within the borders of another governing nation ∙ Kurds, Palestinians, Basques, Tibetans Disagreement over Sovereignty ∙ North & South Korea ∙ China & Taiwan ∙ Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic) Development of State Concept ∙ Prior to 1800s, much of Earth’s surface consisted of empires, kingdoms, tribes & citystates ∙ Modern division of states began in Europe ∙ Accient development of states began in fertile crescent, Mesopotamia with the city state: sumeria, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Egypt, Rome ** read chapter in book for this ** Why are indepdent states getting smaller? ∙ Colonialisms fell apart, independence movements starting to happen ∙ Indep. States succumbed to ethnic separatism ∙ Ethnic separatism continues Supranational Organizations ∙ Organization that has power ABOVE state power – united nations , created in 1945 as a peacekeeping organization after WWII Military & Economic Alliances but money is power now over military ∙ Japan, Germany, & china have joined ranks as world powers based on economies (Russia) ∙ EU European Union promote development w/ I member states through economic cooperation ∙ OPEC organization of petroleum exporting countries ∙ NAFTA north American free trade agreement NEXT EXAM: Human geography: ∙ Population ∙ Culture identifies ∙ Language ∙ Migration ∙ Political ∙ 0 questions
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