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USC / Geography / GEOG 103 / What are the factors influencing population density?

What are the factors influencing population density?

What are the factors influencing population density?


School: University of South Carolina
Department: Geography
Course: Introduction to Geography
Professor: Larianne collins
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: exam 3 study guide
Description: this will include everything necessary for exam 3 on tuesday!
Uploaded: 11/06/2015
11 Pages 466 Views 17 Unlocks

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What are the factors influencing population density?

Test Tuesday

Population Geography­

∙ The world is NOT overpopulated; we do however have a distribution issue. ∙ Demography­ scientific study of population characteristics

∙ More people live now than ever before!

∙ Some countries are facing overpopulation


1) China­ 1.37 billion

2) India­ 1.31 billion

3) U.S­ 321 million


1) East Asia­ 1/5 world pop. (urban)

2) South Asia­ 1/5 word pop (rural)

Factors influencing population density

∙ Climate

oLow density: cold, hot, dry

oHigh density: warm mid latitudes

What is the meaning of ecumene?

∙ Topography & Soils

oFlat areas, fertile soil, accessible to water

Ecumene­ portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement ­ Has steadily increased over time

crude birth rate (CBR)­ number of births per 1,000 people per year (crude meaning everyone) crude death rate (CDR)­ number of deaths per 1,000 people per year We also discuss several other topics like Why is the cardiovascular system a closed delivery system?
If you want to learn more check out Explain legitimation at the cultural and institutional level.

­ global death rate & U.S death rate are both 8/1,000

­ death rate has gone down globally

natural increase rate (NIR)­ % by which a population grows in a year

­ global NIR is 1.2 %

total fertility rate (TFR)­ average number of ids a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (ages 15­49 on avg)

What are the threats to folk culture?

infant mortality rate (IMR)­ annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, compared with total live births If you want to learn more check out What is hematopoiesis?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is used to test a theory?

life expectancy­ average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels (worlds life expectancy is 70, U.S is 79)

­ lowest life expectancy in sub­Saharan Africa

∙ infant mortality rate best reflects a country’s health care system and can tell you if a country is developed or not developed

Why is Population Increasing at Different Rates?

Demographic transition​­ a process of change in a society’s population from a condition of HIGH CBR/CDR with a low NIR and low total population to a condition of low CDR/CDR with a low NIR and a higher total population

Stage 1: Low growth; low population

Stage 2: High growth

Stage 3: Moderate growth

Stage 4: Low growth, high population

­ zero population growth (ZPG)


Stage 1: hunting & gathering, agricultural revolution

∙ birth rates and death rates are very high but equal

∙ when a country moves into stage 2 the death rate begins to drop

Stage 2: industrial revolution, medical revolution

∙ death rate drops If you want to learn more check out Define cladogenesis (aka branching evolution).

∙ todays developed countries moved into stage 2 when the industrial revolution (1750) hit them­ but the rest of the world was still stuck in stage 1 until the 1950s when the medical revolution hit

∙ every single country has experienced the medical revolution so NO country is left in stage 1 today

Stage 3: birth rate drops, social changes

∙ infant mortality rates drop and then the number of kids woman are having also drops ∙ when countries move from stage 2 to 3, people start having as many children because they are being industrialized

∙ not every country has made it to stage 3, but every single one has made it to stage 2 Stage 4: lifestyle changes, (woman in the work force)

∙ things even back out

Stage 5: death rate goes higher than the birth rate which results in population Population pyramids­ a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age & sex Ex) Cape Verde (stage 2)­ large base on a graph indicative of high birth rates, Chile (stage 3) , Denmark (stage 4) If you want to learn more check out What were the highlights of the history of the women's movement?

Dependency ratio­ number of people too young or too old to work, compared to number of people in their productive years

Why are birth rates so high?

∙ Lack of development= little/no education as to where babies come from ∙ incorrect/lack of knowledge about contraception & other birth control

∙ religious beliefs forbid contraception (Roman Catholicism)

∙ son mania= abortion of girls or infanticide (abandoning/killing the baby somewhere)

∙ High IMR= remains high b/c women have babies so rapidly that bodies cannot recover ∙ Male chauvinism= no access to contraception (male dominant attitude what he says goes as to how many kids they’re having)

∙ Number of children= cultural status of women (more children the more popular etc) ∙ #1 REASON: Low status of Women globally (LDCs much worse than MDCs) Population Futures

∙ world population will still increase BUT at a slower rate

∙ growth depends on the total fertility rate (right now is 2.5)

∙ MDCs may move into Stage 5

∙ World Population is aging

∙ India & China will heavily influence population prospects (National Family Planning V. One Child Policy)

Culture & Identity:

Cultural geography: how cultures vary over space

Culture: understandings, behavioral patterns, & material artifacts that make up a society’s way of life (cultivate)

olearned behavior, not biological

onot static (diffusion)

Parts of Society:

∙ language, religion, government, economy, food, clothing, architecture, family life

Culture Traits: behavioral patterns that people repeat over time

∙ habits vs customs

∙ how/where we eat, how we greet each other, religious beliefs/ holiday celebrations, leisure time spent

Cultural Landscape: human imprint on the landscape

Folk Culture vs. Pop Culture 


∙ small, homogenous groups

∙ rural areas

∙ small distribution

∙ preserves traditions

∙ self sufficient

∙ varies from place to place

∙ survival is threatened

∙ sensitive to environment (don’t waste as much because they don’t consume as much) Pop

∙ large, heterogeneous societies

∙ urban

∙ wide distribution

∙ embraces conformity

∙ influenced by mass media

∙ varies from time to time

∙ dominant culture

∙ threatens the environment

The Amish­ best example of folk culture in the U.S

∙ 1600s­ Switzerland, NE France, & SW Germany

∙ Immigrated to NW Europe in 1700s for religious freedom (cultural pull) ∙ International Migration (economic pull) to North America in 1700s & 1800s ∙ Interregional Migration (economic pull) to Kentucky & Tennessee, was originally most populated in Pennsylvania

∙ Generally operate with horses & buggies w/ no cars

Soccer, Football, Futball?

∙ Hearth: England­ 1000’s

∙ Danish invasion of England­ English played Kick the Dane’s Head (boys imitated soldiers w/ cow bladder)

∙ Mob scenes, 2 rival villages, banned by King Henry II in 1100s

∙ King James I­ legalized it in 1603, still a folk custom

∙ 1800s­ Industrial Rev. more leisure time/higher income…participate or view sporting events...pro players hired at played events

∙ all organized sports= POP culture

∙ 1st American football: Rutgers vs. Princeton

Food Preferences:

∙ people adapt their food preferences to conditions in the environment

oHebrews­ no pork (meat spoils quickly)

oMuslims­ no pork (competed w/ humans for water, not very useful in farming) oHindus­ no cattle (need large supply to plow fields at same time...during monsoons!) Taboo­ restriction on behavior imposed by social custom

Ex­ Japanese have taboo on not eating otters bc they are forgetful

Pop Clothing

∙ Milan, Paris, London – centers for pop clothing

Clustered vs. Dispersed

∙ Isolation promotes cultural diversity

∙ Pop culture is extremely widely dispersed largely because of mass media ∙ TV & Internet Diffusion

o1995­ 40 million users worldwide

odiffusion of internet took a decade

Globalization of Pop Culture

∙ 1. Threats to folk culture:

ocultural imperialism

orising incomes­ rising demands of material possessions

oadoption of western dress

omodern role of women

oMDCs dominate TV industry in LDCs

Cultural imperialism leads to cultural extinction (diffusion challenges stability) ∙ 2. Environmental Impacts:

odoes NOT consider physical features, considering social/economic features odepletion of natural resources

oincreased energy consumption

ouse of animals (minx, lynx, jaguar)

omeat consumption: strains grain supply


∙ 3. Uniform Landscape

opop cultural promotes it

oproduct recognition

ogas stations, super markets, motels, restaurants

Evolutionism­ cultural change is embedded in cultures; change is internally determined from within

Diffusionism­ aspects of culture spread from spaces of origin; change is adopted from without

Acculturation­ adoption of aspects of the surrounding culture while retaining one’s original culture­ minority adopts dominant culture

Assimilation­ adoption of aspects of the surrounding culture causing loss of one’s original culture­ complete integration

Cultural Identity­sexual orientation, gender, language, socio­economic status, religion, ethnicity, political affiliations, nationality

“iceberg analogy”

surface culture­ food, flags, festivals, music etc, deep culture­ intrinsic, attitudes toward certain things, communication styles/rules etc


Language­ system of communication through speech w/ collective sounds that people understand to have the meaning

∙ Over history there has been 10,000 languages spoken through history

∙ 6,000­7,000 spoken presently (assimilation happened/pop culture took over) ∙ distribution of language results from isolation & interaction

∙ preliterate societies­​people who have a spoken, but not written language ∙ literary tradition­ ​a system of written communication

∙ first two languages: cuneiform (ancient Samarians) & hieroglyphics (Egyptians) ∙ only 12 languages are spoken by more than 100 million

∙ mandarin is the largest most dominant Chinese language, saying “Chinese” isn’t accurately a language

United Nations Languages

1) mandarin

2) Spanish

3) English (U.S & UK)

4) Arabic

5) Russian

6) French

∙ Made up of the U.N political security council

Language family: collection of languages related through a common ancestry that existed before recorded history (trunk)

∙ Only 20

∙ Broadest way to classify languages

∙ Mandarin is the most spoken language on the planet****

∙ English is most diffused (spread out) on planet

Know first 3:

1) Indo­ European: 46% (English, Spanish, Hindi)

2) Sino­ Tibetan: 21% (Mandarin)

3) Afro­ Asiatic: 6% (Arabic...Hebrew)

Language branch­ collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago (branch)

Language group­ collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past & display relatively few differences (leaves)

Diffusion of English

∙ Spoken by 1 billion people, most widely diffused language

∙ Invasions: German (angles), Norman, Viking

∙ Diffusion from British Isles in 1600s

∙ diffused from England to



oSouth asia

oSouth pacific

oSouthern Africa

∙ English­ the official language in 57 countries

∙ No official language of the United States

Global Dominance of English

∙ Relocation, hierarchical, & contagious diffusion

∙ Lingua franca­ language of international communication (English, Swahili, Russian) ∙ Pidgin­​parts of 2 or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary (never born learning to speak this,2ndlanguage) (not usually complete sentences) ∙ creole language­​language that results from mixing of a colonizing language with the indigenous (smaller language only spoken by a handful of people/tribe/group etc) language and is adopted as the native language

∙ English has increasingly become integrated with other languages:

oFranglais, Spanglish (cubonics), hinglish, denglish

o^ not pidgins

Variations of a Language

∙ British vs. American vs. Australian OR regionally within a country (matter of scale) ∙ Standard Language:​the accepted dialect of the official language that is promoted as the norm (British Received Pronunciation (BRP))

∙ *****STANDARD AND OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ARE NOT THE SAME THING***** ∙ Dialect­​a regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, & pronunciation (speed & rhythm)

∙ Vernacular­​nonstandard indigenous language/dialect indicative of

socioeconomic/educational levels

oSocial dialects (interchangeable term w/ vernacular)

∙ Bi­dialectic:​use standard English outside of community, but use their dialect at home ∙ Isogloss​­ a word usage boundary line

∙ Isophone­​a word pronunciation boundary line

Language Diversity & Change

∙ Isolation v. interaction

∙ Monolingual states (one language) – very few still out there

∙ Multilingual states (1+ lang) – most places out there (ex. Belgium, Switzerland) ∙ extinct languages​­ no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world (Latin is actually NOT dead)

oex­ gothic (east Germanic), formerly Hebrew

∙ only 300 languages­ safe from extinction

∙ revival techniques: compulsory in schools, road signs, TV/radio stations, church services, music groups

isolated languages­ unrelated to any other languages

­ Basque, Japanese, Korean, islandic

∙ mobility­ ​all movement from 1 place to another

∙ cyclical movement­ ​movement occurring regularly (daily, monthly, annually) (going to work/school)

∙ periodic movement​­ movement occurring periodically (seasonally) (going to college in SC if you’re from far away)

∙ migration​­ long term permanent movement from one location to the next ∙ emigration­​migration FROM a location (exit)

immigration­​migration TO a location (into)

∙ net migration­​difference between emigrants & immigrants

∙ gross migration­ total movement of people


Characteristic of Migrants

∙ males

∙ adult individuals (workers, not dependents)

∙ employment in farms & clothing factories

∙ U.S – now more women & children

∙ Employment is the number 1 reason why people migrate

Push factor: ​an event or condition that induces people to move OUT of a location (centrifugal), generally negative

Pull factor:​an event or condition that induces people to move INTO a location (centripetal) generally positive

∙ More people move because of ECONOMIC reasons

Economic push­​loss of job, high unemployment rates, poor overall economy Economic pull­ ​job opportunity, perception of economic plenty, new factory opening, college etc

Cultural push­​slavery, political instability, wars, ethnic/religious persecution (negative) Cultural pull­​lure of freedom/personal choice, democracies (often result of push) Environmental push­​adverse physical conditions (harsh climate, allergies, disasters etc) Environmental pull­​attractive environment (mountains, oceans, warm climates, dry health areas etc)

Voluntary migration vs involuntary migration 

(economic) (cultural)

∙ Refugees​: people forced to migrate from their home country & cannot return for fear of persecution

Distance of Migration

∙ International migration­ permanent movement from one country to another ∙ International migration­ permanent movement within the same country Chain migration­ china town, little Italy etc in many places

Migration Transition

∙ Changes in society comparable to those in the demographic transition ∙ Stage 1: cyclic & periodic mobility

∙ Stage 2: international migration

∙ Stage 3 & 4: intranational migration

Intranational Migration

∙ Historically rural to urban

∙ Suburbanization

∙ Counterurbanization

∙ U.S Population Center

International Migration

∙ 9% of people

∙ LDCs to MDCs

∙ Net out­ migration= Asia, Latin America, Africa

∙ ** study map on this slide **

∙ largest number of migrants is in the U.S

∙ U.S much smaller percent than most MDCs

∙ Highest percent of immigrants – 50% in middle east

Obstacles to Migration

∙ Immigration policies of host countries

∙ Quotas: laws placing maximum limits on number of ppl that can enter a country each year

Impacts of Migration

∙ Transport of culture­ emigration of millions from Europeans has profoundly changed world culture

∙ Family reunification

∙ Brain drain­ large scale emigration by talented people

∙ readmittances affecting 2 economics

∙ job competition

∙ undocumented immigrants: illegal immigrants

∙ marriage abuse

∙ xenophobia­ hatred of fear of foreigners through politics

∙ political divides among host countries

Political Geography​­ political organization of space (how humans define & control land & its resources)


∙ Historically­ frontiers not boundaries separated states

∙ Frontier­ zone where no state exercises complete political control

∙ can generate conflict­ direct physical contact

∙ usually imaginary, but also can be built

∙ gives distinct shape

Physical Boundaries

∙ water­ can make a good physical boundary b/c it’s not a direct contact, but they can also be weird because they can dry/shift etc.

∙ International law of the sea­ country that meets the ocean boundary possesses 12 nautical miles out

∙ EEZ­ Exclusive Economic Zone­ goes out 200 nautical miles ** know this** ∙ Basic physical borders­ water, desert, mountains

Cultural Boundaries

∙ Language division (developed largely after WWI w/ Yugoslavia)

∙ Religion borders (Ireland & UK)

∙ Geometric borders (straight line border between Egypt & Sudan)

Stages of Boundary Making

1) Definition­ process of negotiating borders

∙ Literally people on both sides have to have discussions

2) Delineation­ take a map out and literally draw lines on it (would use GIS now) 3) Demarcation­ actual marking of the boundary

∙ doesn’t always happen because not all boundaries are marked

4) Administration­ deciding who controls/monitors it

∙ Changes given the political atmosphere

Contemporary World Map

∙ world map shows habitable land belongs to a country

∙ state political boundaries reflect cultural geography not physical

Qualifications for a Country (state)

∙ state: an area organized into a political unit & ruled by an established gov that has sovereign control over its internal & foreign affairs (country)

∙ even though you may have a physical boundary as your border there are still cultural ramifications going on

Size of States:

Largest: Russia, Canada, US, China, Brazil

Smallest: Vatican City, Monaco, Nauru, Tuvalu, San Marino ~ microstates

Morphology­ shape of state *** KNOW SHAPES*** (review slide)

∙ compact (Bulgaria), fragmented (Philippines), prorupted (Namibia), perforated (south Africa, Italy), elongated

∙ many states that only apply to one, but there are also some that fit multiple Landlocked states­ worst situation a country can have because of economics and no access to ocean (suffer w/ international trade)

Nation: ​group of people sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, & history (group of people not physical borders, not same thing as a country!!)

Nation­state: ​a political unit equaling a nation’s territory

Who lives in Iceland? Icelandic, Japan? Japanese (modern examples of a nation state & also Lithuania)

∙ other than that all other states are multinational

Who lives in Spain? Spanish but NOT a nation state because not everyone shares Spanish nationality­ Catalan separatist movement

Multinational state​­ 2 or more nationalities with traditions of self determination within the same country

∙ obviously, U.S would be an example of this; also Cyprus & Russia

stateless nation­​an ethnicity without a corresponding territory

∙ groups of people who want to govern themselves but they live within the borders of another governing nation

∙ Kurds, Palestinians, Basques, Tibetans

Disagreement over Sovereignty 

∙ North & South Korea

∙ China & Taiwan

∙ Western Sahara (Sahrawi Republic)

Development of State Concept 

∙ Prior to 1800s, much of Earth’s surface consisted of empires, kingdoms, tribes & city­states ∙ Modern division of states began in Europe

∙ Accient development of states began in fertile crescent, Mesopotamia with the city state: sumeria, Assyria, Babylon, Persia, Egypt, Rome

** read chapter in book for this **

Why are indepdent states getting smaller?

∙ Colonialisms fell apart, independence movements starting to happen ∙ Indep. States succumbed to ethnic separatism

∙ Ethnic separatism continues

Supranational Organizations 

∙ Organization that has power ABOVE state power

– united nations​, created in 1945 as a peacekeeping organization after WWII Military & Economic Alliances­ but money is power now over military

∙ Japan, Germany, & china have joined ranks as world powers based on economies (Russia) ∙ EU­ European Union­ promote development w/ I member states through economic cooperation

∙ OPEC­ organization of petroleum exporting countries

∙ NAFTA­ north American free trade agreement


Human geography:

∙ Population

∙ Culture identifies

∙ Language

∙ Migration

∙ Political

∙ 50 questions

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