Exam #3 Study Guide
Exam #3 Study Guide PSY 12000 - 042
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brent Hawn on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 12000 - 042 at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 329 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!
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Date Created: 11/06/15
QHAPTER 8 part 2II pages 253269 1 What is free recall versus cued recall Be able to identify the different types in examples book 0 Free recall A testing condition in which a person is asked to remember information without explicit retrieval cues Cued recall A testing condition in which people are given an explicit retrieval cue to help them remember 2 What is meant by the encodingretrieval match book 0 How something that is given to you is interpreted in a way that matches the original encoding 3 What is transferappropriate processing book 0 The idea that the likelihood of correct retrieval is increased if a person uses the same kind of mental processes during testing that he or she used during encoding 4 What is a schema and how do schemas assist with memory On the other side of the coin how can schemabased remembering lead to false memories Think about the example with the word list we did in class booklecture An organized knowledge structure in longterm memory 0 Memories are prone to 39reconstruction39 because of the complex nature of our conceptual networks 5 Understand what the Elizabeth Loftus experiments demonstrate about schemabased remembering booklecture Depending on how brutal the word is delivered is how its interpreted o Smashed high speed 0 Contacted slow speed 6 What is the misinformation effect lecture You believe something by the way the words are delivered to you instead of how it is actually meant 7 What is implicit vs explicit memory book Implicit memory Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent Explicit memory Conscious willful remembering 8 Have a good understanding of the different theories of why we quotforgetquot What is the idea of decay Can the idea of decay explain most instances of forgetting or not Understand the idea behind retroactive and proactive interference and repression booklecture Decay Memories decay over time STM amp Sensory memory Retroactive lnterference Recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar older material lam currently learning French and now I cannot recall the Spanish I learned in high school Proactive lnterference Older material interferes with the ability to remember similar more recently learned material I already know Spanish and l nding it hard to remember the French I am currently learning because I keep recalling the Spanish instead Repression A defense mechanism that individuals use unknowingly to push threatening thoughts memories and feelings out of conscious awareness 9 What is retrograde and anterograde amnesia booklecture Retrograde Amnesia Inability to recall old memories D less common form Anterograde Amnesia Inability to learn new memories l more common form QHAPTER g 1 Understand the linguistic relativity hypothesis book 0 Language not only shapes how we think but also how we perceive the world 2 What is grammar book 0 A communication system that must have rules and that enables the communicator to combine symbols to convey meaning 3 What is phonology book 0 The rules for combining sounds to make words 4 What is syntax book 0 The rules for combining words to make sentences 5 What are semantics book 0 The rules used to communicate meaning 6 What are phonemes and morphemes book Phonemes De ned as the smallest signi cant sound unites in speech Morphemes The smallest units of language that carry meaning 7 What are words phrases and sentences book 0 Words Combine to form phrases Phrases In conjunction with other phrases Sentences Must contain a noun and verb 8 Understand the meaning of surface structure and deep structure and the difference between them book 0 Surface structure The part of the sentence that corresponds to its super cial appearance the literal ordering of words 0 Deep structure Refers to the underlying representation of meaning or the speaker39s intentions 9 What are pragmatics book 0 Used to describe how practical knowledge can be used both to comprehend the intentions of speakers and to produce an effective response 10What is cooing and babbling and around what age do they start book Cooing Repetition of vowel sounds such as quotooohquot and quotaaahquot Babbling Repetition of vowelconsonant combinations such as quotkakaquot orquotbabaquot 11Know the linguistic highlights that tend to develop at each of the 5 ages listed in the orange box on p 278 book 0 35 weeks cooing 46 months babbling 618 months Vocalizations become speci c to the native language the rst word is spoken by the end of the rst year c 24 months Vocabulary of at least 200 words child shows telegraphic speech grammatical twoword combinations 12What is telegraphic speech book 0 Speech during the twoword state of language acquisition in children which is laconic and ef cient 13What is the current perspective on whether chimps can acquiredemonstrate language ability book Chimps cannot clearly speak the language but they can easily acquire and demonstrate the language ability they have learned 14What is a category book 0 Class of objects people places or things that most people agree belong together 15What are de ning features and fuzzy boundaries book 0 De ning features The set of features necessary to make objects acceptable members of a category 0 Fuzzy boundaries When the members have typical features that are characteristic of the category rather than de ning features 16What is family resemblance book 0 Members of the same category will share certain core features but it isn39t necessary for each member to have them all 17What is a prototype and exemplar Know the difference book 0 Prototype The best or most representative member of a category Exemplar Speci c examples of category members that are stored in longterm memory 18What are basiclevel categories book 0 The level in a category hierarchy that provides the most useful and predictive information the basic level usually resides at an intermediate level in a category hierarchy 19What is a wellde ned versus illde ned problem booklecture Well De ned Problem clear goal clear starting point easy to 39know39 when we have a solution IllDe ned Problem no clear starting point no clear goal no way to evaluate our progress 20What is functional xedness booklecture Tendency to see objects and their functions in certain xed and typical ways allowing preconceptions to lock you into an incorrect view of problem information 21What are algorithms booklecture Step by step rules or procedures that guarantee a solution 22What are heuristics booklecture 0 Problem solving quotrules of thumbquot when its not feasible to use an algorithm or there isn39t one available 23What is meansend analysis working backward and searching for analogies Identify examples booklecture Means end analysis Devise means actions that get us closer to desired goal ends Break down task into simpler subtasks Working backwards Start at the end and move backwards to the starting point 0 Searching for analogies Try to nd similarities between the current problem and ones you39ve solved in the past 24What is a mental set booklecture Tendencies to rely on particular problem solving strategies that were successful in the past 25What is insight book 0 The moment when a problem solution seems to pop suddenly into one s mind 26What is meant by framing in decision making research booklecture Framing the same options as gains vs losses can lead to preference reversal 27Understand the TverskyKahneman Asian disease problem Know what it demonstrates about the effects of framing a decision in terms of losses versus gains lecture Same outcomes just framed differently People will take risks to avoid a sure loss 28What is the con rmation bias booklecture Understand the results of the horoscope study and the teachergifted student study and know how they demonstrate the con rmation bias lecture What are people thought to engage in the con rmation bias Hint what takes more mental work revising our expectations or ignoring inconsistent information lecture Con rmation Bias people have expectations about people and things o If you expect something to be true you look for the information that con rms this belief and ignore the information that does not 29What does it mean to be a cognitive miser lecture People have reluctance to do much extra thinking 30What is the representativeness heuristic booklecture Be able to identify examples 0 The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the extent to which it quotresemblesquot the typical case 0 Flipping coin probability 31 What is base rate neglect lecturesome in book Review the truck driverprofessor example lecture Understand how base rate neglect results from using the representativeness heuristic as a shortcut lecturesome in book 32What is the conjunction error Understand how the conjunction error results from the use of the representativeness heuristic lecturebook O 33What is the availability heuristic booklecture Be able to identify examples Understand how the availability heuristic leads men and women to overestimate how much of the housework they do lecture The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which relevancy instances come to mind which can be in uenced by how vivid events are 0 Grandpa smoked 3 packs of cigarettes a day and lived to be 100 Smoking is not unhealthy 0 I m more likely to die in a plane crash than a car crash 34What is the anchoring and adjustment heuristic booklecture Understand the wheelunited nations study and how it demonstrated use of anchoring and adjustment lecture Using a starting point to estimate how frequent or likely an event is and then making adjustments up and down from this starting point 35Heuristics seem to lead to imperfect amp sometimes inaccurate decisions So what is their value Why use heuristics booklecture People are cognitive misers Rely on mental shortcuts 0 Can lead to incorrect assumptions 0 Usually correct and more ef cient Too effortful to take into account all information Chapter 10 1 What are some sample de nitions of intelligence lecture The ability to use inductive and deductive reasoning The cognitive capacity to reason plan solve problems and thing abstractly 2 What are psychometrics Who was the rst person to make an attempt at psychometrics booklecture A branch of psychology dedicated to improving the way psychologists measure constructs of interest 0 Galton 3 What is factor analysis Who developed factor analysis Spearman lecturebook A statistical procedure used to lump similar variables together in order to reduce the amount of data one has to deal with 4 What was Spearman39s perspective on intelligence What is the factor g and what are the factors quot5quot booklecture Factor g single factor 0 Factor 5 speci c abilities predict performance on subtests 5 What was Thurstone39s perspective on intelligence How did it differ from Spearman39s Did Thurstone support the existence of 9 What are the seven primary mental abilities booklecture There is no g c There are 7 primary mental abilities all independent and unrelated l verbal comprehension verbal uency numerical ability spatial ability memory perceptual speed reasoning 6 What is a hierarchical model of intelligence How does it represent a compromise between Spearman39s perspective and Thurstone39s perspective booklecture G exists and is meaningful but so are several subfactors Various levels can be assessed depending on predictive purposes 7 What is uid intelligence and crystallized intelligence booklecture Fluid intelligence Ability to solve problems reason and remember Crystalized intelligence Knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of expedence 8 Describe Gardner39s case study approach to multiple intelligences How did his perspective differ from Spearman39s What are Gardner39s 8 distinct kinds of intelligence booklecture Gardner39s Study People sometimes show specialized skills or abilities that are not representative of a general ability 0 Musical bodilykinesthetic logicalmathematical linguistic spatial interpersonal intrapersonal naturalistic 9 What is Sternberg39s triarchic theory of intelligence Understand what is meant by analytical intelligence creative intelligence and practical intelligence Which is most like Spearman39s idea of g booklecture Analytical intelligence process info frame problems effectively 0 Creative intelligence Cope with novel tasks apply what you39ve learned in new ways 0 Practical intelligence How well you t in your environment 10What is an achievement test and what is an aptitude test book Achievement test Psychological tests that measure that measure your current level of knowledge or competence in a particular subject Aptitude test Psychological tests that measure your ability to learn or acquire knowledge in a particular subject 11What is meant by reliability validity and standardization booklecture Reliability Consistency of tests results Validity How well test measure what is is supposed to be measured Standardization Everything the same across people 12Understand the components that make a test valid content predictive construct booklecture Content Test samples across domain of interest Predictive Test predicts future outcomes 0 Construct Tape into a theoretical construct 13What does IQ stand for and why did people rst start trying to develop a way to measure intelligence quotient booklecture IQ Intelligence quotient 14What is meant by mental age booklecture What a child s chronological age should be based on their scores on a test 15How did Binet and Simon rst compute IQ According to their original method what score would be quotaveragequot ie an average score would mean that mental age chronological age LECTUREBOOK IQ mental age chronological age 100 0 Average score 100 16What is deviation IQ book 0 An intelligence score that is derived from determining where your performance sits in an agebased distribution of test scores 17What does a distribution of intelligence scores look like lecturebook Standard Deviation 3 2 1 0 from the Mean m c3 IQ Score 55 7O 85 100 115 130 145 Percentile 01 2 16 50 84 98 99 Description Retarded Low Gifted O 18Know the de ning characteristics of the StanfordBinet scale Raven39s progressive matrices and the Wonderlic personnel test lecture StanfordBinet scale Uses verbal and nonverbal media 5 subscales Raven39s progressive matrices Nonverbal uses pictures only Wonderlic personnel test Used in personnel selection 19What is the de nition of intellectual disability formerly known as mental retardation approximately what percentage of the population is diagnosed with it what criteria must be ful lled to be diagnosed and what are some possible causes booklecture Mental retardation Scoring below 70 on a standard IQ test 0 Must be diagnosed prior to age 18 0 Many are able to live independently Genetic abnormalities 0 Environmental factors Teratogens 20What is the de nition of giftedness Do gifted children grow up to be happier more successful and more socially well adjusted booklecture Scoring gt 130 on a standard IQ test 0 Yes because more money more emotionally stable more socially skilled 21What is a savant booklecture Know the special abilities displayed by the two savants we watched in the two different video clips in class lecture Savant Have amazing abilities in only limited domains autism 0 Missing corpus callosum and damage to cerebellum 0 Had photographic memory 22What are labeling effects book 0 You take a test as a child your IQ is calculated by comparing your performance with that of other kids your age and the score becomes part of your continuing academic record Once the IQ label is applied you39re smart you39re below average and so on expectations are generated in those who have access to your score 23What is creativity book 0 The ability to generate ideas that are original novel and useful 24What is emotional intelligence book 0 The ability to perceive understand and express emotion in ways that are useful and adaptive 25What is tacit knowledge book Unspoken tactical knowledge about how to perform well on the job 26ls IQ stable Know the general pattern of IQ stability over the course of the lifespan Know at what age performance on IQ tests tends to decline and how young IQ can rst be measured in a way that tends to reliably predict IQ later in life booklecture Studies suggest IQ is fairly stable until about age 60 0 After age 60 some loss of IQ 27What is the Flynn effect booklecture IQ test performance in general seems to be rising over time about 3 points per decade 28Understand the nature vs nurture debate what it comes to intelligence booklecture How are twin studies used to tease apart the nature and nurture components of IQ Do twin studies indicate a strong genetic component to IQ booklecture Nature heritability Nurture schooling 0 Results indicate substantial effects for nature and nurture o Twins regardless of how they were raised have extremely similar IQ 29What does the plant example demonstrate about the interaction between nature and nurture booklecture In the plant analogy all variation in plant height within one pot is due to genetics but the overall height difference between plants in one pot and plants in the other is attributable to the differing environments rich soil versus poor soil 0 Having the genes but not having the environment to express them as well as having the best environment but not having the genes Chapter 11 1 What is motivation booklecture Processes that initiate and direct behavior usually toward a goal What is meant by an internal source of motivation Know what is meant by instincts and drives booklecture What is homoeostasis and how does it relate to drives booklecture lnstinct Unlearned characteristic patterns of responding caring for our young crying as infants 0 Drive lnternal state that arises in response to a need hunger thirst Homeostasis Body39s need to maintain balance D Drives to restore balance What is meant by an external source of motivation What is incentive motivation lecturebook Incentive Motivation External pulls that tempt people with prospect of reinforcement or punishment What is the achievement motive Know howwhy the achievement motive can be in uenced by both internalexternal factors lecturebook How does culture affect the achievement motive as demonstrated through the example of math and boysgirls lecturebook Depends on both internal and external factors Pushes us to seek success and signi cant accomplishment Cultural norms boysgirls and math What is intrinsic motivation How is intrinsic motivation different from motivation with an internal or external source lecturebook lntrinsic motivation Entirely selfmotivated o Engage in the action for its own sake Reading Twilight Series Know each of the levels of the pyramid in Maslow39s hierarchy of needs booklecture Selfactualization needs Esteem needs Belongingness and love needs Safety needs Physiological needs Understand how the following internal factors control hunger stomach content chemical signals and brain regions lecturebook What happens when there are legions in the hypothalamus booklecture Chemical Signals o Glucose levels in blood 0 Brain Regions 0 Hypothalamus contains receptors sensitive to presence of foodrelated hormones o Legions in hypothalamus lead to constant hunger electrical stimulation causes loss of interest in food Know what a set point is and how it works to regulate body weight What determines our set point ie genetics metabolic rate booklecture Set point genetically in uenced weight range that you will stay at when not trying to gain or lose weight 0 Basal Metabolism rate at which body burns calories 0 People are born with xed number of fat cells 9 What is thought to contribute to the current obesity epidemic both booklecture BMI Measure of weight relative to height Obesity is not all about willpower More than 50 of American adults and 25 of children are overweight or obese according to BMI chart
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