Exam3StudyGuide.pdf EXSC 223 001
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Exam 3 Study Guide 1. Give 5 functions of skeletal muscle 2. ______ makes up heart, involuntary. These cells have 1 to 4 nuclei. Also striated 3. ______ No striations in these muscle cells. Always mononucleated 4. ______ cells that will become muscle cells. These cells are capable of cell division. 5. ______ immature muscle fibers not capable of cell division. Formed by myoblasts fusing together. 6. ______ blocks in the mesoderm where myoblasts reside 7. In order for a myotube to become a myofiber, the myotube must form a relationship with a ______ 8. How is it that muscles can grow after maturity? 9. ______ Layer around muscles that is made up of dense connective tissue. This layer separates different muscles from one another. This layer holds multiple ______ together. 10. T/F every individual muscle such as a bicep is considered an organ. 11. ______ sheet of connective tissue that wraps around a fascicle. 12. ______ Anatomical unit within the myofibril. Stretches from one Z disc to the next Z disc 13. ______ Dark bands, rich in protein. Pulled on both sides by filaments within the sarcomere so they are very strong. 14. ______ protein that makes up thick filaments 15. ______ protein that makes up thin filaments 16. ______ band where the thick filaments are located. Light does not pass through 17. ______ stretch of sarcomere that does not consist of thick filaments 18. ______ protein that attaches to the Z disc and extends to the thick filament. Largest protein in the body. 19. ______ thick filaments are held down by this in the center of the sarcomere 20. ______ Zone that consists of only thick filaments. Found in the center of the sarcomere 21. Explain the anatomy of the myosin in the thick filaments. 22. T/F myosin is also known as an ATPase 23. Explain the two proteins that help regulate how often myosin binds to actin. 24. ______ Deep invagination of sarcolemma 25. ______ enlarged areas of sarcoplasmic reticulum that surround the T tubule 26. The T tubule next to a pair of terminal cisternae form a ______. This arrangement is vital for muscle contraction. Allows for the release of calcium into the cell. 27. What does the sliding filament theory state? 28. Explain the process of cross bridge cycling 29. ______ cover’s up the myosin binding sight on actin thin filaments. 30. Name the 3 troponin molecules. Which one does calcium bind to? 31. Skeletal muscle does not normally contract on its own but what is the phenomenon called when it does contract on its own? 32. The part of the neuron at the neuromuscular junction is called the ______. 33. This part of the neuron stores ______ which will be released as neurotransmitters to the muscle cell. 34. ______ channels are found on the button and allow for calcium to enter the cell. Calcium allows the vesicle to bind to the membrane for the release of the neurotransmitter. 35. The inward folds across from a button in a neuromuscular junction is called the ______ 36. ______ these receptors are found on the synaptic cleft. 37. ______ Allows for an influx of sodium into the cell. ______ Allows for potassium to leave the cell. _____ brings potassium into the cell and takes sodium back out. 38. The normal resting potential in a muscle cell is ______ millivolts. 39. At what charge does a muscle cell reach threshold? ______ 40. Once a cell reaches threshold, ______ occurs which involves a large influx of sodium ions into the cell. 41. Once the resting potential of a muscle cell reaches about +30 millivolts voltage gated potassium channels open which allows for potassium to leave the cell thus lowering the membrane potential. This is called ______ 42. After this process the membrane potential drops below the normal resting potential. This is called ______ 43. ______ Quick event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls. 44. Explain propagation pertaining to the sarcolemma. 45. Explain the process of how muscles are signaled to contract starting from an activated neuron and ending with cross bridge cycling. 46. To stop muscle contraction we stop releasing neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine (Ach) can also be taken back up into the button. This process is called _______. What drug prevents this from occurring? ______. Also the enzyme _______ breaks down Ach 47. After muscle contraction calcium must be pumped out of the cytosol. The calcium is pumped into the ______. This process requires ATP. 48. ______ occurs when you give a single muscle a stimulus causing a contraction. 49. Name and explain the 3 phases of a muscle twitch. 50. ______ this twitch would occur in a muscle that develops tension rapidly 51. _______ this twitch would occur in a muscle that develops tension slower. 52. The _______ is a muscle found in the calf that allows you to move forward. This is a fast twitch muscle. Its time of tension and relaxation are about 20 milliseconds each 53. The _______ is a posture muscle found in your calves. This muscle holds you in place when you are standing. This is a slow twitch muscle, it takes about 40 milliseconds to reach peak tension and about 50 milliseconds to relax. 54. The primary difference in the time of muscle contraction comes from _______. There is fast and slow ______ (same as above blank) in muscles. 55. The relaxation periods have to do with the _______ pumps. Fast twitch muscles have faster pumps and slower rate pumps. 56. Dark meat is a quality of ______ twitch muscle. Dark meat contains the protein _______ which give these muscle a darker color. 57. Explain the concept of stimulus frequency. 58. The peak value of strength that can be reached when a maximum amount of cross bridges have formed is called _______ 59. Each muscle fiber can be innervated by only ______ motor neuron/s but a motor neuron can innervate _______ fibers 60. Motor units with slow twitch muscle tend to be ______. 61. Explain how force is regulated with motor units. 62. What is the principle that the more motor units recruited, the more force produced. Larger and faster motor units also produce more force. 63. Explain the length tension relationship 64. _______ Specialized striated muscle found in walls of the heart 65. Compare and contrast cardiac muscle from skeletal muscle. 66. _______ is the hearts ability to spontaneously depolarize on its own, which allows for contraction. 67. _______ nervous system slows the heart rate 68. _______ nervous system speeds up the heart rate 69. _______ are where cardiac muscle cells join 70. _______ connection that allows for communication between cardiac muscle cells 71. _______ high stress structures that hold cardiac muscle cells together 72. About 70-80 percent of calcium that cardiac muscle cells use come from their SR. The rest comes from interstitial fluid. This calcium enter the cells through _______ 73. _______ muscle contains no striations. Lines arteries, bladder, and gastrointestinal organs. 74. T/F Some smooth muscles will contract as units, because of gap junctions, some will not. 75. _______ word for contractions of smooth muscles that involves contraction then relaxation then contraction then relaxation etc. Usually associated with peristalsis. 76. _______ word for contractions of smooth muscle that can be held for a long time without using ATP (it takes ATP to become contracted but not hold it). 77. Smooth muscles have no neuromuscular junctions. The neurotransmitters from the nerves that communicate with smooth muscles are released from swellings on the nerves called _______ 78. The SR of smooth muscle is poorly developed so they get most of their calcium from interstitial fluid. The calcium enters through _______ which are invaginations in the sarcolemma that contain a voltage gated calcium channel. (same as in cardiac muscle cells). 79. Explain excitation contraction coupling in smooth muscle cells. 80. Explain single unit contraction referring to smooth muscle. 81. _______ name given to the alternating contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle to move contents from one area to the next 82. Explain multiunit contractions in smooth muscle and name organs it occurs in 83. Explain the stress relaxation response in smooth muscle 84. _______ refers to the division of smooth muscle cells. 85. Give an example of smooth muscle dividing that is unique to females 86. Name the two major components of the digestive system. 87. _______ form of digestion for solid food that begins in the mouth 88. _______ another word for chewing 89. _______ is the mechanical mixing of food with enzymes in the stomach 90. _______ form of mechanical digestion that occurs in the small intestine. Pushes chyme back and forth in the small intestine allowing greater mixing of secretions. This can actually slow the progression of chyme through the SI 91. _______ word for the movement of food through the alimentary canal. It includes swallowing and peristalsis 92. _______ the breakdown of food in the alimentary canal. 93. _______ most nutrients are absorbed in this organ 94. _______ most water is absorbed in this organ 95. T/F small amounts of carbohydrates can be absorbed in the mouth 96. _______ movement of food from the lumen into the blood stream 97. T/F we have a symbiotic relationship with bacteria in our GI tract 98. _______ Serous membrane that wraps around much of the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity. 99. Explain the two functions of the peritoneum 100. What are the two layers that make up serous membranes and which is adjacent to the digestive organs 101. _______ section where two regions of the peritoneal membrane are folded together. The small intestine is supplied with blood vessels and nerves through this. 102. _______ first lining of the GI tract. Damp membrane that is always secreting something to keep it moist. Mostly made up of simple columnar epithelia. 103. _______ smooth muscle that lines the mucosa. Causes wrinkling in the intestines. 104. _______ lining that absorption takes place in. 105. _______ nerves to this system specific to GI tract are found in the submucosa 106. _______ layer where most smooth muscle is found. This layer causes peristalsis. 107. _______ parts of the GI tract not bounded by the peritoneum are bound by this layer of connective tissue 108. _______ reflex that occurs without traveling through the central nervous system 109. _______ reflex that occurs from nerves sending signals to the central nervous system and back 110. _______ nervous system that operates in the GI tract that can operate independently from the CNS 111. _______ these receptors activate the above system when food is sensed in the GI tract 112. What role does the autonomic nervous system play in digestion 113. _______ epithelial layer type that makes up the cells of the mouth 114. Name the parts that make up the roof of the mouth 115. What system are the tonsils apart of? Why do they often get sore when you are sick? 116. Name the 3 regions of the pharynx 117. _______ the organ that covers the trachea while swallowing to prevent you from breathing in food 118. The tongue is made up of two layers of _______. The top layer has no origin and no insertion. The bottom layer has a/n ________ but no ________ 119. _______ duct under tongue that drains saliva from saliva glands 120. _______ exposed region of tooth 121. _______ region of tooth projecting into bone 122. _______ region of tooth that is encased in the gums (gingiva) and is a bridge between the root and crown. 123. _______ hardest substance in the body 124. _______ Anion of fluorine that helps with cavity prevention in teeth 125. _______ calcified tissue in teeth that acts as a shock absorber for the teeth. More flexible than enamel. 126. _______ this is where blood and nerves are found within teeth 127. _______ the root of the tooth is held to bone by this mineralized connective tissue 128. _______ joins the cementum to bone 129. _______ muscles of tongue that have no origin or insertion 130. _______ small structures on tongue that increase friction on the tongue 131. Name the 3 papillae that are associated with taste buds 132. _______ enzyme that breaks down fat, secreted by tongue 133. _______ name the the 3 main salivary glands 134. _______ which salivary gland secretes saliva directly into the mouth. Which two salivary glands secrete saliva underneath the tongue? 135. Give 4 functions of saliva 136. Explain the makeup of saliva 137. What controls salivation? 138. _______ Organ that transports food from mouth to stomach. 139. What are the four layers of the esophagus? 140. _______ Smooth muscle structure that prevents stomach acid from entering the esophagus 141. _______ how many layers of smooth muscle are there in the muscularis externa of the stomach. What is the purpose of this many layers? 142. _______ region of the stomach that near where the esophagus opens up to the stomach 143. _______ region of the stomach where the stomach extends upward. In stomach hernias this is the most commonly herniated portion 144. _______ region of the stomach that is most inferior and borders the small intestine 145. _______ what two parts make up the pylorus region? 146. _______ Folds that appear inside the stomach after not eating for a while 147. _______ inactive enzyme secreted by chief cells into the stomach 148. The inactive enzyme above becomes the active enzyme _______ when broken down by stomach acid. This enzyme aids in the breakdown of proteins 149. _______ circulation system responsible for providing the gastrointestinal system with a blood supply and sending blood to the liver from the gastrointestinal system. 150. Food mixed with acids and other secretions in the stomach becomes _______ 151. ______ cells found within columnar epithelia that produce mucous. 152. ______ this chemical compound is combined with the mucous secretions of the goblet cells to prevent the goblet cells from being destroyed by stomach acid 152. ______ where the glands are found that make secretions for the stomach 153. ______ produce the HCl in the stomach and also the intrinsic factor 154. ______ produce pepsinogen 155. ______ glands that secrete there product into interstitial fluid found in the gastric pits. They produce serotonin, histamine, and gastrin. 156. ______ opening from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine. Makes sure small amounts of chyme come in at a time 157. What does the intrinsic factor do and why is it important? Answer Key 1. Movement, maintaining posture, stabilizing joints, heat production, metabolism 2. Cardiac muscle 3. Smooth muscle 4. Myoblasts 5. myotubes 6. Somites 7. Neuron 8. Extra myoblasts sit outside of muscle fibers. They can fuse to muscle fibers and make the muscle get larger. They can also help muscles heal when they or torn. If you do not exercise your muscles will atrophy. Muscles will get smaller and nuclei within muscle cells will die. 9. Epimysium, Fascicles 10. True 11. Perimysium 12. Sarcomere 13. Z disc 14. Myosin 15. Actin 16. A-band 17. I-band 18. Titin 19. M line 20. H zone 21. Myosin consists of distinct regions. Myosin exists as a dimer-two proteins. In the region of myosin called the tail, you can see the 2 proteins wrapped around each other. This region is what anchors the molecule into the thick filament. Near the head is the hinge region of the myosin. It is called the hinge because it moves. The shape of myosin is regulated at the hinge. The hinge exists in 2 positions- cocked or uncocked. The head is another region. This sticks out. The myosin head has an area that binds to actin. This is called the actin binding site. The globular head also has a binding site for ATP- the ATP binding site. 22. T 23. Tropomysosin interferes with myosin binding to actin. The protein troponin is responsible for removing tropomyosin. When your muscle is relaxed tropomyosin is covering up the binding sites. When your muscle is contracted, the sites are not covered. 24. Transverse Tubule 25. Cisternae 26. Triad 27. The sliding filament suggests that it is the thin filaments that slide over the thick filaments. It describes what takes place when a muscle shortens. 28. A cross bridge refers to a myosin globular head binding to an actin molecule. Cycling refers to the forming and breaking of cross bridges. You can relate the number of cross bridges formed to the amount of force produced by muscle. A myosin head will attach to an actin myofilament forming a cross bridge. While attached the myosin head will release ADP and an inorganic phosphate. As a result the myosin head pulls the actin filament towards the M line. ATP then comes and attaches to the myosin head. This weakens the link between myosin and actin and pulls the myosin off of the actin binding site. The myosin (which is also an atpase) will hydrolyze ATP into ADP and Pi and the myosin will return to its attached position. This will continuously repeat as long there is ATP and calcium available in the muscle cell. 29. tropomyosin 30. Troponin I, C, and T. Calcium binds to Troponin C 31. A cramp 32. Button 33. Acetylcholine (ACH) 34. Calcium voltage gated channels 35. Synaptic cleft 36. ACh receptor 37. Sodium voltage gated channels, Potassium voltage gated channels, Sodium potassium pump 38. -90 39. -55 40. Depolarization 41. repolarization 42. hyperpolarization 43. Action potential 44. When one action potential occurs, this stimulates action potentials at all the other sodium pumps. The positive charge inside the initial patch of sarcolemma changes the permeability of an adjacent patch, thus opening Na+ voltage gating channels all throughout the sarcolemma and t-tubules. 45. Once the signal reaches the button, the calcium channels open up and allow for calcium to move into the button. This causes the vesicles containing ach to bind to cell membrane and release the ach neurotransmitters across the synapse. Ach binds to the ach receptors. This allows for the movement of sodium into the cell and potassium out of the cell. Once the cell reaches threshold (charge of -55 millivolts) the sodium gated channels are triggered, they open and allow sodium to cross the membrane. At every sodium channel you have a depolarization. This depolarization causes the membrane potential in a region of the muscle cell to rise. That’s what triggers the next depolarization. This is again called propagation. These reactions propagate down into the T-tubule. This rise in membrane potential then triggers the opening of other channels such as the calcium gated channels in the SR. This allows for calcium to leave the SR and enter the cytosol. This calcium that is released, binds to troponin C, which pushes the tropomyosin out of the binding site and allows for the myosin to bind to the actin and allows for cross bridge cycling. 46. reuptake, Prozac, Acetylcholinesterase 47. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 48. Twitch 49. There are 3 phases- the latent period- period between stimuli and when tension occurs. During the latent period, the action potential moves across the sarcolemma, and down the T-tubule, causing the release of Ca++. This period is very brief 1-2 milliseconds. The period of contraction is when tension occurs. Calcium is being released into the cell and many cross bridges are formed. The relaxation period is when calcium is pumped out of the cell and the muscle relaxes. 50. Fast twitch 51. Slow twitch 52. Gastrocnemius 53. Soleus 54. Myosin 55. Calcium 56. Slow twitch 57. What happens if a second stimulus is given to a muscle while it is contracting or relaxing? The force produced following the second stimulus is going to be greater than that provided by the first. This is caused by a greater amount of calcium in the cytosol which causes more cross bridges to form. Each successive stimulus to a muscle will create more force than the last if the muscle is stimulated before relaxation. Eventually there is a peak value of strength that can be reached. This is known as tetanus. This is when a maximal amount of cross bridges have formed. 58. tetanus 59. one, multiple 60. small 61. As we activate more motor units, we produce more force. This causes more cross bridges to form. This is controlled voluntarily. If you lightly curl your fingers you are stimulated just a few motor units. If you tightly curl your fingers into a fist, you are activating all of your motor units which produces much more force than just a few. 62. The size principle 63. describes relationship between force and length of sarcomere. Percent of resting sarcomere length ranges from 60 to 180. 100 is the ideal resting length. At ideal resting length we can produce maximum force. At this resting length you can form the maximum number of cross bridges. Increasing the length of the sarcomere about 20% to 120 your muscle can still produce maximum force. But from 120 onward maximum force production decreases. Less cross bridges can form. This is because there is less overlap of the thick and thin filaments. Eventually the sarcomere can be pulled apart so far, very little force at all can be produced. If there is a decrease in length of the sarcomere below 100 it produces less maximal force. When the sarcomere shortens youll see that you can reach a point where the thin filaments from the right overlap with the thin filaments from the left. This provides interference to cross bridges forming. 64. Cardiac 65. Similarities: Both muscles contain striations and sarcomere organization. The mechanisms of contraction are similar (membrane depolarization that releases calcium into the cytoplasm etc) Differences: Cardiac muscle has only 1-4 nuclei and is the cells are much shorter. Skeletal muscle is multinucleated and can contain hundreds. Cardiac muscle has intercalated discs which are where cardiac cells attach to one another. Cardiac muscle cells also branch out a bit, whereas skeletal muscles are long and straight. The ways that the membranes of the two cell types is also different. Skeletal muscle is stimulated by neurons, the heart spontaneously generates an electric impulse and depolarizes. Skeletal muscles are controlled by you, cardiac muscle is automatic. 66. Automaticity 67. Parasympathetic NS 68. Sympathetic NS 69. Intercalated discs 70. Gap junctions 71. Desmosomes 72. caveolae 73. Smooth 74. True 75. Phasic 76. Tonic 77. Varicosities 78. Caveolae 79. At the caveolae the calcium enters the cell. Smooth muscle has a limited SR but it too releases calcium into the cytosol. Calcium activates contraction differently. In smooth muscle calcium enters the cytosol and binds to a protein called calmodulin. This switches calmodulin to an active enzyme. Calmodulin breaks down ATP and then it takes the Pi and attaches it to another enzyme- a kinase. The Kinase once active will break down ATP to ADP and Pi and attach a phosphate to myosin. The attachment of ADP to myosin determines whether it is active or inactive. When activated it will go to the cocked state, therefore shortening the cell. 80. These are phasic contractions mostly seen in the viscera or the gastrointestinal organs- common in the esophagus down to the rectum. In this kind of contraction you see it is a rhythmic contraction- muscle contracts and relaxes repeatedly. There are two layers of muscle and each layer acts as a single unit. This is cause in each layer the cells are connected by gap junctions. These contractions occur spontaneously. This is related to the stress relaxation response. 81. Peristalsis 82. These are tonic contractions. This is the idea that each smooth muscle cell acts as its own entity and they are not connected by gap junctions. Cells receive a siganla form the autonomic NS to relax or contract. In multiunit contractions you see variations in contraction. You can contract a little, a moderate amount, or a lot. You see that it is present in lungs, blood vessels, eye muscles that regulate dilation, and erector pilli muscles. 83. When you stretch smooth muscle it contracts. If you hold it in a stretched position the smooth muscle will eventually relax and reset itself to this new resting length. Your bladder is a good example. The walls of the bladder contain multiunit smooth muscle. As you fill the bladder the smooth muscle contracts. This is when you feel you must use the restroom. After a while you may not feel the urge to urinate. This is because the muscles have adjusted and reset to how contracted they are. This is the stress-relaxation response. It can also happen in the stomach. 84. Hyperplasia 85. The uterus growing during puberty 86. The alimentary canal, accessory organs 87. Mechanical 88. Mastication 89. Churning 90. Segmentagion 91. Propulsion 92. Digestion 93. Small intestine 94. large intestine 95. True 96. Absorption 97. true 98. Peritoneal membrane 99. 1. Secreted on the inside sac of the membrane is a lubricant. The digestive system gets stretched out and changes size often. This constant change in size results in friction. So this lubricant reduces friction and pain. 2. The peritoneum isolates most of your body from the GI tract. This is important because there are large amounts of bacteria in the GI tract and this physical barrier keeps the bacteria out of the body. 100. The visceral layer and the parietal layer. The visceral side is adjacent to the digestive organs 101. Mesentery 102. Mucosa 103. Muscularis mucosae 104. Submucosa 105. Submucosal nerve plexus 106. Muscularis externa 107. Adventitia 108. Short reflex 109. Long reflex 110. Enteric nervous system 111. Chemoreceptors 112. The parasympathetic nervous system increases digestion and the sympathetic nervous system slows down digestion 113. Non keratinized stratified squamous cells 114. The hard and soft palate. The palatoglassal arch and the uvula 115. Lymphatic system. When a response is initiated to fight off infection, they swell up and become tender. 116. Nasopharyx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx 117. Epiglottis 118. Skeletal muscle, origin, insertion 119. submandibular duct 120. crown 121. Root 122. Neck 123. Enamel 124. Fluoride 125. Dentin 126. Pulp cavity 127. Cementum 128. Periodontal ligament 129. intrinsic muscles 130. Filiform papillae 131. Fungiform, Vallate, and Foliate 132. Lipase 133. Parotid, Submandibular, and sublingual 134. The parotid glands. The submandibular and sublingual 135. 1. Cleans mouth 2. Mixes with foods to help with breakdown 3. Helps to components of food to become free and interact with taste buds. 4. Breaks down starch with amylase. 136. Saliva is 99% h20 but contains amylase, mucin (runny mucous), IgA antibodies or immunoglobulins (protective mechanism against things we ingest, enzymes like lysozymes and defensins (also offer protection against things we ingest). Our saliva has all these antibodies because we don’t consume sterile food. 137. The parasympathetic NS. There are also mechanical and chemical receptors that cause us to salivate. 138. Esophagus 139. mucosa, the submucosa (CT tissue, enteric nerves), muscularis externa (2 layers of smooth muscle), and adventitia (CT tissue, technically not a membrane). 140. Esophageal sphincter 141. The stomach has 3 layers of smooth muscle. There is the circular, longitudinal and oblique muscle (diagonal to the other 2). This allows effective mixing of the food and also aids in the movement of the food towards the valve. 142. Cardia 143. Fundus 144. Pylorus 145. The Pyloric canal is where the stomach narrows and adjoins to the duodenum. They pyloric antrum is between the pyloric canal and the body of stomach. 146. Gastric rugae 147. Pepsinogen 148. Pepsin 149. Splanchnic 150. Chyme 151. Goblet cells 152. Bicarbonate 152. Gastric pits 153. Parietal cells 154. Chief cells 155. Enteroendocrine cells 156. Pyloric Sphincter 157. Allows for the absorption of Vitamin B12. This is important because VB12 is necessary for the absorption of iron.
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