CBIO 2200 Exam 4 Study Guide
CBIO 2200 Exam 4 Study Guide CBIO 2200
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rholonda Pruitt on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CBIO 2200 at University of Georgia taught by Leslie Pryor in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 340 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology I in Anatomy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Exam 4 Study Guide *Study Guide is will be best utilized while following along with the L15 Powerpoint and the L1618 PowerPoint, or as a quiz after studying the PowerPoints and/or reading chapter 13 of the textbook. Lectures 1518 Questions 1. What are the 4 functions of the spinal cord? 2. Where does the spinal cord begin? 3. How many pairs of spinal nerves are there in total? Cranial? Thoracic? Lumbar? Sacral? Coccygeal? 4. True or False: Spinal nerves are named for where they enter the spinal column. 5. True or False: Spinal cord regions are always found in the corresponding vertebral region? 6. What does the cervical enlargement give rise to? 7. What does the lumbar enlargement give rise to? 8. Describe the conus medullaris and the cauda equine. 9. What are the 3 meninges of the spinal cord from most superficial to deep? 10.This is where the dural sheath is separated from the vertebra. Hint: also where anesthesia is injected during childbirth. 11.What is a subdural space? 12.What kind of fluid fills the subarachnoid space? 13.Know how to label the meninges of the spinal cord on a picture! 14.What is the difference between gray and white matter? 15.True or False: Gray matter is enclosed by white matter within the spinal cord. 16.Dorsal roots are associated with ___________ functions, whereas Ventral roots are associated with ___________ funcitons 17.What are the three types of columns of the spinal cord? 18.What are the purposes of ascending and descending tracts? Which tracts are ascending (5) and which are descending (4)? What are the functions of each of the ascending and descending tracts? 19.Difference between contralateral and Ipsilateral tracts (Hint: Decussation) 20.How does the spinal cord communicate with target muscles/organs/etc.? 21.True or False: Somatic nerves are efferent, motor nerves are afferent. 22.True or False: the spinal nerve consists of both sensory and motor fibers 23.What is/are the difference(s) between anterior and posterior rami? 24.Define proprioception. 25.What is a reflex? 26.What type of muscles are involved in somatic reflexes? 27.What are the 5 components of the reflex arc? 28.What is meningitis? What is the difference between bacterial and viral meningitis? How can it be tested for? 29.What kind of deficiency can cause neural tube defects? 30.Where is the cervical plexus found? What does it give rise to? 31.Where is the brachial plexus found? What does it give rise to? Name a few nerves that come from this plexus. 32.Where is the lumbar plexus found? What does it give rise to? 33.Where is the sacral plexus found? What does it give rise to? 34.Define Dermatome and Dermatome map. 35.Define rostral and caudal 36.What are the three major portions of the brain? 37.What is the purpose of the corpus callosum? 38.True or False: Gyri are folds and Sulci are grooves 39.What two hemispheres of the brain does the longitudinal fissure separate? 40.What does the brainstem consist of? What are the major functions of the 3 components? 41.What is the orientation of gray and white matter in the brain? (Hint: opposite that of the spinal cord) 42.True or False: the nervous system develops from the endoderm. 43.What are the three primary vesicles formed during embryonic development? 44.What are the two layers of the dura mater in the brain? 45.Identify and describe the three dural folds. 46.Dural sinuses are located within _______________. 47.From which two types of arteries does the brain receive blood? 48.What is the Circle of Willis? 49.What are the differences among epidural, subdural and intracerebral hematomas? 50.What are the 3 functions of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)? 51.Where are the choroid plexuses located? What is the function of the choroid plexus? 52.What is the function of arachnoid granulations? 53.How does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate through the brain? (Starting from the initial production of CSF in the lateral ventricle and Ending in the subarachnoid space) 54.What is the purpose of the bloodbrain barrier system? 55.What are the functions of astrocytes and endothelial cells in the blood brain barrier system? 56.What are pyramids? (in reference to the medulla) 57.What kind of sensory neurons are located in the medulla? 58.Which cranial nerves are located in the medulla? 59.What is the reticular formation and why is it important (what are the functions)? 60.What connects the pons to the cerebellum? 61.Which cranial nerves are in the pons? 62.Which cranial nerve nuclei are found in the midbrain? 63.What does the tectum consist of? (Hint: 2 pairs of colliculi) What are the functions of the colliculi? 64.Name and describe the 3 components of the cerebral peduncles. 65.What does the vermis connect? 66.What is the branching white matter within the cerebellum called? 67.Inferior peduncles connect the ____________ to the cerebellum 68.Middle peduncles connect the ____________ to the cerebellum 69.Superior peduncles connect the ____________ to the cerebellum 70.What’s the importance of the inferior, middle and superior peduncles? 71.What are the two components of the forebrain? 72.What are the 3 components of the diencephalon? What are their major functions? 73.What is the largest part of the human brain? What type of matter makes up the majority of its volume? 74.What are the 5 lobes of the cerebrum? What are their functions/importance 75.What are the 3 types of tracts found in the brain? What are their purposes? 76.Where does neural integration take place? 77.Where are 3 areas in which gray matter is found in the cerebrum? 78.What are the 2 types of nerve cells that make up the cerebral cortex? 79.True or False: Both cerebral hemispheres share one limbic system. 80.What are the 3 prominent components of the limbic system? What are their functions? 81.Name a few functions of basal nuclei. 82.What is the corpus striatum? 83.What is sleep? What are the 4 stages of sleep? What are the characteristics of each stage? 84.What happens during REM sleep? 85.What controls the rhythm of sleep? 86.What is the importance of the suprachiasmatic nucleus? 87.What are orexins? 88.What is cognition? How do researchers observe it? 89.What is the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia? 90.How does the cerebellum assist in memory? 91.What relationship does the prefrontal cortex have with emotions? 92.The hypothalamus and amygdala bring about ________________ 93.How is behavior shaped? 94.Describe the location and function of the following cortexes: a. Primary sensory b. Primary visual c. Primary auditory d. Primary gustatory e. Primary olfactory f. Primary somesthetic 95.What is the purpose of association areas? 96.What happens in the motor association (premotor) area? What happens in the primary motor area? 97.What is dyskinesias? 98.What is ataxia and what causes it? 99.What is the difference between Wernicke’s area and Broca’s area? 100. What is aphasia? Difference between nonfluent, fluent, and anomic? 101. How many pairs of cranial nerves are there? 102. How do cranial nerves exit the skull? 103. Which cranial nerves are only sensory? Only motor? Both? 104. What are the main functions of each cranial nerve? 105. What is trigeminal neuralgia?
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