Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide Zol 328
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Bowe on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Zol 328 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Pam Rasmussen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Comparative Anatomy and Biology of the Vertebrates in Biology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
ZOL 328 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE definitions to know Early embryology • zygote fertilized egg • embyonic area all developing parts that will become an animal • extraembryonic area cells that become supportive structures or supply nutrients • vitollogenin protein formed in liver of females, becomes yolk • yolk platelets packets of nutrients within the yolk • isolecithal even yolk distribution • telolecithal yolk concentrates at one pole of egg • microlecithal small amount of yolk • mesolecithal moderate amount • macrolecithal vast amount of yolk • vegetal pole where yolk resides in telolecithal eggs • animal pole where embryo resides in telolecithal eggs • plasma membrane covering of egg cell • cortex region beneath plasma membrane • primary envelope separates egg from surrounding ovary • secondary envelope composed of follicle cells • follicle cell cells that transfer nutrients to egg • tertiary envelope becomes egg case or shell • oviparous egg laying/oviposition • viviparous live birth/paturation • ovoviviparity shelled eggs develop in oviduct, full baby animals are birthed • lecithotrophic embyro gets nutrition from yolk • matrotrophic embryo gets nutrition from placenta or oviduct • cleavage repeated cell division without major increase in size of embryo • morula solid ball of cells • blastula hollow ball of cells • holoblastic cleavage in microlecithal eggs, mitotic furrows pass through zygote evenly • meroblastic cleavage cell division impeded by yolk, meso or macrolecithal eggs • discoidal cleavage yolk is so thick that vegetal pole cannot divide, macrolecithal eggs • gastrulation gut formation • neurulation nerve formation • neural tube becomes brain and spinal cord • neural crest paired strip of tissue that separates as neural tube is formed • somites condesed clumps of mesoderm that separated off each other dermatotome, sclerotome, myotome • dorsal lip indentation of blastula that begins gastrulation in some taxa • primitive streak thickened area of cells that acts like a blastopore in some taxa • blastocyst blastula, term used in only for mammals Orgogenesis/Histogenesis • epithelium tissues that line body cavities o simple single cell layer o stratified multiple cell layers o squamous flat cells o cuboidal cube shaped cells o columnar rectangular/cubelike cells o endothelium lines blood and lymph vessels o mesothelium lines body cavities o transitional lines bladder ducts o glandular becomes various gland cells • connective tissue huge variety of types and fuctions “leftover cell groups” o general fibrous connective tissue o special bone, cartilage, blood, hemopoietic tissues o cartilage firm and flexibly connective tissue o hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic catilage o non lamellar bone disorderly, irregular arrangement of collagen in matrix o lamellar bone orderly arrangemt of collagen in matrix • mesenchyme embryonic cells derived from mesoderm • mineralization inorganic ions deposited within tissues o calcification, ossification • joint/articulation bones/cartilage coming in contact, may or may not be moveable • pleural cavity houses lungs • mesentary thin tissues that suspend and connect organs to body wall/each other • heterochrony relative changes in timing of development, can differ between populations (salamander example) • peramorphosis exaggeration of a character in comparision with ancestor • paedomorphosis retaining juvenile characteristics even at sexual maturity o progenesis growth stops earlier o neoteny features grow slower o postdisplacement features appear late in development • Homeotic genes controll many other genes that code for development of body parts • epigenetics/epigenomics study of environmental factors on genes Integument System • integument epidermis & its derivatives, basement membrane, dermis • hypodermis layer of connective and adipose tissues, internal to integument and superficial to deep musculature • epidermis top most layer of integument, arises from ectoderm, gives rise to many glands and structures • dermis bottom layer of integument, contains dermal bones and osteoderms, arises from mesoderm and mesenchyme • osteoderm bony deposit • stratum germinativum/stratum basale deep layer of epidermis • stratum compactum connective tissue layer • startum corneum upper layer of epidermis, all dead cells • keratin protein that makes up many structures, including hair, nails, parts of horns, and scales • keratinocytes epidermal cells involved in keratinization • callus thick protective layer of skin • placoid scale scales of sharks/chimeras/rays, surface denticles that form in dermis • cosmoid scale in some primitive sarcopterygian fish, very thick dentine layer over bone • ganoin scale gars and bichirs, thick enamal over bone layer • cycloid scale acellular bone, ring shape • ctenoid scale acellur bone, rounded on one end, serrated on other • ecdysis molting • stratum intermedium temporary layer of white blood cells between new skin and molting skin • brood patch area of skin in birds not covered by feathers, to incubate eggs • uropygial gland provides lipids for preening feathers • pterylae feather tracts • apteriae featherless areas of bird, may be down covered • rachis main shaft of feather • calamus/quill base of rachis, anchors feather to body • barbs coming off of rachis, the feathery parts • barbules/barbicels/hooklets tiny hooks connecting barbs to each other • apical cells surface cells of amphibian integument • leydig cells amphibian apical cell that secretes antibiotics • cutaneous respiration gas exchange through skin • nuptial pad specialized calluses that form on breeding male frogs, aids in gripping female for mating • gastralia bones in the abdomen of crocs and tuataras, not found in any other extant taxa • melanosome cell containing melanin pigment • iridophore contains light reflecting guanine platelets • xanthophore yellow pigment cell • erythrophore red pigment cell • langerhan cells star shaped cell, part of mammilian immune system • merkel cells associated with sensory nerves • hair unique to mammals, root connects to body, shaft continues the entire length • papillary layer outer layer of mammal dermis • recticular layer inner layer of mammal dermis • pelage thick covering of hair • guard hairs course and long • underfur fine and shorter • sebaceous gland secrete oil • meibomian gland secrete film on eyeball • eccrine gland releases sweat directly to skin • apocrine gland releases sweat through a hair follicle, appear at maturity • mammary gland secretes milk, made of many lobules, with clusters of alveoli • teat milk duct opens into common chamber • nipple milk duct opens directly to skin • diphydont teeth two sets throughout a lifetime, unique to mammals • horn unbranched bony core, covered in keratinzed layer • antler usually branched, bone formed by overlaying skin/velvet, shed each year • baleen keratinized plated in the mouths of some whales Skulls • endoskeleton bones within body • exoskeleton bones os part of integument • splanchnocranium includes jaws and pharyngeal arches o paleostylic arches not directly attached to skull o euautostylic jaw attachment jaw suspended directly from skull o amphistylic jaw attachment attached by ligaments anteriorly and by hyomandibula posteriorly o hyostylic jaw primarilly attached by hyomandibula o metautostlyic jaw attached by quadrate o craniostylic lower jaw suspended from squamosal • chondrocranium supports brain in sharks, supports ear and nasal cavities • dermatocranium bones encasing all components of skull • skull kinesis movement of skull o metakinesis joint is at rear of skull, most lizards o mesokinesis joint behind the eye, some lizards (in addition to meta) o prokinesis joint at front of eye, birds and snakes o rhynchokinesis some birds, very end of upper beak lifts up • Anapsid no fenestration in skull • diapsid two fenestrae within skull, usually modified • synapsid one fenestrae in skull, modified in extant mammals • olfactory epithelium lining of nasal cavity • nasolacrimal duct drains excess fluid from nasal cavity to the eye Helpful Charts/Diagrams *****NEED TO KNOW ALL SERIES AND BONES OF DERMATOCRANIUM***** derivatives of splanchnocranium
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