ARCH 150 Final
ARCH 150 Final arch 150
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angel Lee on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to arch 150 at University of Washington taught by Alex Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see building across times in Architecture at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
ARCH 150 FINAL STUDY GUIDE with Ann Huppert - Hindu: sikhara - vertical/mountain-like elements, geometric forms, oriented to BUILDING MATERIALS: compass points - Greek: temple - temples dedicated to greek - wood construction Gods (i.e. Temple of Hera, Parthenon) - masonry construction - mud brick (adobe) - Roman - Ex. Pantheon (dedicated to all Gods) - fired brick (refined) - stone ARCHES: - Roman concrete - corbeled arch: characteristic of old BUILDING SYSTEMS: architecture - true arch: based on mutual pressure, made of -post and lintel voussoir wedges and keystone - triumphal arch: structure in shape of archway, -Chinese bracket systems 1. building post & beam supporting usually in series of three arches; architecture heavy terracotta roof across Roman empire - horseshoe arch: elongated semicircular arch 2. use of wood - pointed arch: an arch with a pointed crown; 3. flexible, fits many climactic allowed flexible ceiling heights environments, - transverse arch: usually marks off space (at end of nave) diminished damage from earthquakes - Gothic structure 1. pointed arches, rib vaults, flying PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE buttresses, stained glass (made possible by wideness - Prehistoric: period before a written language first 3 elements provided) - building material: stone - monumental architecture BUILDING PLANS: - indigenous - vernacular - mosque plan (Islamic) - mortise and tenon - Christian plan types: - megalith - big stone structures 1. basilica/longitudinal plan 2. no pagan associations, fast to build, - corbeled arch provided large interior PREHISTORIC: STONEHENGE, ENGLAND, CA. 3. spaces for congregational gathering 2500 BC - centralized plan: any type of plan governed by a shape focusing on center pt. - made of earthworks as well as stones, it was built in multiple stages (3) URBAN PLANNING: - consists of trilithons (three stones) - Hippodamus: designed Miletus grid form construction - a simple post and lintel or post - Castrum and beam system that is joined by mortise - Monastery and tenon joints Ex. St Gall (ideal monastery plan) - note the cosmological significance associated - pilgrimage churches with this monument - post and lintel using megaliths COLUMN ORDERS: PREHISTORIC: PYRAMIDS COMPLEX, GIZA, - Doric (Classical Period) - “male finger?”; short EGYPT, CA. 2500 BC and stocky, usually closely spaced & exterior of building - pyramids - serve as tombs of pharoahs; they - Ionic (Classical Period) - interior prostyle are usually solid with almost no interior space; they derive from mastabas columns; curvy and slender - Corinthian (Hellenistic Period) - framed and Pyramid of Khufu: marking of position; capital of series of Pyramid of Khafre: consists of a causeway campus leaves leading to a sphinx Pyramid of Menkaure: smallest; consists of TEMPLES: a causeway - Buddhist: stupa or solid mound form of stone PREHISTORIC: PYRAMIDS COMPLEX, GIZA, EGYPT, CA. 2500 BC - Old Kingdom period - temples: distinct form of Greek architecture - Pharoah that serves as a space for a God - Nile - cella within the temples developed from the - Masonry construction Mycenean megaron - building material: *mud brick - developed throughout the classic period - bitumen: the “glue” - inventions of greek architecture include - built on an axis - includes colonnades, pylon, pilaster entasis and the three column orders, sculptures (caryatid) - obelisk - having a democratic government allowed for - hypostyle hall unified funding for advancements in technology and creation of grand civic spaces HISTORIC: MOHENJO DARU, INDUS VALLEY, PAKISTAN, CA. 2400-2000 BC for a variety of purposes from political (blouterion), commercial (stoa/agora), - first city where people came together and recreational (theater), and religious (temples) lived together - walled city built on grid with large city blocks ANCIENT GREECE: PARTHENON AND ACROPOLIS, ATHENS, GREECE, 448-432 BC subject to floods from Indus River - built with sun-baked/mud brick - Acropolis: “protected city on high”; developed - citadel: surrounded city for fortification as protection during the classical period includes… - river allowed for extensive trade - Propyleae: entrance to the acropolis; small - dynamic city as the invaders came and went temple dedicated to victorious Athena - Erecthion: Ionic temple adjacent to Parthenon consisting of a caryatid porch BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE - Temple of Athena Nike: Ionic temple located - the goal of buddhist temples was to become near Propyleae objects of devotion - Parthenon: (next slide) - the rise of buddhism is attributed to emperor ANCIENT GREECE: PARTHENON AND Asoka, a great Buddhist ruler who united India ACROPOLIS, ATHENS, GREECE, 448-432 BC - stupa: solid mound that marks the location of ashes and “light of buddha”and serves as a - Temple of Athena Parthenos (the virgin) reliquary; created by piling up material and it - fully built of stone is a part of a large, complex of buildings - Parthenon: main temple of Athens, used Doric - vihara: buddhist monasteries order, post and lintel, and entasis - chaitya hall: halls for buddhist religious - consists of a cella, pronaos, and statue of contemplation Athena - mandala: spritual and ritual symbol in Hindu - architects: Iktinos and Callicrates and Buddhism, representing the Universe; square with four gates containing a circle with a center point ARCHITECTURE FOR EMPIRES BUDDHIST: GREAT STUPA & MONASTERY, SANCHI, INDIA, CA. 250 BC - 250 - Early city planning: cities were fortified and development occurred within these - purpose: religious fortifications, characteristics included water - Great Stupa: reliquary consisting of a control, and food distribution systems ceremonial gate; part of a larger complex - as more cities began to develop, many - buddhist monastery: also known as a vihara, adopted the form of building on an axis house monks - also as time passed, cities were built with - developed under Emperor Asoko stronger and more stable materials such as - post and lintel construction (just the front concrete and stone gate) - most city planning succeeded if there was a - mud brick, fired brick, stone unified government under a king, emperor, or - constructed from plan inspired by mandala war lord radial balance, circle with center pt. - shared cultures allowed for the investment of grander architecture for religious (temples) and recreational purposes (ball court, theater) GREEK ARCHITECTURE CITY PLANNING: CHANG’AN, CHINA, 600 - nine grid block city - However, since Rome itself grew from an - masonry construction (mud brick), wooden archaic city, the plan of Rome is not so very roof with ceramic tiles organized - relief sculpture - either ways, Roman architecture prospered - planned city organized to cardinal directions under a single ruler and became like Greek - they built the city around the river and 4.0, they also adopted all the greek orders divided the neighbors - plan aligned with the entire empire ROMAN: PANTHEON, ROME, ITALY, 125 - fortified (commoners lived outside) - located at the end of the silk road - dedicated to all gods - note the multiple gateways into the palace - thick walls, made of concrete, huge columns - Chinese bracket system (Corinthian order) - rich interior ornamented with marble CHINA: GREAT WALL, 221 BC-1700 - celebrated materials from Roman empire, exemplifies Rome at height of empire - construction begun by Qin Shi Huangdi (first emperor) - diameter of plan = height of dome - built by Hadrian - initial independent fortifications later united - harmonious proportions into one continuous wall - note: coffers and oculus - represented audacity of enclosing city, - portico: colonnade porch defense - largely rebuilt in Ming Dynasty ROMAN: COLOSSEUM (FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATER), ROME, ITALY, 80 - checkpoints along the wall - STONE - manmade, built by family of emperors CITY PLANNING: MILETUS, TURKEY, REBUILT - used as a place of entertainment: gladiators AFTER 479 BC - rise steeply, sloped seats (hierarchy) - 50K people capacity - Greek colonial town of Asia Minor - open at top, sail-like roof for shade - Hippodamus designed the orthogonal grid - basic construction: barrel vaults of concrete form - arches (true) with columns of Doric, Ionic & - Greek theaters engage with the landscape Corinthian order CITY PLANNING: TIMGAD, ALGERIA, CA. 100 - 4 tiers of seats below wood arena floor - castrum plan: block system (Roman innovation specifically for military defensive CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE position) - rectangular form - adopted the basilica plan to distinguish itself - lined by covered walkways from other religions - it had no pagan - archway at entrance associations, was fast to build, and could - colonnades line the main street accommodate congregations and processions - triumphal arch (celebrate victory) - Constantine adopted and legalized Christianity and then relocated the capital, separating his empire ROMAN ARCHITECTURE - architecture that developed during this time - with the rise and expansion of the Roman include baths, the triumphal arch, churches, baptisteries, martryriums, centralized plans, empire, there were many technological and ambulatories advancements in a variety of areas: true arch CHRISTIAN/BAROQUE: ST. JOHN LATERAN, roadways (for military traveling and trade) water management (aqueducts and ROME, ITALY Roman baths) - first Christian church; cathedral of Rome concrete -gave flexibility for exterior - built by Constantine decoration - consciously located outside of city because of city planning with controlled entrances political conflict - longitudinal/basilica, “latin” cross plan and exits - rectangular marked with long rows of columns basilica plan (multipurpose civic buildings for congregations) - post and lintel construction with truss roof, inexpensive to build - elements: clerestory - Greek influence (columns) - caroligian: architecture that developed during the rule of Charlemagne ROMANESQUE: GENERAL TERMS - Carolingian: term applies to buildings constructed during the period b/n 792-814 when Charlemagne (first Holy Roman emperor) was in rule. During this period BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE concrete disappears and buildings are “heavy” yet “dematerialized” using light and - empire splinters when last Roman emperor decoration. falls - Benedictine Rule: defined how monasteries - reached full extended under Justinian functioned; they lived communally under the - hagia sophia: started off as a Christian authority of an abbot building but changed into an Islamic building - Pilgrimage: journey to a religious place in (note the mosiacs with letters from the Koran) order to commune with relics - centralization was key aspect - richly decorated interior, use of colored ROMANESQUE: BUILDING TYPES marble, mosaics - Abbey: a monastery (religious institution - used trusses to support the roofs providing living accommodations and working BYZANTINE: HAGIA SOPHIA, ISTANBUL, space for monks) governed by an abbot TURKEY, 532-37 - Cloister: walkway surrounding court yard that connects the domestic buildings and the - built by Anthemius and Isodorus church - landmark, most important church of - Radiating Chapel: chapel sticking outwards on Byzantine empire, capital of Ottoman empire - first use of pendentives the apse - largest building in the world ROMANESQUE: KEY TERMS - combined centralized (domes symbolizing heaven) and longitudinal (half-domes), Greek - Horseshoe Arch: arch in the shape of a cross planning horseshoe - allows a lot of light, taking away - Ambulatory: a place for walking, especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a church solidity/heavy sense, use of colored marble or monastery - has windows decorated with mosaics (light - Choir: part of a cathedral or large church b/n was used to make the place seem lighter and illuminate the mosaics) the alter and the nave, used by the choir and clergy - Colonette: Column composed of bunch of smaller columns - Transverse Arch: arch that divides the bays ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE ROMANESQUE: MONASTERY AND CHURCH, - purpose: religious - longitudinal plan CLUNY, FRANCE, 11TH C. - masonry construction of fire brick - Developed during the period of the dark ages - huge 5-aisled church & extensive monastery (after collapse of the Roman empire) buildings could not see church in one view - with the collapse of the Roman Empire there - elements: barrel vaults, round arches, chevet, was a loss of centralized authority - without centralization it was hard for people radiating chapels, two transepts, heavy piers, to make unified efforts to create grand multiple towers, columns incorporated into buildings for public use arches to provide unity, thick, stonework - as a result, people resulted to their next masonry - monastery included livestock and human motivation/ medium in which they could raise funds to build – religion accomodations - this led to the formation of smaller communities whose goals were to be self- ROMANESQUE: ST. FOY, CONQUES, FRANCE, CA. 1050-1130 sufficient such as abbeys - much of the new buildings were created using - lots of means of access material from old Roman buildings - towers rising up, held by heavy masonry all made of fired brick, buttressing support Gothic architecture, there wasn’t much grand - elaborated sculpture on walls (tympanum: building over here The Last Judgement) - Notre Dame: “Virgin Mary” - historiated capitals: biblical stories for - Abbot Suger: guy who rebuilt the Romanesque illiterate worshipers church in the new “pointed style” with an - distinct parts, individual blocks articulated, emphasis on light which symbolized the layering presence of God - had barrel/rib vaults, clerestory windows, - Relic: holy object central nave, thick walls, round arches, chevet, westwerk GOTHIC: BUILDING TYPES - reliquary with clothing of saints - Cathedral: originally known as the “seat of the ROMANESQUE: LORSCH ABBEY GATEHOUSE bishop”; it is a place of Christian worship that is always located in an urban context V. ARCH OF CONSTANTINE - Lady Chapel: chapel dedicated to the virgin - set on the roadway with a pitch roof mary that it placed in the most important - Similarity: gateway utilizes a triumphal arch position, often behind the high altar - Abbey: no inscription; Arch: inscription labeling Constantine’s GOTHIC: KEY TERMS - symbolic meanings: Abbey: spiritual victory/ Christian salvation - Pointed arch: an arch with a pointed crown; allowed flexible ceiling heights Arch: military victory/ brought Constantine - Flying buttress: combination of external to the throne buttress pier and slender arch, attaching to a ROMANESQUE: PALATINE CHAPEL, AACHEN wall below springing of vaulting to resist (GERMANY) V. SAN VITALE (ITALY) lateral thrust - Ribbed groin vault: intersecting barrel vaults - similarities: Centralized planned church with of elongated arch octagon in center; rich interiors with mosaics - Tracery: ornamental stonework in Gothic - Differences windows Palantine: Romanesque – thick, heavy - Arcade: series of arches carried on walls; no concrete; striped masonry columns/piers Vitale: Byzantine – lighter and less - Triforium: narrow passage below clerestory corresponding to the roof over the aisle emphasis on the walls - Clerestory: windows placed high in wall, FRENCH GOTHIC usually above lower roof elements - Choir: part of cathedral between altar and ARCHITECTURE nave, used by choir/clergy - Narthex: entry point - purpose: religious - higher roofs and wider spans compared to - radiating chapel: chapels arranged radially Romanesque, made possible by flying around ambulatory buttresses - chevet: apse with encircling ambulatory and - 1st distinct type since the Romans radiating chapels rayonnant style - developed in the 16th century “radiant” style - the term originally had negative connotations referring to “vandals” - crossing tower: visual marker on flat land - key, recurring elements include exterior flying - chapter house: reading, gathering space buttresses, pointed arches, ribbed groin - hammerbeam: decorative element that is used as structural support; “triangular” on the vaults, triforium, distinctive tracery, and lots corner of stained glass - note: all the elements above made walls of - fan vaults: vaulting that opens up into a fan stained glass possible. - Collegiate Gothic: gothic architecture that - compared to Carolingian and Romanesque influenced universities architecture, the walls were thinner GOTHIC: CHARTRES ND CATHEDRAL (FRANCE) V. ST. ETIENNE (CAEN) GOTHIC: GENERAL TERMS - Chartes: very idiom of gothic, built in honor of - Ile-de France: heart of France including the a garment of Mary that did not burn, thin land surrounding Paris; before the arrival of walls, elongated nave, much taller building, wider span (flying buttressing), characterized by colonnettes and lots of - had a cloister (covered walkway/gathering stained glass (rose and lancet windows place that served as a place of contemplation showing tympana or scenes of Chirst’s glory), for the clergy), crossing tower, lady chapel, masonry construction of fire brick two transepts, tall nave “verticality”, - Ettiene: romanesque, thick, heavy walls, westwerk buttressed in a way that did not let light - French similarities through English influence of horizontal layers - similarities: nave, latin cross plan, tall rib vaults articulated in dark stone clerestory (space for stained glass), complex tracery of windows buttressing, both have umbrella vaulting in chapter house westwerk (towered fascade), gallery level, arcade GOTHIC: KING’S COLLEGE CHAPEL, CAMBRIDGE (ENGLAND) GOTHIC: ABBEY CHURCH, ST. DENIS (FRANCE) - began closely linked to church, individual universities were separate units - built by Abbot Suger, small Romanesque - founded by King Henry VI - exuberance of *fan vaulting church rebuilt in new “pointed style” - light was of central importance: gave sense of - served as the master plan for many American the presence of God universities including the UW - pointed groin vaults (could span different widths) and pointed arches, ambulatory with GOTHIC: ST. AGNES (ENGLAND) vaulting, chevet - Parish church that was paid for by an earl - large windows integrating stain glass -- - pointed arches separate the nave and aisles ethereal light from color - tracery work: lancets - had paint and stained glass GOTHIC: STE. CHAPELLE (FRANCE) - *wooden roof: utilized *hammer beam - royal chapel, pointed arches trusses - thin walls and continuous windows (stained GOTHIC: ST. GEORGE GEORGE (ETHIOPIA) glass), cage of light - walls reduced to thin colonnettes up to ribbed - exuberant vault decorations, no buttressing groin vaults - built by King Lalibela, main church of *rock- - buttresses were fin-like projections on exterior cut churches b/c building needed more support, wide - rayonnant style - Greek cross plan, excavated 40 ft. into ground - carved fully out of living stone (subtracting) - offered a local, accessible site in which to do ENGLISH V. FRENCH CATHEDRALS pilgrimage - remains hidden at a distance - ENGLISH: both have westwerks both wanted to reach high heights and “reach god” built on an empty, grass space which allowed for urban development in cities choir MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE vaulting is used for decoration - early medieval cities were isolated and - FRENCH: protected (walls served as defense) built within cities - developed during the rise of the urban middle class and secular city which occurred after the GOTHIC: CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL (ENGLAND) fall of the Roman Empire until the Renaissance - pilgrimage site, Mormon city church - common elements of an early medieval city included isolation, fortification, tall towers for - emphasis on verticality, westwerk consisting of 2 towers military defense, and moats - decorative use of vaulting - during this time feudalism was the - flying buttresses, long choir, tall nave in predominant social system which restricted interior, continuity land ownership - towards the end, trade routes opened up GOTHIC: SALISBURY CATHEDRAL (ENGLAND) cities and connected isolated cities - wide front, blocky façade MEDIEVAL: KEY TERMS - vertical emphasis at crossing tower - Keep: fortified, innermost, and most protected - built on a mountain tower built within castles during the Middle MEDIEVAL CITY: PIAZZA DEL CAMPO, (SIENA, Ages by European nobility - Moat: water-filled trench ITALY) - Cancellations: pattern along top of fortified wall (usually in form of rectangular spaces) - Siena: capital of trade republic that grew very prosperous during the middle ages as a through which weaponry may be shot banking center - made of red brick MEDIEVAL: BUILDING TYPES - Piazza (“plaza”): monumental civic center of - Castle Siena, city hall - Bastide marked by heavy, tall bell tower; “look out series of newly planned market towns tower” (more open than castles) teeth-like elements that signify that this primary purpose was to promote building is protected commerce/trade frescos promoting peace and prosperity “market town” plan through good government has grid characteristics but not a defined public space for informal and formal shape purposes (site of horserace) “common people” house - importance of open public space of city - UW’s red square is derived from this plan MEDIEVAL: WHITE TOWER (ENGLAND) MEDIEVAL CITY: VENICE, ITALY - castle with double fortification and outer Roman walls - trade republic on Adriatic Sea; series of - Eastern boundary islands with boats a main means of - defensive quality transportation - three story tower made of stone, keep - Venetian Gothic: architecture expressed MEDIEVAL: CARCASSONNE (FRANCE) wealth obtained from trade - developed after fall of Rome - medieval fortified town, on hill with double MEDIEVAL: DOGE’S PALACE (VENICE) fortification - initially started by Constantine and then later - head of government located on the Grand modifications done by King Louis (same guy Canal for St. Chapelle) - byzantine plan form - elements: moat, fortified keep, towers along - clock tower - encircles a courtyard the walls, two circuits of walls with passageways for soldiers, church - reflection of Gothic Architecture - adjacent to the river - pointed arch, fortified windows - bastide with a regular grid system with - reminiscent of Islamic architecture: pointed market hall arches, striped masonry, stone patterning at center developed across the river MEDIEVAL: GREAT ZIMBABWE (“GREAT PALACE”) ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE - climate secluded urbanization - reuses Roman building material - rivers surrounding Zim were loaded with gold - mosques - the palace served as a home to the king in - lots of mosaics that demonstrate Byzantine addition as a place to melt and make gold influence - elements: stonework buildings, thick fortified - column orders that signify previous Roman walls, and cut stone that fits together without influence- recurring elements include mortar courtyards and wall enclosure MEDIEVAL: MACHU PICCHU (PERU) ISLAMIC: BUILDING TYPES - impressive stonework - Mosque: place of congregational prayer for - Incan site Muslims - cyclopean stone held together solely by - Paradise Garden: used to represent paradise gravity in the hot palace - site for the royal EX: Court of Myrtles ISLAMIC: GENERAL TERMS - w/n is the Great Mosque of Sammara, 851 (a hypostyle mosque with a detached minaret) - Qibla wall: the direction that should be faced - special thing about this whole plan was that when a Muslim prays during salat. It is fixed the palace was built to centralize the mosque as the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca Kaabar: cuboid building at the center of Islam’s most ISLAMIC: DOME OF THE ROCK (JERUSALEM) V. CHURCH OF HOLY SEPULCHER sacred mosque - Dome: Located at the Temple Mount within a ISLAMIC: KEY TERMS walled city; earliest surviving building - Sahn: courtyard with wall enclosure associated with Islam; rivals Christian EX: Court of the Lions architecture; consciously emulates the Church - Prayer Hall of holy sepulchre, centralized planning; it is - Mihrab (left): Semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of the believed to be the location from which Muhammad ascended to Heaven Kaabla (qibla) - aligned toward Mecca; masonry construction - Minbar (right): Pulpit in the mosque where the of fire brick imam (prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons or in the Hussania where the speaker - Church: built by Constantine, longitudinal planning sits and lectures the congregation - Similarities: located in Jerusalem, mosaics, - Minaret: entrance, prominent vertical dome element, tower, calling out for the worshipper - Ablution Fountain: fountain for performing ISLAMIC: GREAT MOSQUE OF DAMASCUS, ritual washing before entering for prayer SYRIA, 706-715 - Squinch: a corbeled arch used to transform a - earliest surviving mosque square bay into an octagon for the springing of a dome - richly decorated with mosaics, colored - Muqarnas: “Honeycomb like” vaults marble, and geometric coloring - simple truss roof supported by arches ISLAMIC: ALHAMBRA PALACE (SPAIN) - column halls, walled enclosures - reuses Roman/Christian materials, inspired by ISLAMIC: ROUND CITY OF BAGHDAD, IRAQ, 762 Church of St. Foy & Forum of Augustus - replaced Church of St. John which replaced the Forum of Augustus - large palace that consisted of commercial, - central axis residential, and ceremonial space. - made of brick - four long passageways into the center
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