Study guide for Test 3
Study guide for Test 3 BIOL 1020
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kendall Mansfield on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1020 at Auburn University taught by Min Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Study Guide for BIOL 1020 Test 3 Cell Cycle intracellular activity between one cell division to the next process by which a parent cell divides into 2 or more daughter cells Prokaryotic cell Eukaryote somatic cell and Eukaryotic gamete cell Binary Fission Generation time Asexual reproduction one round of DNA duplication and one round of division 9 2 diploid daughter cells Sexual reproduction one round of DNA duplication and two rounds of division 9 4 haploid daughter cells genetic codequot made up of a sugar a base and a phosphate Chain of nucleotides double helix with hydrogen bonds between strands 0 Combination of DNA and protein molecules 0 Less condensed o Formed when chromatin coils up when it is about to divide o More condensed Middle region where two sister chromatids come into contact mrior to mitosis by DNA replication 0 Pairs during Meiosis 0 Genes for the same biological features I 1 from mom and 1 from dad Generation Time Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosomes duplicate Gap recovery DNA synthesis to form sister chromatids Gap prepare chromosomes condensed and centrioles replicate When cell division occurs in Mitosis and Cytokinesis Nuclear division Cytoplasmic division a o Chromosomes condense o Mitotic Spindle forms I Organizes between the two poles of the cell each pole has an MTOC Nuclear envelope dissolves and chromosomes are captured by the spindle microtubule organizing center contains centrioles plants do not have them short microtubules extended from chromosomes 0 Spindle microtubules pull to the chromosomes to align them at the center of a cell I imaginary plate through the center of a cell where the chromosomes align 0 Removal of cohesion proteins causes the centromeres to separate 0 Microtubules pull the sister chromatids towards the poles 0 Cell elongates 0 Sister chromatids separate 0 Mitotic spindle breaks down 0 Two daughter cell s nuclear envelopes form 0 Chromosomes begin to uncoil o Nucleolus reappears in each nucleus 0 Cytokinesis occurs cytoplasmic division O I Late anaphase to the end of telophase I 1w plate and cleave furrow plants Golgi Vesicles line up and fuse and the cell splits in two animals microfilaments Actin ring contracts and pinches the cell apart 1 parent cell 9 2 identical daughter cells Chromosome remains the same from one generation to the next animal vs plant cells present absent O O G1 G2 and Mitosis Go ahead or stop signal Key Regulatory Components Cyclins and cyclin dependent protein kinases CDKS cyclin dependent kinases protein kinases phosphorylate proteins to activate or inactivate them Uncontrolled cell growth Divide excessively and can invade other tissues and displaces normal cells growth of cancer cells beyond the original site Cancer cells may travel through the circulatory system Abnormal mass of cells tu mors that do not spread cancerous these tumors can spread 0 High energy radiation is used to destroy cells that are dying o Targets cancer cells but can destroy normal cells drugs that disrupt cell division Surgery Offspring are genetically identical to the parents cells clones Mitotic cell division Split bud fragment Rapid and efficient Gametes fuse to form a single cell called a zygote Meiosis Offspring are not genetically identical to their parent cell or to each other Genetic recombination have 2 complete sets of homologous chromosomes 2n has one complete set of homologous chromosomes n extra sets of homologous chromosomes 3n or more Common in plants usually rare and fatal in animals Eukaryotic reproductive cells Produces haploid gametes Reduces of chromosomes One round of DNA duplication followed by 2 rounds of nuclear divisions o Meiosis I o Meiosis II o Homologous chromosomes pair up synapsis and tetrad o Crossing over occurs and creates chromosomes with new allele combinations I genetic recombination exchange of genetic material causes genetic variation I where crossing over occurs 0 Spindle microtubules assemble and capture chromosomes 0 Homologous chromosome pairs randomly line up 2abreast 0 Line up in different ways which causes genetic variation o Homologous chromosome pairs separate and move to opposite poles o Spindle microtubules disappear o Cytokinesis occurs 0 Nuclear envelopes may reappear o Chromosomes usually remain condensed Between Meiosis I and Meiosis II varies in length and distinctiveness differs from interphase because there is no S Phase DNA replication typically brief some cells skip it altogether o Spindle microtubules reform and capture duplicated chromosomes o Duplicated chromosomes line up singly perpendicular to the spindle 0 Sister chromatids separate 0 Cytokinesis occurs 0 Spindle microtubules disappear 0 Nuclear membranes reform o Chromosomes relax Phases have the same names as equivalent Mitotic phases followed by a I or II to distinguish the 2 nuclear divisions in Meiosis Prophase I crossing over Anaphase homologous chromosomes separate Anaphase II sister chromatids separate Combines two chromosome sets to produce diploid zygotes 2n Fusion of haploid gametes O I Eggs I Sperm occurs during interphase before mitosis occurs occurs during interphase before Meiosis I begins one division including prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase two divisions including prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase does not occur occurs during prophase I along with crossing over between nonsister chromatids resulting chiasmata hold pairs together due to sister chromatid cohesion two each diploid 2n and genetically identical to parent cell four each haploid n containing 12 as many chromosomes as the parent cell and genetically different than the parent cell and each other 1 enables multicellular adult to arise from a zygote produces cells for growth repair and in some cells sexual reproduction produces gametes reduces of chromosomes by 12 and introduces genetic variability among gametes Homologous chromosomes physically connect and exchange genetic information o paired homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate I Instead of individual replicated chromosomes 0 Randomized line up and separation of homologous chromosomes in Meiotic Metaphase I and Anaphase I increase variation 0 of possible combinations is 2quotn 9 n of homologous pairs 0 In humans possible combinations in one gamete 8 IIIllllIl Crossing over Inheritance 0 Fusion of gametes from 2 individuals further increases the possible 2n combinations 0 Gametes from 2 different humans could produce 64 trillion combinations 0 Each zygote has a unique genetic identity Process by which characteristics traits are passed on o Heritable factor 0 Unit of heredity o Encodes characteristics that determine the phenotype 0 Alternate versions of the same gene at the same locus point in homologous pairs gene forums 0 Each trait is determined by a gene with 2 alleles 0 One allele on each homologous chromosome 0 Location of a particular gene on a chromosome 0 Appearance characteristics of an organism physical traits 0 yellow seeds 0 Genetic makeup of an organism o Determines the phenotype allele that dominates over the others in determining phenotype capitalized letter allele whose phenotype expression is hidden when a dominant allele is present lowercase letter both chromosomes carry the same allele at a given locus YY or yy two chromosomes carry different alleles at a given locus Yy offspring from a cross breeding evaluate the inheritance pattern of 1 trait evaluate 2 traits parental generation first generation offspring second generation offspring offspring of F1 generation Two alleles separate to each other during meiosis Random separation Independent assortment doesn t always occur Genes on same chromosome tend to be inherited together Placement of a gene into a position in a linkage group Distance between genes 0 One map unit 1 recombination All genes on a particular chromosome tend to be linked together 0 Combined phenotypes o The phenotype of F1 hybrids is somewhere between the phenotypes of the parental varieties o Occurs when phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are identical 0 Two different alleles affect the phenotype in separate distinguishable ways 0 A species may have more than 2 alleles for a given trait 0 Each individual trait still carries 2 alleles for the trait I Ex human ABO blood types 3 types IA IB and ii Blood type AB codominance Alleles at a single locus may have effects on 2 or more traits Ex Albinism One gene in uences the phenotype that a second gene usually controls masking any effects of alleles at the second gene Ex Mice coat color Polygenic Inheritance Traits affected by interaction of 2 or more genes Results in population variation 0 Ex human skin color Phenotypes are a combination of genetics and environment The phenotypic range of a genotype in uenced by the environment Chromosomes Human sex ratio is approximately 11 2 types of sex chromosomes 1 type of sex chromosome Sex determined by female no sex chromosome Carried on a sex chromosome Some disorders caused by recessive alleles on the XChromosome Color Blindness Duchene Muscular Dystrophy Hemophilia Family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations Reveal inheritance pattern of a trait Albinism o Defective or absent chloride transport channels in plasma membranes 0 Abnormal hemoglobin synthesis 0 Heterozygous are less susceptible to the malaria parasite Achondroplastia o Nervous system disease 0 No obvious phenotype effects until the individual is 3540 years old Marfan Syndrome Polydactyly Progeria Hemophilia Redgreen color blindness Many disorders such as 0 Heart Disease Diabetes Mental Illness Alcoholism Cancer 0000 Have genetic and environmental components Polyploidy Aneuploidy missing one copy or have an extra copy of a single chromosome Trisomy Monosomy 3 copies of a chromosome one copy of a chromosome Incorrect separation of chromosomes of chromatids in Meiosis Mistake Meiotic Anaphases Down Syndrome 3 copies of chromosome 21 sterile woman with only one x chromosome XO a fertile normal woman with an extra X chromosome XXX infertile man with an extra X chromosome XXY a tall man with an extra Y chromosome and a low IQ XYY Translocations Inversions Deletions Duplications catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in Germ cells Cancer cells End region of chromosomes 5 end RNA primer cant be replaced with DNA causing 5 en to be shorter than the parental strand doesn t occur in prokaryotes A 9 T G 9 C Ex Parent TAGCCA New ATCGGT joins fragments on lagging strand continuous discontinuous okazaki fragments replace RNA primer with DNA Synthesize daughter strand Synthesis can only occur in the 5 gt 3 direction Proofread newly made DNA replacing any incorrect nucleotides starts new strand by making an RNA primer break and rejoin DNA strands keep separation created by Helicase open separate strands of DNA in replication Yshaped region where new DNA strands are elongating at each end of the replication bubble o Origins of replication 0 Beginning site 2 DNA strands are separated I one origin I Several origins results in the 3 and 5 end of each strand Nucleotides are linked by the 3 5 phosphodiester linkage 2 strands of nucleotides double helix bases protrude inward A T G C Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine phosphate group 5 carbon sugar nitrogen containing base Polymerase if Nucleotides deoxyribosenucleic acid fit into the nucleus through an elaborate multilevel system of packing a complex of DNA and Proteins found in the nucleus of Eukaryotic cells Strands are separated Each parent strand remains intact as template Single strand binding proteins keep it open 8 Histones with DNA thread String between nucleosomes Positively charged Associated with negatively charged phosphates of DNA Further Packaging 0 Histone H1 and scaffolding proteins 0 one type of histone I Associate with linker DNA regions I 30nm Fiber non histone proteins 700 nm Fiber
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