PSY2012 Study Guide for Exam #3 Part 1
PSY2012 Study Guide for Exam #3 Part 1 PSY 2012
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stefanie Villiotis on Friday November 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
PSY2012 Exam #3 Study Guide - Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt when facing novel conditions. Different models and types of intelligence - Sensory Capacity Galton’s Theory = “People with better senses acquire more knowledge” Different sensory capacities only weakly related to each other; measures of sensory ability are not highly related to intelligence - Abstract Thinking “Higher Mental Processes” – reasoning, understanding, judgment intelligence has something to do with the capacity to understand theoretical concepts - General vs. Specific Abilities Positive correlations among items on IQ tests led to Spearman’s development of G and S o General Intelligence (g) = accounts for overall differences in intellect among people o HOW TO IDENTIFY “g”? Factor Analysis o Factor Analysis is a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (factors) Specific Abilities (s) = our particular skills are reflected in “s” gs s s s s s Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Capacity to learn new ways of Accumulated knowledge of the world we solving problems gain over time Examples: Examples: Raven Matrices What is the capital of Texas? Sudoku How many days are there in September? Fluid Intelligence “flows” into crystallized intelligence over 8 Intelligences in Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences: 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-Mathematical 3. Musical 4. Intra-Personal 5. Inter-Personal 6. Bodily-Kinesthetic 7. Visual-Spatial (Argued: autistic savants provided Support for these different types of intelligences) Sternberg’s 3 Intelligences: Believed that... “having one intelligence does not mean you have the other” 2 (Triarchic Model) 1. Analytical (book smart) – ability to reason logically 2. Practical (street smart)—ability to solve real world problems 3. Creative (creativity)—ability to come up with novel and effective answers Triarchic Model: - Has several weaknesses - Practical intelligence is not independent of g - Causal relationship between job performance and practical intelligence is unclear - WE ALL possess strengths and weaknesses, but they might not be as distinct as theorized Calculating IQ - Binet’s concept of MENTAL AGE led to the development of the INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT - Modern IQ tests use deviation IQ that eliminates age effects Flynn Effect - The average IQ of the population has been rising by about 3 points every 1o years. - Most likely result of environmental changes: increased test sophistication, complexity of modern world, nutrition, changes at home/school. Developmental Psychology - Study of how behavior and mental processes change over the life span Post Hoc Fallacy - Logical error where you assume that A causes B, just because B came after A - Example: All serial killers drink milk as babies, so milk causes people to become serial killers 3 Continuity View of Development Stage View of Development Change is uniform and gradual Change can be rapid with different stages across the lifespan Methodological Considerations - Cross-Sectional Design= measures age-differences (NOT intra-individual change) Group 1 Group 2 Compared at one time Group 3 - - Cohort Effects = sets of people who lived during one period can differ in some systematic way from sets of people who lived during a different period. Example: Holocaust survivors >>We can better study intra-individual change by looking at the same individuals over time = Longitudinal Design - Cons: costly and time consuming - Selective attrition 4 Cross-Sectional Study Longitudinal Study Studies different ages at the Studies the same people for a same time long period of time Pro: cheaper and quicker than Pro: Same people, no longitudinal studies changing variables Con: different people means Con: expensive, time- different variables consuming, people can die and or get lost. Cognitive Development—Schemas - Mental representations of the world - Schemas organize and interpret incoming information - They act as “mental filters” - Children form schemas naturally and change them over the course of development - ASSIMILATION = new information is interpreted in ways that fit existing schemas (make experience fit the schema) Ex: DOG - ACCOMMODATION= existing schemas are adjusted to fit new information (make schema fit experience) Ex: DOG and CAT are NOT the same Jean Piaget 5 - understanding of how the mind develops: - role of maturation (simple growing up) in children’s increasing capacity to understand their world—they cannot do certain tasks until they have psychologically matured enough to do so. - children’s thinking doesn’t develop smoothly—there are certain points where it just “takes off” and moves into new areas. Piaget’s Stages i. Sensorimotor Stage: 1st stage of cognitive development a. Birth--age 2 b. Infants understand the world through their own actions c. Ex. Visual Cliff d. Ex. Peekaboo—the child actually thinks you disappear when you cover your face e. Object Permanence = the awareness that objects continue to exist, even when they disappear from view. f. Deferred Imitation= imitation of behavior a child has seen before. (clapping, sticking out tongue, etc) ii. Preoperational Stage: 2nd stage of cognitive development a. Age 2- age 7 b. Children learn to construct mental representations of experience c. Capable of symbolic behavior Ex. Banana Phone d. Egocentric: unable to adopt the perspective of another person e. Children lack understanding of conservation: the concept that physical properties of an object can remain the same despite superficial changes in appearance. Ex: Pouring milk into 2 differently shaped glasses—the taller one doesn’t always hold the most liquid. iii. Concrete Operational Stage: 3rd stage of cognitive development a. Age 7- age 12 b. Children become capable of logical reasoning (pertaining to physical objects) c. Reversibility iv. Formal Operational Stage: 4th stage of cognitive development a. 12 years + b. Adolescents become capable of ABSTRACT REASONING, hypothetical situations, and logic c. Problem-solving involves logic, not trial-and-error 6 - Vygotsky: Social & Cultural Influences - Different children develop skills in different domains at different rates - Social structuring on the part of the parent facilitates children’s learning and development - Scaffolding = teachers model or demonstrate problem-solving process, then step back and offer support as needed - Zone of proximal development: Social Development—Attachment - Contact Comfort: warmth and comfort are important components of bonds between animals and humans - Attachment: deep emotional bond that we develop with our primary caregivers - Secure Attachment (60%)= separation from caregiver, upset when “mom” leaves, but happy when returns. - Insecure-Avoidant Attachment (15%-20%)= indifferent when mom leaves and returns. - Insecure-anxious attachment (15%-20%)= panics when mom leaves, mixed emotions when she returns. Parenting Styles i. Permissive= tend to be lenient, little discipline, very affectionate ii. Authoritarian= very strict, punishing, little affection iii. Authoritative= supportive but set clear and form limits 7 iv. Uninvolved= neglectful and ignoring Social Psychology = the scientific study of how people influence our behavior, beliefs, and attitudes. i. Think about = Social Thinking ii. Influence = Social Influence iii. Relate= Social Relations Attribution = the explanation why we or others engaged in a certain behavior (negative, unexpected, or personally relevant events) i. INTERNAL = DISPOSITIONAL, cause is internal to the person a. Ability—Poor memory; Personality—Lazy; Effort—did not study enough ii. EXTERNAL= SITUATIONAL, cause is external to the person a. Task-Unfair Test, Other People—roommate kept them up all night; Luck—got sick on exam day **FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR i. When we look at other’s behavior: a. Overestimate impact of dispositional influences b. Underestimate impact of situational influences Test Question: “We see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted most of the time, but with friends he is very talkative, loud, and extroverted. He is exhibiting which phenomena?” Answer: Fundamental Attribution Error Attitude = Belief that includes an emotional component—may predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events >>Actions affect Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance: Unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting attitudes or actions. Behavior and Attitude Are Inconsistent Cognitive Dissonance Change something to reduce dissonance 8 Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon = the tendency for people who first agree to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Door-In-Face-Phenomenon = Gaining compliance with a request by preceding it with a larger request. (you want $15) “Can I have $20?” “No” “Can I have $15?” “Yes” Conformity - Tendency to alter one’s thinking or behavior in response to group pressure Obedience - Behavior following the rules or instructions from those of higher authority Prosocial Behavior - Intentional—unintentional acts don’t count - Benefit to others - Benefit one or more others (including society) - Not benefiting yourself - Social and interpersonal Informational Influence vs. Normative Influence - Informational = conforming to others behavior because believe it provides information about reality. Mainly to get the answer correct. - Normative = conforming to others behavior because they expect us to. This is because it is believed to have positive consequences, like approval. Ex. Laughing at a joke you don’t get, or agreeing with an opinion you believe others have. Bystander Intervention - Tendency to be less likely to help (and to receive help) as number of other bystander’s increases. - Pluralistic Ignorance= error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do. “I don’t get it, everyone else does….” Social Identity Theory - We want to feel good about ourselves - Our identity (partly) comes from groups which we belong to 9 - Seeing our group as better than other groups raises self esteem 10
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