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concepts study guide exam 2

by: kmb0095

concepts study guide exam 2 SCMH 1010 - 002

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5 practice quizzes worth of questions, all the notes for this exam and a summary of the material that will be on the exam
Concepts of Science
Allen Lee Landers
Study Guide
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by kmb0095 on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCMH 1010 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Allen Lee Landers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 345 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Science in Science at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/27/16
The lines of force radiating from a charged object is called a/an: gravitational field. gravitational force. electrical field. electrical force. magnetic field. How is the force of two charged particles related to their charges? proportional to the product of their charges divided by the cube of the distance between them proportional to the product of their charges divided by the square of the distance between them proportional to the ratio of their charges divided by the distance between them proportional to the ratio of their charges multiplied by the square of the distance between them No known relation exists between charged particles and force. Coulomb discovered that the electrical force equation was very similar to the force equation ________ had discovered. Benjamin Franklin James Clerk Maxwell Isaac Newton Thomas Edison Michael Faraday In the equation for Ohm's law, resistance is in the unit: volts. amps. ohms. watts. coulombs. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was inspired by some experiments and demonstrations in electricity based upon: Galvani's research. Voltaire's research. the writings of Alessandro Volta. Benjamin Franklin's research. William Gilbert's compass. Which wave does not require matter to be transmitted? ocean wave sound wave X­ray seismic wave subsonic wave Which of the following is associated with 440 Hz? middle A musical note an AM radio station an FM radio station a television station high C musical note If you are observing a light source moving very rapidly towards you, the Doppler effect predicts that the light will be: redshifted. blueshifted. bent. transmitted. radiated. The higher the frequency of a sound wave: louder it is. lower the pitch. the longer the wavelength. the shorter the wavelength. the faster it travels. Which part of a sound wave is related to its loudness? amplitude frequency wavelength speed velocity Evidence for the theory that an atom is mostly empty space was based on research by Joseph John Thomson Niels Bohr John Dalton Ernest Rutherford Daniel Bernoulli The velocity of a photon in a quantum jump depends on the amount of charge on each electron. corresponds to only red light. corresponds only to blue light. changes with the quantum jump the photon makes. is the speed of light. In 1808, which person below borrowed the name 'atom' from Greek writings and described in a modern way how it is that an atom is indivisible? Daniel Bernoulli John Dalton Dimitri Mendeleev Ernest Rutherford Albert Einstein The relationship between the atomic theories of Democritus and Dalton is that both were based on observations in nature. neither was based on observations in nature. Dalton's theory depended upon observation; Democritus' theory did not. Democritus' theory depended upon observation; Dalton's theory did not. Dalton used the term atom; Democritus did not. Rutherford's model of the atom cannot work because: atoms would be constantly emitting energy. atoms would be constantly absorbing energy. compounds could not be easily formed. atoms would not have symmetrical shapes. the law of thermodynamics would not work. The weakest type of bond is: Ionic. metallic. covalent. van der Walls. inert. An example of something that is not a polymer is: fur and cellulose. spider webs and plastic. nylon and cotton. meat. plasma and gas. Where would you not expect to find plasma? the Sun sealed in a magnetic bottle in an ice cube neon lights fluorescent light bulbs Which makes the best electrical conductor? covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds metallic bonds polymers In which of the following places is more polymerization than depolymerization occurring? silk cocoon cow stomach compost heap art gallery birdbath The electrical force between two charges has a magnitude of 16 N. If the separation between the charges is doubled, what is the new force acting between them? 64 N 32 N 16 N 4 N Short-wavelength ultraviolet light and gamma rays don't travel very far through the Earth's atmosphere before being absorbed. Based on this, which of the following would you expect to be absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere? Infrared rays Radio waves Microwaves X­rays Who first coined the word atom? Dalton Rutherford Bohr Democritus Thomson Which of the following statements about the hydrogen bond is accurate? It's one way in which metallically bonded molecules attract each other. It's one way in which ionically bonded molecules attract each other. It's one way in which covalent molecules form in the first place. It's one way in which covalently bonded molecules attract each other. An ionic bond forms where the following happens? Atoms that like to share electrons interact with each other. An atom that likes to share electrons interacts with an electron that likes to take electrons. An atom that likes to give up an electron interacts with an atom that likes to take electrons. Atoms that do not like to share electrons interact with each other. Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between the forces of magnetism and electricity by: many long years of tedious research. reading the writings of Galvani. an accident during a physics lecture. interpreting his dreams and obsessions. replicating the experiments of Volta. In his famous experiment of the late 1700s, Charles Coulomb: repeated Benjamin Franklin's kite and lightning demonstration. measured static electricity using a piece of amber. proved Newton's three laws of motion. measured the force of the electric charge in objects. showed that muscle contractions are both electric and chemical. Which of the following items would use only low-resistance wires? a toaster a space heater (electric heater for a room in your house) an electrical transmission line an incandescent light bulb a hair dryer Motors and magnets owe their existence to what force? strong force weak force gravitational force static electrical force electromagnetic force What are some ways the Earth's magnetic field is or was used for navigation? Sailors of the past used compasses to direct their course. Some bacteria navigate up and down within pond ooze. Some migratory birds are directed by the magnetic field. The Australian silvereye can see the magnetic fields using a form of color vision. All of the choices are ways in which the magnetic field is or was used for navigation. Which statement best describes transverse waves? Transverse waves are a special type of longitudinal wave. A wave a frog would make jumping up and down on a lily pad. The transverse wave moves particles in the direction that the wave is moving. The energy moves perpendicular to the wave direction. Echoes are formed from transverse waves. Another word for constructive interference is: amplitude. destructive. reinforcement. Doppler effect. acceleration. Which sound wave frequency is outside the range of a human's ability to detect? 5 Hz 20 Hz 200 Hz 2000 Hz 10000 Hz Mendeleev's periodic table was organized according to rules of scientific method. Which statement below follows those rules? The periodic table made predictions that could be tested. Only scientists could understand the periodic table. Information that refuted Mendeleev's hypothesis was ignored. Mendeleev's listed the elements alphabetically. The periodic table has not changed in 100 years. The fundamental building block for all matter, which is the smallest representative sample of a substance that maintains chemical identity, is called an atom. an element. a molecule. an electron. a chemical compound. In today's periodic table, elements are arranged in order of number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. number of electrons in the nucleus of the atom atomic size of the atom. the alphabetical listing of the atoms. What is an atom's spectrum? the total collection of different photons an atom can emit sum of all electrons an atom will have in its orbits the atomic mass of the atom the atom's place in the periodic table the allowed orbit closest to the nucleus In the periodic table of the elements, a period refers to the vertical column. number of neutrons. the horizontal row. atomic mass of the atom number of protons in the atom. Metallic bonds create materials with properties that make them: polar. able to change shape without breaking. brittle. good insulators. as hard as diamonds. If a chemical bond forms spontaneously, then: energy will be needed in the reaction. energy will be released in the reaction. a change in state will always occur. a change in color will always occur. a plasma will always be formed. If you drop a material that is held together by ionic bonds, one likely outcome is that it will: bend. bounce. flow across the floor. shatter. be dented. Sodium chloride (NaCl) atoms form a crystal lattice that is held together by: hydrogen bonds. salt bonds. covalent bonds. ionic bonds. van der Waals bonds. Noble gases are called so because they: are considered more important than other elements. don't chemically interact with other elements. can chemically interact with many other elements. are very valuable. can exist in more forms than other elements. Which of the following is not a property of magnets? All magnets have poles All magnets can attract an iron nail All magnets' poles come in pairs, a north and a south All magnets are made of steel What was one of the original motivations for grouping the elements in columns? They are grouped according to similar sizes They are grouped according to similar chemical behavior They are grouped according to similar masses They are grouped according to the order in which they were discovered The spontaneous formation of new chemical bonds usually leads to the emission of energy in the form of heat because of which of the following reasons? Electrons go from lower energy states to higher energy states. Nuclei go from higher energy states to lower energy states. Valence electrons go from higher energy states to lower energy states. Electrons in the outermost shell adopt identical low­energy states. Approximately how much power is consumed per hour by an electric stove drawing 40 amps? (Note - This electric stove is plugged into a 240 volt wall socket.) 6 watts/hour 345 watts/hour 9.6 kilowatts/hour 5.75 kilowatts/hour 9600 kilowatts/hour Which is not associated with broadcast radio waves? amplitude modulation frequency slices or bands "radio window" in the atmosphere frequency modulation electron motion in an antenna How fast can light travel in one second, if it is moving through a vacuum? 186,000 feet 30,000 meters 18,600 miles 300,000 kilometers 3,000,000 miles Which of the following is totally a longitudinal wave? Water Sound Light Electromagnetic Laser Light passing through a window glass is an interaction called: transmission. absorption. scattering. reflection. the greenhouse effect. Who first showed that an atom was not a solid particle by identifying a particle within it called an electron? Sir Isaac Newton. Joseph John Thomson. John Dalton. Ernest Rutherford. Albert Einstein. Covalent solids are held together because of: a sea of electrons. a sharing of electrons. an attraction between the polar molecules. a transfer of negative electrons. the lack of attraction between the inert atoms. Which of the following represents the most stable arrangement of electrons? atoms with completely filled valence shells elements that are positioned on the far right column of the periodic table of elements inert gases such as helium, neon and argon atoms with a total of 2, 10, 18 or 36 electrons any or all of these answers are correct To achieve a negative charge, you would most likely do which of the following Add protons to the object Add electrons to the object Remove electrons from the object Remove protons from the project Which of the following is an observation we can make about pipes in a pipe organ? The longest pipes give rise to the highest frequencies The shortest pipes give rise to the smallest frequencies The length of the pipe is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency of the sound it  produces The length of the pipe is inversely proportional to the frequency of the sound it produces Inert gases have very little in common form a compound known as a salt are also called halogens have similar chemical properties All contain oxygen An isomer of heptane would be a molecule with the molecular formula: C7H16 C6H14 C5H12 C4H10 When two atoms link up we call that: periodicity. a chemical bond. a noble gas. valence. Motors and magnets owe their existence to what force? strong force weak force gravitational force static electrical force electromagnetic force How much amperage will be moving through a wire if it has a resistance of 12 ohms and is carrying 120 V? 10 amps 12 amps 1.2 amps 100 amps 1 amp The load in an electric hair dryer is located: where the dryer plugs into the electrical outlet. where the electrical cord is attached to the dryer. in the on/off switch. in the heating element and fan. where the heated air is exhausted. Which property of electromagnetic waves is measured in Hertz? amplitude speed frequency length energy Sound waves with low frequencies: have low amplitudes if they are loud. travel at faster speeds than sound waves with high frequency. have low pitches. have high pitches. are more likely to experience destructive interference. "Allowed orbits" was a phrase applied to the: electrons in Rutherford's model of the atom. protons in Dalton's model of the atom. electrons in Bohr's model of the atom. protons in Thompson's experiments. neutrons in Mendeleev's periodic table of elements. An element with an atomic number of 8 was the eighth element discovered. contains atoms with four protons and four neutrons. is composed of atoms with only eight protons. has eight electrons in the outer shell of each atom. as six protons and two neutrons. An electrically neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom is called a nucleus. a proton. an electron. an ion. a neutron. Ionic solids are held together because of: a sea of electrons. a sharing of electrons. an attraction between the polar molecules. a transfer of negative electrons. the lack of attraction between the inert atoms. An example of a metallic bond is: DNA. organic compounds. hydrogen gas. NaCl. an alloy. Taking the speed of light as being equal to 3 x 10^8 m/s, if an electromagnetic wave has a frequency of 6 x 10^8 Hz what is its wavelength? 0.5 m 2 m 3 m 9 m If one were to conduct a cutting experiment like that described by Democritus wherein he envisioned cutting paper into smaller and smaller pieces using the world's sharpest knife, what would the smallest identifiable bit of paper be? an atom a molecule a tiny part of an atom an element like hydrogen Because a neutral sodium atom has 11 electrons, sodium is: an inert gas. a highly reactive element. a noble gas. only sightly reactive under certain conditions Methane combusts in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water, as shown by this reaction - CH + O  CO + H O. In an appropriately balanced chemical equation, what is 4 2 2 2 the ratio of methane used to water produced? 1 : 1 2 : 1 1 : 2 2 : 2 What scientist is credited with making the first battery? Luigi Galvani Michael Faraday Alessandro Volta Benjamin Franklin William Gilbert William Gilbert discovered many important properties of magnets. Which of the following was not among Gilbert's findings? Every magnet has at least two poles. If magnetic poles are alike they repel each other. Steel rods can be magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. Electric currents can be produced by changing magnetic fields. Iron's magnetism can be destroyed by heating. Our basic knowledge of the properties of static electricity began: in the sixteen hundreds. with the invention of the battery. with the invention of the electric motor. in the eighteenth century. in the seventeenth century. When you cut a magnet in half you get: two north poles. two south poles. two magnets each with a north pole and south pole. one magnetic monopole. one south pole and one north pole. Sound waves cannot travel through: very dense materials. water. a vacuum. glass. helium. Bats navigate by emitting high pitched sound waves and killing all the moths within 10 meters. attracting various insects toward the sound. listening for an echo. calculating wave crests per second. hoping humans do not hear them. Materials made from a single type of atom that cannot be broken down any further are called atoms. elements. molecules. solutions. compounds. What is an atom's spectrum? the total collection of different photons an atom can emit sum of all electrons an atom will have in its orbits the atomic mass of the atom the atom's place in the periodic table the allowed orbit closest to the nucleus The fundamental building block for all matter, which is the smallest representative sample of a substance that maintains chemical identity, is called an atom. an element. a molecule. an electron. a chemical compound. Which instrument below emits photons that have wave crests in exact alignment? electron microscope light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation telescope fitted with a spectroscope spectroscope which is not part of a telescope a source of alpha particles in a physics laboratory Metals are held together because of: a sea of electrons. a sharing of electrons. an attraction between the polar molecules. a transfer of negative electrons. the lack of attraction between the inert atoms. Chemical bonds are: the attraction among atoms resulting from the destruction of electrons. an unstable configuration among two or more elements. the redistribution of electrons between atoms, leading to a more stable configuration. sharing of protons in the lowest energy level. explained in laws of thermodynamics. The current in a circuit is 0.5 A and the voltage across it is 12 V. The power being supplied by the source is: 12.5 W 11.5 W 6 W 24 W Which kind of reaction is 2HNO + Mg3OH)  2H O +2Mg(NO2) ? 3 2 Precipitation Acid­Base Oxidation Reduction An atom capable of making very complicated, covalently-bonded molecules is: carbon. nitrogen. helium. sodium. Week 7 Beginning notes for Exam 2 2/24/16  Magnetism o Magnetic force  Ex) magnet on a fridge  North magnetic & geographical pole  North pole attracts to south pole, S pole attracts to north pole  North and north repel, south and south repel  North of compass is what points to north pole, its actually attracted to the magnetic south which is in the north part of the world  North and south magnetic poles of the earth don’t quite align with the rotational axis of the earth o William Gilbert  Dipole magnet  Di – “two” poles  Like repels, unlike attracts o Magnetic field  Created from the earth’s core and the geodynamo affect  Science of Life o Magnetic navigation  Different animals use bacteria, small single cell organisms, that use magnetic navigation (permanent little magnets) to flex them to make them all swim north or south  Pairs of poles o No isolated magnetic poles  No matter how many times you break it, you always end up with 2 poles Which of the following is NOT a property of magnets? All magnets are made of steel  Batteries and electric circuits o Science of life  Luigi Galvani and life’s electrical force  Store a charge in a large jar, hook it up to frog legs and observe that when he applied the charge to the frog legs, they would move  One of the first experiments proved/showed that living things use electricity  Whole myth of Frankenstein and other stories of such spurred from this experiment o Electrical current  Flow of charged particles o Battery  Converts chemical energy to Kinetic/electrical energy  Alessandro Volta  Created the battery  Where we got volt from (120 Volts [Joule/Coulomb]) o Electrical circuit  Unbroken path of material carrying electricity  Like a wire, some sort of conductor  Moves best through metals (usually copper)  Semi-conductors – some conduction  Insulators – no conduction possible o Multimeter  Measure voltage, current, resistance, etc.  Ohm’s Law o Current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance o Flow of electricity  Ampere  1 amp = 1 coulomb/sec  voltage  amount of power in a circuit  electrical resistance  Ohm o Calculate current then power:  Ohm’s Law Equation: V = I * R  Load  Equation: P = I * V Summary:  Voltage – electrical pressure o Volt o Ex) water pressure  Resistance – resistance to electron flow o Ohm o Ex) pipe diameter  Current – flow rate of electrons o Amp o Flow rate o Voltage, resistance, current – all connected through Ohm’s Law  Power – current * voltage o watt o Ex) rate of work done by moving water  More voltage, electrons move faster, more light  More resistance, slower electron movement, less light  The science of life o The propagation of nerve signals o Use of electricity/voltage for nerve impulse  Two kinds of electric circuits o Series circuit  One loop  Go from battery through one light bulb, and the next bulb, and the next, then back to the battery  Issue: if the first light bulb burns out, so do the rest o Parallel circuit  Many loops  Go from battery through this light bulb OR this light bulb  Bulbs use different electrons  Now, most circuits are parallel to avoid issues of series Every electrical circuit contains: an unbroken flow path  Connections between electricity and magnetism o Oersted  Magnetic field created by electrical charges o Electromagnetic  Current flowing out of the positive end of a battery into the negative end  A current (moving electrical charge) is the thing that makes a magnetic field  As soon as an electrical charge moves, it makes a current aka a magnetic field  Your perspective depends on frame of reference – if you move with a moving electrical charge, it just remains as an electrical charge instead of a current  Electromagnets can be used in disk drive to flip them on and off  Technology  Tesla with the electric motor  Conversion of electricity to power  Use a north and south magnets along with north and south electromagnets surrounded by a coil, power goes in the coil, north and south rotate around (north is repelled from north and south is repelled from south making it rotate) o Magnetic monopole  Do not exist  Arrangement of electrical charges 2/26/16  Ohm’s Law – reminder o Ohm’s law: current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance o V = I * R o Load (power emitted/lost in a device)  P = I * V The current through a 5.0  resistor is 0.40 A. what is the voltage across the resistor? 2.0 V  Science of life o Magnetic resonance  Electrical effects from magnetism o Michael Faraday  Electromagnetic induction  Electrical fields and currents can be produced by changing magnetic fields  Basic idea: If there’s current flowing through the circuit, the needle will show it  If you move a bar magnet near a certain piece of steel, the changing magnetic field will cause a current to flow  Electric generator  Motor backwards  If you have magnets arranged in a way, when you crank it however you do, you can generate electricity  North pole of a magnet here and south pole of a magnet here, put loops of wire in between magnets, make the coil turn, the magnetic field changes which causes electricity Video on Lord Kelvin’s water dropper/rain storm (would take 6 ½ years to charge your phone from this electrical charge – very small charge)  Waves and electromagnetic radiation (ch.6) o Whenever an electrically charged object is accelerated, it produces electromagnetic radiation – waves of energy that travel at the speed of light o The nature of waves  Wave  A traveling disturbance  Ex) think of dominos o energy transfer, traveling disturbance makes one domino knock the rest down o the one domino doesn’t travel and knock them all down, the energy traveling does  ex) waves passing a sailboat o the wave itself is moving from side to side, but the water is moving up and down  properties: o wavelength  crest – top  trough – bottom o frequency  time it takes for it to go up, down, and back up again  number of waves / second (Hertz) o velocity  movement of waves  v = ƒ o amplitude  height of wave A wave having a frequency of 10 Hz means which of the following is occurring? 1 wave goes up and down 10 times every second How fast is a wave moving if it has a wavelength of 4m and a frequency of 4 Hz? 16 m/s Week 8 2/29/16 A wave having a frequency of 10 Hz means which of the following? 1 wave goes up and down 10 times every second  The Two Kinds of Waves: o Transverse  Motion is perpendicular to wave direction  AM/Short wave radio transmission o Longitudinal  Motion is same direction as wave  FM radio A long, taut string on a guitar is plucked. The wave that travel down its length is: transverse  Technology o Amplitude Modulated (AM) o Frequency Modulated (FM)  Which of the following is an observation we can make about pipes in a pipe organ? o The length of the pipe is inversely proportional to the frequency of the sound it produces  Interference o Constructive Interference—additive  If you have 2 different waves, each 1 inch, and the crests of the waves move together, the result is a 2-inch wave  Act together o Destructive Interference—subtractive  If crest of one wave lines up with trough of another wave, the result is 0 amplitude  Cancellation  The Electromagnetic Wave o Maxwell  Light is a wave of electromagnetic field  Electromagnetic waves change, which creates another electromagnetic wave which changes, and creates another electromagnetic wave, etc. o Michelson  There are mediums that let waves propagate  Light has no medium  The Anatomy of the Electromagnetic Wave o Point A—maximum strength but decreasing o Point B—minimum strength but increasing o Electromagnetic waves continue through internal mechanisms and transfer energy as they travel  Light and the Energy of Electromagnetic Waves o Speed of light  All electromagnetic waves have same velocity  c = 30,000 km/s o Energy  Higher frequency = blue color  Lower frequency = red color  Doppler Effect o Wave motion is independent of its source o If source moves, frequency appears to change o Frequency can change if the source or the receiver move o High pitch to low pitch as it moves away from you The Doppler Effect is NOT observed where the following occurs: both the observer and the source are moving at the same velocity  Transmission—wave passes through matter  Absorption—wave and energy absorbed  Scattering—waves absorbed and reemitted o Diffuse scattering o Reflection  Refraction—bending of the light wave 3/2/16  Electromagnetic Spectrum o Maxwell’s equations  Predicted more waves o Hertz  Radio waves  Range: kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz  Longest waves  Microwaves  Range: 1mm – 1m  Infared radiation  Range: 1mm – 1micrometer ()  All warm objects emit radiation  Visible light  Range: 700nm – 400nm  Colors o Slices of electromagnetic spectrum  Ex) Black & blue or white & gold dress  Human color perception is dependent upon the interaction of all receptor cells with light, and this combination results in nearly trichromic stimulation  Ultraviolet radiation  Range: 400nm – 100 nm  Shorter wavelength = more energy o Damage to cells  Fluorescence  X ray and Gamma rays  X rays o Range: 100nm – 0.1nm o High-frequency o Medicine  Gamma rays -10 -12 o 0.1nm (10 m) – 10 m o highest frequency o medicine o astronomy 3/4/16 Ch.8 The Atom  great idea: all of the matter around us is made of atoms, the chemical building blocks of our world  the smallest pieces o Democritus (Greek, ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) o Cut matter to reach the smallest piece  Called “the atom” or “uncuttable”  Elements o John Dalton (English, 1766-1844)  Father of modern atomic theory  Cannot break down elements  Elements composed of atoms  Ex) water molecule is 1 oxygen atom and 2 hydrogen atoms  Are atoms real? o Evidence for the reality of atoms  Behavior of a gas  Ideal of gas equation  Change the pressure/volume of gas, temp changes accordingly  All comes about from the motion of individual particles  Bernoulli (Dutch-Swiss, 1700-1782) o Atoms have mass and velocity and thus kinetic energy o Decreasing volume increases pressure o Increasing temp increases pressure  Chemical combinations  Dalton discovered the law of definite proportions o Elements combine in a specific ratio of weights  Ex) water is 8-parts oxygen to 1-part hydrogen (in weights) o Ratio of weights is a small whole number  Ex) 12 lbs carbon can combine with either 16 lbs or 32 lbs of oxygen, but not with 24 lbs of oxygen o Implication: some units of elements are fundamentally indivisible  Radioactivity  Radioactive carbon to figure out the cycle for chlorophyll (carbon dioxide to oxygen for plants)  Madame Curie  Discovered in 1896  Phosphors flash when hit by radiation  1903 demonstration of the twinkling caused by this effect  Brownian motion  Einstein  Motion due to individual particles  Without those, you wouldn’t see those movements in fluid  Erratic, jiggling, motion o Pollen grains suspended in water  X-ray crystallography  Freeze proteins, shoot X-rays at them to figure out the structure of proteins  Used for medical uses  Atomic-scare microscopy  Actually see individual molecules/atoms  The structure of an atom o Joseph Thomson  Identified electron (1897)  Negatively charged, smaller & lighter than the smallest atom  Said atoms are NOT fundamental building blocks, but are made up of smaller more fundamental particles  Basically, atoms are the smallest thing that make a thing a thing  If you get smaller than an atom, its still stuff (electrons) o The atomic nucleus  Ernest Rutherford  Determined atomic structure o Atom has a nucleus at center surrounded by electrons  Later discoveries found nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons  Problems with Rutherford’s model of the atom o Why?  Object in circular orbit is accelerating  Accelerated electrical charge emits electromagnetic radiation  Electrons giving off energy while orbiting  Result: electrons spin towards nucleus and eventually atom ceases to exist o Rutherford atom exists <1 min.  The nuclear regulatory commission o Logo: highly stylized atomic model  The Bohr Atom o First working model of atom o Energy levels for electrons  Specific distances from nucleus  Electrons exist with no radiation  Electrons cannot exist between allowed distances (energy levels) o Energy in Bohr Atom  Energy required to leave ground state  Absorb proton  Heat o Increases collisions  Photons: particles of light o Photon absorbed  Used to move electron to a higher energy state o Photon emitted as electron moves to lower energy state o Quantum leap or jump – electron disappears from original location and reappears in final location – NEVER at positions in between  Spectroscopy o Atoms emit and absorb different photons o Depends on differences between energy levels o Each atom has distinct set of photons o Spectrum  All photons emitted by an atom  Used for identification o Glass prism  The science of life o Spectra of life’s chemical reactions  Used to determine how enzymes work  Used to identify pollutants emitted from automobile exhaust pipes  Technology o Lasers  Produce a beam of light 3/21/16 If you take an electrically neutral atom of sodium (element 11) and remove one electron, you wind up with which of the following? A positively charged ion of sodium The most stable configurations of electrons occur in which of the following cases? Elements that are inert gases (far right side)  Types of chemical bonds o Ionic bonds  Bond of electrostatic attraction  Donate or accept electron(s)  Example: Na and Cl o Fiery reaction results in stable crystal o Metallic bonding  Share electrons  Characteristics:  Shiny  conduct electricity, malleable o Covalent bonds  Share electrons  Similar to conjoined twins  Molecules share  Ex) o Diatomic gases o Carbon and its bonds which of the following is NOT one of the types of bonding? Doric o Carbon bonds  4 valence electrons  single bonds  double bonds  triple bonds  backbone of biological macromolecules  polarization and hydrogen bonds o polar molecules: positive ends attract negatives and vice-versa  ex) water o creates hydrogen bond; weak bond  water  important in many biological substances  wood  silk  egg white  DNA  Van der Waals Forces o The van der Waals force named after the Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules other than those due to covalent bonds, the hydrogen bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules  States of Matter o Gas  No volume or shape  Expands to fill container o Liquid  Fixed volume, no shape  Surface tension o Solid  Solid  Fixed shape and volume  Crystals  Regular repeating sequence  Glasses  No predictable arrangement  Polymers  Chains of molecules  Plastics o Plasma  Positive nuclei in sea of electrons  Properties:  Vey hot  Electrons stripped off  Similar to gases, but can conduct electricity and can be confined by magnetic OR gravitational fields  Technology o Liquid crystals and your hand calculator o Electric current aligns crystals  Chemical reactions and energy: rolling down the chemical hill o Energy of an electron  Kinetic: moving around the nucleus  Potential: distance from the nucleus o Energy changes with bonding  Exothermic: combined energy level of the molecule is lower than that of individual atoms, energy is released  Endothermic: combined energy level of the molecule is higher than that of individual atoms, energy needs to be released o Oxidation  Transfer electrons  4Fe + 3O 22Fe O 2 3  CH +42O  C2 + 2H2O 2 3/23/16 Methane combusts in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water, as shown by this reaction: CH + O4 CO2+ H O.2In an2appropriately balanced chemical equation what is the ratio of methane used to water produced? 1:2  Common chemical reactions o Reduction  Accepts electrons  Removed oxygen in many cases  Smelting of iron o Acid-base reaction +  Acid produces H  Base produces OH –  pH scale: measures the amount of positive charges in a solution  < 7.0 acid  > 7.0 basic  additional polymerization o addition of monomers (one molecule) end-to-end  condensation polymerization o small molecule released for each added monomer  forms of polymers o depolymerization  desirable: cooking  undesirable: things falling apart due to UV light  science in the making o discovery of nylon  building molecules: the hydrocarbons o alkanes  flammable gases or liquids used as fuels  carbon length affects state  may be straight chains or branched  common fuels: methane (stovetop), propane, n-Butane (lighter)  technology o refining petroleum  complex mixture of organic chemicals ch.12 the nucleus of the atom  great idea: nuclear energy depends on the conversion of mass into energy  empty space, explosive energy o relation of atom to nucleus  nucleus in the atom would be the size of a golf ball on a football field, atom is mostly empty space  what goes on in the nucleus has almost nothing to do with the atom’s chemistry, and vice versa  the energies available in the nucleus are much greater th2n those available among electrons o E = mc  Mass change when a bow is drawn  As he stretches the bow, the elastic (potential) energy goes into the bow and the mass goes up  The organization of the nucleus o Rutherford discovered the nucleus o Nucleus  Proton  Neutron o Nucleus gives atom its mass  Atomic number, isotopes, and the mass number o Atomic number  Number of protons in the nucleus  Dictates the arrangement of electrons  Defines chemical behavior o Isotope  Elements with different numbers of neutrons, but same number of protons o Mass number  Total protons and neutrons  Ex) Carbon 13 = 6 protons, 7 neutrons o Ex) Lithium  Atomic number: 3  What makes Lithium what it is  Atomic mass: 6.941 amu  Number of protons/electrons: 3  Number of neutrons: 4 If an atom has 9 protons and an electrical charge of -1, what is the chemical identity of this ion and how many electrons does it presently have? Fluorine (10) {9 protons and extra electron} Which one of the following describes the situation in which two atoms are isotopes of one another? There is an atom of carbon with 6 neutrons and an atom of carob with 7 neutrons 3/25/16  Test is on 5, 6, 8, 10 5—Electricity and Magnetism  Coulomb's law  Electric fields  Poles  Fields = loops  Same charge repel each other  V = IR  Power = current * voltage  Page 112; parallels  Connections between electricity and magnetism o Electromagnet  Moving magnet will make an electric current  Maxwell’s equations  Know about Maxwell’s 4 laws o Coulomb’s o Magnetic fields come in pairs (always a north and a south) o Changing electric fields make magnetic fields o Changing magnetic fields make electric fields Chapter 6—Waves  Waves  Wave terms o Wavelength o Amplitude o Period  Kinds of waves o Transverse o Longitudal  Hearing  Sound in a tube  Constructive or destructive interference  Doppler effect o If a source is moving the frequency changes o Away from you = lower frequency o Towards you = higher frequency o Wavelength and frequency move opposite (higher frequency = shorter wave length; lower frequency = longer wave length)  Electromagnet spectrum o 7 ranges Chapter 8—Atoms  History o Rutherford—discovered nucleus o Bohr  What was wrong with the Rutherford model? o Single charge that’s very very small and very very strong at the center of the atom o Discovered nucleus o Said electrons are orbiting the nucleus (like the earth orbits the sun) so that the electron eventually moves into the atom  Wrong  Bohr o Electrons are going in that orbit but they stay there Chapter 10  Ionic o “Ions” o Atom has an extra electron (left side of table) o Atom has missing electron in shell (second column from far right side of table) o When an atom changes its charge o Lose electron = positive charge because its happy to get a closed shell o Gain electron = negative charge  Covalent o “Sharing” o 2 atoms share electrons o Hydrogen = example o Carbon = example o Water = example  Metallic o “Metals” o Electrons are shared by many  Oxidation reduction  Acid base reactions o Take element from left side of table and add OH = Base o Take element from right side of table and add H = Acid o pH—concentration of hydrogen ions o <7 = acidic o >7 = basic o 7 = water/neutrals  Polymerization/Depolymerization  Hydro-carbons o Covalent bonds o Each carbon has 4 bonds o Each hydrogen has 1 bond Single, double, or triple bonds between carbons


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