Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 32763
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Caldwell on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 32763 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Prokopowicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see History 1051 in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Over There Progressive Era created a belief in pseudoscience o a collection of beliefs or practices mistakenly regarded as being based on scientific method Progressive Era comes to the end because of First World War World War I (August 4, 1914November 11, 1918) o Begins in Europe o AustriaHungary demands apology from Serbia and basically wants Serbia’s independence o Allies (France, Great Britain, and Russia) vs. Central Powers (Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy) o May 7, 1915: The sinking of Lusitania; 1,260 dead o June 3, 1916: National defense Act expanded the regular federal army from 90,000 to 175,00 and permitted gradual enlargement to 223,000. o 1916: Wilson ran for President and won He kept us out of war; This was the slogan for the Wilson campaign o The Zimmerman Telegram: The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note) was an internal diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January, 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event of the United States' entering World War I against Germany. o In March 1917, German submarines sank five U.S. merchant vessels in the North Atlantic This was the last straw for Wilson o The most prominent causes for America’s entrance into the war were the effects of British propaganda in the United States and America’s deep involvement in trade with the Allies o Battle of Gettysburg: Most costly war, 3 days only o Battle of Somme: lasted 4 months; lost more people in 1 day, than Gettysburg in 3 days o Russian Revolution; o WWI is no longer a local war, individuals were drafted More technical than before (airplanes are used, calculations made, training is needed) o A big question asked is How much freedom do you give up to get freedom? The USA comes at last second, Woodrow Wilson could join in negotiating British and French wanted a piece of Germany and wanted Germany to punish for starting war o Wilson believed otherwise and wanted to end wars Wilson insisted that the United States wanted no selfish gains from the war, only a new, democratic Europe to emerge from the old empires. His Exam 2 Study Guide famous Fourteen Points speech outlined his ideas for the establishment of continentwide democratic nationstates and a league of nations. Modern Times Postwar: o Influenza killed more than those who were in the war (Spanish Flu) o Unemployment o Strikes o Riots/Racial unrest In the Summer of 1919 there were a season of deadly race riots across the nation o The Red Scare: The rear of communism spreading if one country went under control th 19 amendment passed in 1919: created the right to vote for all (women could vote now) Lots of Americans wanted to go back to what life was before the war Scope’s Monkey Trial: The trial of John Scopes, a high school Biology teacher in Tennessee, for teaching the theory of evolution in violation of state law. Prohibition of alcohol they believed alcohol was corruptive and lead to many horrible things and behaviors o 1920: National prohibition of alcohol “Scarface” Al Capone was the most celebrated Prohibitionera gangster Charles Darwin: Sigmund Freud: Friedrick Nietzche: challenged traditional moral o Said there was no God Rather humans can be government by those who have strong leadership and everyone will follow Albert Einstein: challenges the world itself o Theory of relativity, which maintained that space, time, and mass were not absolutes but instead were relative to the location and motion of the observer o Einstein proposes a new world in which matter and energy are interchangeable Artists, musicians, and writers react to these challenges the most o The Lost Generation: their anxieties outstripped their inexperience with life A Farewell to Arms (1929); depicted the desperate search of the “lost generation” for “real” life punctuated by the doomed, wartainted love affairs of young Americans o Scott Fitzgerald: his stories were painfully autobiographical The Great Gatsby(1925) Exam 2 Study Guide This Side of Paradise (1920) The Roaring Twenties Gave challenges at looking at the new world: Darwin, Freud, Friedrick Nietzche, and Albert Einstein Rebirth of Klu Klux Klan in the 1920’s Nativism: The foreign connections of so many political radicals convinced many people that the troublemakers in the postwar era were foreignborn. Nicola Sacco (shoemaker) and Bartolomeo Vanzeti (fish peddle): on May 5, 1920 they were arrested for stealing $16,000 from a shoe factory and killing the paymaster and a guard. o Became a hug public spectacle Emergency Immigration Act of 1921: restricted European arrivals each year to 3 percent of the total number of each nationality represented in the 1910 census Immigration Act of 1924: reduced the number to 2 percent based on the 1890 census Women and Prohibition o Women’s Christian Temperance Union and AntiSaloon League: launched a campaign for a national prohibition law January 16, 1917: 18 Amendment banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors. The Yale Club in Manhattan, stored enough liquor to subsist for the fourteen years that Prohibitions was enforced Bootlegging: was the making, distribution, or selling of liquor illegally. Speakeasies: illegal “bootleg” liquor was sold The Federal Government forced 1500 agents to push for prohibition of alcohol o 30 agents for each state o Not supported much Progressives who supported soon changed their mind o They felt as if it no longer benefited, it hindered o Alcohol is now imported illegally Moonshine is imported Al “Scarface” Capone: seized control of the huge illegal liquor business in the city In 1927 his Chicagobased bootlegging, prostitution, and gambling empire brought him an income of $60 million. 11 years in prison The Roaring Twenties: During those years a cosmopolitan urban America confronted an insular, rural America, and cultural conflict reached new levels of tension. Sex could be discussed with a new frankness during the 1920s Flapper: Exam 2 Study Guide o Fashion included: bobbed hair, minimal undergarments, gauzy fabrics, sheer stocking, cigarettes, booze, makeup, jazz dancing Harlem Renaissance: The nation’s first selfconscious black literary and artistic movement o Cultivate racial equality by promoting African American cultural achievements New Negro Movement: an effort to promote racial equality by celebrating the cultural contributions of African Americans Jazz Age: was a period in the 1920s, ending with the Great Depression, in which jazz music and dance styles became popular o Notable for increased prosperity, liberated or hedonistic social behavior, rise in production and consumption of bootleg liquor, and the development of jazz and ragtime and associated ballroom dances. Marcus Garvey (Garveyism): brought to the allblack Harlem neighborhood the headquarters of the Universal Negro Improvement Association o Saw every white person as potential Klansman First major black leader to champion black power Automobile is used because of this decade o Ford’s reliable Model T 1908; cost $850 1924; cost $294 Automobile changes everything o Everyday behavior Dating – walking vs. being picked up in a car Working living in city vs. suburb Vacation going anywhere for vacation Industries drives on new pave ways; first transcontinental highway is now highway 30 Puts more money in works pocket Henry ford: paid workers $5 a day o Workers could now afford cars Radios were used; and were served for basic communication until 1920 o Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) o National Broadcasting Company (NBC) People brought refrigerators, washing machines, carpet Buy today, pay later: consumer credit; individual consumers could buy anything on credit, no need for bank Advertising becomes big o Billboards o Radio soap operas and other commercials Bruce Barton The Book Nobody Knows New era of technology: o Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer Exam 2 Study Guide First popular movie with sound (white actor performing in white face) o 1920 Era of Optimism Charles A. Lindberge: Flies across Atlantic Ocean by himself o 1920: Age of American Sports Baseball 1927 New York Yankees Football: Harold Edward “Red” Grange Boxing: James Joseph “Gene” Tunney and Jack Dempsey Golf; Bobby Jones Swimming Horse racing People are buying stocks o Stock market are going up o If can’t afford, buy on credit Politics o Warren G. Harden 1920 promises to return the country to normalcy Personally honest Numerous scandals Teapot Dome Scandal: a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921 Lead to a major government scandal and the tarnishing of the reputation of President Warren G. Harding's administration Over time people considered him the worst president of all time Followed by Coolidge (30) and Hoover (31) WW1 ends and Woodrow Wilson go and discuss peace Civil war in Russia o USA gets involved Troops land in Siberia In USA and Europe: make sure those who caused war can’t do it again o Make sure they can’t create weapons o Battleships countries with more battleships had more power o 1922: The Washington Naval Treaty: US and Great Britain agree to stop building large battleships Ratio 5:5:3 No new battleships built for the next 10 years o Sign agreements Alliances The 5 Power Treaty: divided up the Pacific Ocean (stopped fighting over who ships could go where) The League of Nations: A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson Exam 2 Study Guide The Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928: international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve disputes or conflicts of whatever nature, which may arise among them. Parties failing to abide by this promise should be denied of the benefits furnished by this treaty Signed by Germany, France and the United States on August 27, 1928 Made war illegal Sign of the optimism of the Roaring Twenties USA backed away from national affairs Thomas Wolf Tax rose o Tariff got higher and higher Treaty of Versailles: It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919. Adolf Hitler: o Spends time in jail and creates a book Blames Jews for all the problems of Germany o He takes Germany out of The League of Nations o The Axis: Germany, Italy, and Japan The Great Crash Coolidge was called” Silent Cal” he didn’t like to talk much o He was simple and direct, a selfrighteous man of strong principles, intense patriotism, pinched frugality, and few words o Business loved him, labor and agriculture did not o He distanced himself away from the scandals of the administration McNaryHaugen bill: sought to secure equality for agriculture in the benefits of the protective tariff o The bill called for surplus American crops to be sold on the world market In order to raise prices in the home market A Progressive party forms: Senator Robert Lafollette o Endorsed by many o Wanted to help the government Lower taxes Encouraging and cooperating with businesses Standardization Price fixing agreeing to charge the same price (monopoly) 1926 the more production of cotton led to lower prices Exam 2 Study Guide Labor Strikes o Loray Mill strike 1929: government was sent to help stop the strike, but it didn’t Female textile workers pit their strength against a National Guardsman Mill managers introduced a system that doubled workers' work while decreasing wages Though largely unsuccessful in attaining its goals of better working conditions and wages, the strike caused an immense controversy which gave the labor movement momentum, propelling the movement in its national development. Hoover 1929193 o Engineer by trade o Progressive in technology to make things better o Organizer/Planner Smith was a nice guy, funny, entertaining o Son of Irish immigrants, Roman Catholic, and antiProhibition(opposite of his party’s platform) o Got twice the votes as other Democrats Ford’s Highland Park Plant: o Detroit, Michigan o Taylorism: to make businesses more productive Workers were required to make specific amount of movements on the assembly line to get the job done Florida: Real Estate becomes popular o Buy land for $15 an acre and sold it for even higher o Bubble: people buy things and the production and price goes up, then goes down after time Germany: Tulips NASDAQ Housing prices (2000) Wall Street Stock Market Reason it went up: idea of buying sock on margin o Making a small down payment and borrowing the rest from a broker Stock Market Crash (October 29) o Stocks had fallen in value by an average of 37 percent o Revealed underlined deepness Workers did not prosper, but everyone else did Keeping prices high and wages low Tariff made things worst Tariff of 1930: known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff which raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels. Unemployment 6 million (12%) Banks begin to fail Exam 2 Study Guide Marriage rates went down Suicide rates go up Reconstruction Finance Corporation o $500 million for emergency loans to struggling banks, lifeinsurance companies, and railroads The Great Depression o The stock market crash revealed the structural flaws in the economy, but it did not cause the Great Depression o Causes: high tariffs, lax enforcement of antitrust laws, an absence of checks on speculation in real estate and the stock market, and adherence to the gold stand o Some felt so bad and felt like they could only deal with it by suicide o Banks failed, businesses closed, homes and jobs were lost o Responded: There is nothing you can do about it Laissezfaire Hoover was criticized for doing nothing The “Bonus Expeditionary Force”: The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups —who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash payment redemption of their service certificates. Oh the Humanity President Roosevelt confronted three major challenges: o Reviving the economy o Relieving the widespread human misery o Reusing the farm sector and its desperate families Brain Trust Roosevelt assembled talented advisers who feverishly developed ideas to address the nation’s compelling problems Twentyfirst Amendment ratified on December 5 o Ended the prohibition of alcohol President Herbert Hoover 19291933 o He didn’t do what he was supposed to 1931 The Crash o Germany stopped making payments o Banks failed o Hoover tried to make the $1 more valuable He raised interest This led to more banks failing The Bonus Army o Promised a bonus for their service to the country Exam 2 Study Guide 1932 these veterans marched to Washington to protest to give them their bonus Hoover Response; send army to clean up the protest (Bonus) First New Deal It wasn’t a single program, it was a mixture of things It declared a bank holiday (closed for 4 days, would reopen after inspectors checked) (made it sound fun) It helped ease the devastation brought by the Depression, but did not restore prosperity or end the human suffering o Home Owners’ Loan Act Provided a similar service to city dwellers through the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, which refinanced mortgage loans at lower monthly payments for strapped homeowners. Helped to slow the rate of foreclosures. o Farm Credit Act Congress authorized the extensive refinancing of farm mortgages at lower interest rates to stem the tide of foreclosure. o The Banking Act Helped create the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Guaranteed personal bank deposits up to $5,000 Separate commercial banks from investment banks o Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Provided jobs to unemployed, unmarried young men aged 1825 Workers built roads, bridges, campgrounds, planted trees, taught farmers how to control soil erosion, fought fires. They had to be white Got paid $5 a month o The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) addressed the broader problems of human distress Expanded federal assistance to the unemployed Civil Works Administration (CWA) organized a variety of useful projects: making highway repairs and laying sewer lines, constructing or improving more than a thousand airports and forty thousand schools and provided fifty thousand teaching jobs o The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 Created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration which sought to raise prices for crops and herds by paying farmers to reduce production o Public Works Administration (PWA) granted $3.3 billion for new government buildings, highway construction, flood control projects, and other transportation improvements Put people to work by hiring them o The Dust Bowl This was a devastating drought that settled over the plains states between 1932 and 1935 Exam 2 Study Guide Destroyed tons of land Caused farm prices to go up o National Recovery Administration Purpose: To stabilized the economy by reducing chaotic competition through the implementation of industrywide codes that set wages and prices To generate more purchasing power for consumers by providing jobs, defining workplace standards, and raising wages o The Tennessee Valley Authority – A bold venture designed to bring electrical power, flood control, and jobs to one of the poorest regions in the nation Served Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Second New Deal (19351936) o Works Progress Administration an array of new federal job programs o The Wagner Act: It guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and bargain with managements Also prohibited employers from interfering with union activities o Social Security Act of 1935 It was created to address the problems faced by the old, infirm, blind, and disabled o The Revenue Act (Soaktherich) raised tax rates on annual income about $50,000. o Business leaders fumed and said Roosevelt was a traitor to his own class The New Deal Criticisms o Some conservatives criticized for violating personal and property rights and for steering the nation toward socialism o Some liberals believed that the measures did not tax the wealthy enough o Famous speech: “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself” How will you find the next meal? How will you find the next job? How will you feed children? Migration to the west o California o African Americans left the South and went North o Women fled their job mark Increase in work force o Travel across time Ex. The Fugitive Poets Rejected modernism New Music Exam 2 Study Guide o Blue Grass o Blues Era of Monster Movies o Dracula Frankenstein o The Wolf Man o The Mummy Children Movies o Shirley Temple I’m a good ship lollipop o Comedies o Sarcasms John Maynard Keynes o Said people should spend more money to get out of depression Put people to work and they buy things Wednesday, March 16, 2016 World in Flames WWII (Begins in Europe) o Axis Germany, Japan, Italy (Losing Side) o Allies United States, Soviet Union (USSR) Including Russia, Great Britain (UK), China, France The Good Neighbor Policy: Roosevelt announced in his 1933 inaugural address that he would continue the efforts to promote “the policy of the good neighbor” in the Western Hemisphere. o The US wants no part of the activity in Europe They want Isolation Neutrality Acts are passed to stop the replay of WWI by Congress Can’t send weapons 94% of the pubic wanted to stay out of the war o America First Committee said that America’s needs came first and they were to tend to their own business Adolf Hitler: o Summer of 1941, Hitler controls almost all of Europe o The National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) party o Chancellor on January 30, 1933 o He banned all political parties except for the Nazis o His Brownshirted troopers fanned out across the nation, burning books, sterilizing or euthanizing the disabled, and persecuting Communists and Jews Whom Hitler blamed for Germany’s troubles Exam 2 Study Guide The Atlantic Charter pledged that after the “final destruction of the Nazi tyranny” the victors would promote the selfdetermination of all peoples, economic cooperation, freedom of the seas, and a new system of international security The Lend Lease Bill authorized the president to lend or lease military equipment to any country whose defense is vital to the defense of the United States Blitzkrieg lightening war o Featured coordinated columns of fastmoving German tanks, motorized artillery, and truckborne infantry To ensure that the Soviet Union did not interfere with his plans to conquer Poland, Hitler, on August 23, 1939, contradicted his frequent denunciations of communism and signed a NaziSoviet NonAggression Pact with Soviet premier Joseph Stalin o The who totalitarian tyrants secretly agreed to divide up northern and eastern Europe between them Operation Overload: the daring assault on Hitler’s Atlantic Wall. DDay (June 6, 1944): The Battle of Normandy, which was the beginning of the major invasion of Germany Yalta Conference (February 411, 1945): brought the Big Three Allied leaders together at Yalta o British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. o During the conference, the three leaders agreed to demand Germany’s unconditional surrender and began plans for a postwar world o One aim was the need to ensure that the Soviet Union would join the ongoing war against Japan o Second aim was based upon the lessons he had drawn from WWI VE Day (May 8, 1945): the day marking the Allied victory in Europe in World War II Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor o The United States had declared war on December 8 in Response o American economy out pasted Japanese economy o Battle of Midway (June 3–6, 1942) a naval battle, fought almost entirely with aircraft, in which the United States destroyed Japan’s firstline carrier strength and most of its best trained naval pilots. It marked a turning point of the military struggle between the two countries o The Battle of the Coral Sea (May 78, 1942) stopped a Japanese fleet convoying troops toward New Guinea. o American losses were greater Berlin Airlift:1948–1949 The United States, United Kingdom, and France controlled western portions, Soviet troops controlled the eastern portions Exam 2 Study Guide The crisis started on June 24, 1948, when Soviet forces blockaded rail, road, and water access to Alliedcontrolled areas of Berlin. The United States and United Kingdom responded by airlifting food and fuel to Berlin from Allied airbases in western Germany. Marshall Plan: Millions of people had been killed or wounded. Much of Europe was on the brink of famine as agricultural production had been disrupted by war. Transportation infrastructure was in shambles. o From 1945 through 1947, the United States was already assisting European economic recovery with direct financial aid o Provided over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe between 1948 and 1951. o It successfully sparked economic recovery, meeting its objective of ‘restoring the confidence of the European people Rationing: Ration stamps became a kind of currency with each family being issued a "War Ration Book." o Each stamp authorized a purchase of rationed goods in the quantity and time designated, and the book guaranteed each family its fair share of goods made scarce, thanks to the war. Zoo Suit Riot San Diego clashed with gangs of zoo suitors o Wears enough cloth to make two suits o a series of conflicts that occurred in June 1943 in Los Angeles o The outfits consisted of a broadshouldered drape jacket, balloonleg trousers, and, sometimes, a flamboyant hat. Rose the Riveter: “We Can Do It” (made it acceptable for women to work more masculine jobs) o Shipyards and factories o Nursing becomes largely female o Telephone operators NSC- 68: They argued that the best course of action was to respond in kind with a massive build-up of the U.S. military and its weaponry. o NSC-68 recommended that the United States embark on rapid military expansion of conventional forces and the nuclear arsenal (new hydrogen bomb) 38 Parallel: the line on the map that marks the border between North Korea and South Korea Exam 2 Study Guide
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