Early Social Development II: Attachment
Early Social Development II: Attachment CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Earlv Social Development 11 Attachment October 13 2015 1 Define attachment and describe the signs of attachment in infants At what age do these signs usually emerge What evidence do we have that attachment is a universal phenomenon Attachment The emotional bond that children form with their caregivers at about 7 to 9 months of age Signs of attachment Separation anxiety Stranger anxiety Greetings reunion behavior Comfort seeking Secure base behavior extert to which they use are given as a base from which explore 612 months Evidence universal phenomenon They show distress if separated from their caregivers They are happy when they are reunited with the person whom they are attached They orient their actions to the caregiver When they are playing for example they watch the caregiver or listen for the caregiver s voice 2 Describe the strange situation used to assess patterns of attachment Strange situation A procedure designed to access children s attachment on the bias of their use of their mother as a secure base for exploration their reactions to being left alone amp their response when they are reunited with their mother The basic purpose of this procedure is to observe how infants make use of the mother as a secure base from which to explore the playroom how they respond to separation from the mother amp how they respond to a stranger 3 Describe the 4 categories of attachment classified in Ainsworth s Strange Situation What kinds of behaviors characterize each type of attachment 1 Secure attachment As long as the mother is present securely attached children play comfortably with the toys in the playroom amp react positively to the stranger These children become visibly amp vocally upset when their mother level When the mother reappears amp they can climb into her arms they quickly clam down amp soon resume playing Re ects a healthy balance between wanting to be in close contact with the mother amp waiting to explore the environment 2 Avoidant attachment During the time the mother amp child are alone together in the playroom avoidant infants are more or less indifferent to where their mother is sitting If they do become distressed the stranger is likely to be as effective at comforting them as their mother is When the mother returns those children may turn or look away from her instead of going to her to reestablish contact 3 Resistant attachment Resistant children have trouble from the start in the stranger situation They stay close to their mother rather than exploring the playroom amp appear anxious even when she is near They become very upset when the mother leaves but they are not comforted by her return Instead hey simultaneously seek renewed contact with the mother amp resist her efforts to comfort them For example They may demand to be picked up cry angrily with arms outstretched but then arch away amp struggle to get free once the mother starts to pick them up 4 Disorganized attachment Seem to lack any coherent organized method for dealing with the stress they experienced Some cry loudly while trying to climb onto the mother s lap others may approach the mother while refusing to look at her still others may stand at the door amp scream while she is gone but move away from her silently when returns In some extreme cases the children seem to be in a dazed state amp refuse to move while in the mother s presence What is the in uence of culture associated with differences in infants behavior in the strange situation Standard procedures for measuring patterns of attachment may not be valid in some cultures There is sharp disagreement Many have argued that attached is a universal feature of human development amp that the emotionally sensitive interactions that nourish attachment are similar across cultures Other have argued that there are important cultural variations in attachment amp that the very are important cultural variations in attachment amp that the very motions of what constitutes sensitive caregiving amp secure human relationships are culturally specific While evidence indicates that interactive sensitivity is necessary to the development of secure attachments it seems that the very nature of sensitive caregiving differs depending on the values beliefs amp socialization goals of culture What is the origin of attachment according to psychoanalytic theory Freud Erikson and behaviorist theory Describe Harlow s research on monkeys seeking to verify whether feeding is the basis of attachment Psychoanalytic Theory Relationship with mother provides model f all other relationships Baby becomes attached to mother because she satisfies hunger drive Behavior Theory Feeding is primary reason babies becoming attached to their caregivers For example Pets follow the person who feed them Caregivers provide relief from discomfort Harlow amp Zimmerman s Monkey Studies Baby monkeys separated from their mothers at birth Reared in cage with 2 surrogates wired mum amp cloth mum All spent more time with cloth mum Used cloth mom as secure base Harlow concluded These results attest to the importance possibly the overwhelming importance of bodily contact amp the immediate comfort it supports in forming the infants attachment to its mother Feeding is not primary basis for attachment 6 Describe Bowlby s ethological theory of attachment How can infants wariness of unfamiliar people and objects be explained Bowlby s ethological theory Attachment related to our evolutionary history If not for attachment human species would not survive long period of immaturity Functions of attachment is protection from danger Infants behaviors increase chances caregiver will respond 7 What is known about the stability of attachment What factors affect whether an infant remains in the same attachment classification when retested after several months or years A firm attachment helps infants to retain feelings of security during the increasingly frequent amp length periods of separation from their caregivers It is noteworthy that this phase develops at the same time that infants powers of mental representation are on the rise A consequence of infants growing symbolic capacities parentchild attachment begins to serve as an internal working model a mental model that children construct as a result of their experience amp that they use to guide their interaction with caregivers amp others 8 What are the main in uences on attachment In uence on attachment Quality of caregiving Consistency with which caregiver responds does she or he has mental issue Sensitivity Is shehe there for the baby when shehe needs Mental health of caregiver More insecure attachment among depressed mothers amp their infants Child temperament mixed feelings Culture 9 What is known about fathers as attachment figures How do cultural differences in uence fathers attachment relationships 10 ll Fathers sensitively to their children s need is increasing recognized as important to children s wellbeing amp attachment amp emotional development Fathers in the United States who have been observed feelings their infants for example Respond sensitively to the babies feeding rhythms amp engage the babies in social episodes just as what a mother will do A different pattern has been observed in a vastly different culture that of the Aka pygmies a hurter gather group who love in center Africa Aka fathers are within an arms reach of their infants 47 percent of the day amp are more likely than mothers to hug or soothe their infants while holding them are mothers Aka fathers are more likely than their wires to pick up infants who crawl over amp request to be held Cultural patterns lead fathers to be closely involved in their children s upbringing attachment to the father occurs in the same way as attachment to the mother How does outofhome care affect attachment relationships Evidence shows that children who had experienced extensive nonmaterial care more than 20 hours a week during the first year of life were more likely to exhibit insecure patterns of attachment in the strange situation were less compliant in meeting adults demands amp were more aggressive in interactions with peers than were who spent less time in nonmenternal care Studies that found that firstborn children who had been placed in childcare arrangements before their first birthday more significantly more likely to display insecure forms of attachment when they were 12 to 13 months than were children who stayed at home with their mothers An extensive amount of time in nonparental child care has slight negative effects on children s attachment relationships as well as on their social behaviors amp intellectual development What are the implications of secure attachment for later functioning How does the concept of an internal working model help explain these implications Secure attachment in infancy linked to In preschool Higher selfesteem More socially competent More cooperative amp persistent Less distractible In adolescence Better problem solvers More positive peer relationships Less doubt towards their parents e g bf amp gf problems might find it hard to concentrate In adulthood More satisfying romantic relationships Secure attachment with own infant Internal working model A consequence of infants growing symbolic capacities parentchild attachment begins to serve as an internal working model a mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences amp that they use to guide their interaction with caregivers amp others Feelings expectations about relationship throughout our life 12 What is reactive attachment disorder and what is the best way to intervene with families to improve attachment relationships Reactive attachment disorder RAD Children who have experienced early emotional traumas such as exposure to violence abuse neglect or parental separation amp loss It is linked to a disruption in the development of the parentchild attachment relationship Best way Focus on the parentchild relationship rather than on the individual child s pathology amp to teach positive parenting skills that promote a secure attachment relationship between parent 7 child
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