American Literature 2359 Exam 3 Review - Keith Needham
American Literature 2359 Exam 3 Review - Keith Needham 2359
Popular in American Literature before 1865
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Exam 3 Review – AM LIT 2359 Background of Edgar Allen Poe More than a century and a half after his death, Poe is still among the most popular of American authors, but unlike most authors of extreme popularity, Poe has also exerted a continuous influence on writers and critics. He influenced the course of creative writing and criticism by emphasizing the art that appeals simultaneously to reason and to emotion and by insisting that the work of art is neither a fragment of the author’s life nor an adjunct to some didactic purpose, but an object created in the cause of beauty — which he defined in its largest spiritual implications. This creative art, according to Poe, involves the utmost concentration… with the most scrupulous use of words. Poe took Coleridge as his lodestar in his research for a consistent theory of art. Hawthorne’s symbolism links him with Poe, but Hawthorne’s impulses were often didactic, while Poe taught no moral lessons except the discipline of beauty. This literary transition of Poe, preserved by European symbolism, especially in France, play a considerable part in shaping the spirit of our twentieth century literature, particularly in its demand for the intellectual analysis and controlled perception of emotional consciousness. Poe secretly married his cousin, Virginia Clemm; the ceremony was repeated publicly in Richmond eight months later, when Virginia was not quite fourteen. He was a brilliant editor He failed though personal instability. His devotion to Virginia was beset by some insecurity never satisfactory explained; he had periods of quarrelsomeness which estranged him from his editorial associates. Poe settled down to his period of greatest accomplishment in Philadelphia. He became well known in literary circles as a result of the vitality of his critical articles. Poe moved to New York For some time it had been evident that Virginia must soon die of tuberculosis, and this apprehension, added to grueling poverty, had increased Poe’s eccentricities. Even an occasional escape by alcohol could not go unnoticed in anyone for whom only a moderate indulgence was ruinous, and critical articles increased the number of his enemies, who besmirched his reputation by gossip concerning a number of literary ladies with whom his relations were actually indiscreet but innocent. Yet in 1845 he climaxed his literary life. “The Raven” His tales also appeared in New York and London Virginia died Poe was feverish at work His life ended, as it had been lived, in events so strange that he might have invented them. Sarah Elmira Royster, his childhood sweetheart, was a widow, he visited Richmond and secured her consent to marry him. About two months later he left for Philadelphia on a business engagement. Six days thereafter he was found semiunconscious in a tavern in Baltimore, and he died in delirium after four days. During a short life of poverty, anxiety and fantastic tragedy, Poe achieved the establishment of a new symbolic poetry within the small compass of fortyeight poems; the formalization of the new short story; the invention of the story of detection and the broadening of science fiction; the foundation of a new fiction of psychological analysis and symbolism; and the slow development, in various stages, of an important critical theory and a discipline of analytical criticism. THE RAVEN – Edgar Allen Poe “ ‘T is some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door — Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door; — This it is and nothing more.” o Foreshadows that this is something more at the door “—here I opened wide the door;—“ “I flung the shutter.” “In there stepped a stately raven of the saintly days of yore;” “Pallas” – goddess of wisdom; “Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door” o Physical proximity with bird and goddess of wisdom “But the rave still beguiling all my sad soul into smiling” o Beguiling – to trick “The air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer” “’Wretch,’ I cried, ‘thy God hath lent thee” o Bird might have come from satin “Respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore! Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe (a potion banishing sorrow) and forget this lost Lenore!” “And the lamplight o’er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor; And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor Shall be lifted—nevermore!” o Nevermore – Even the light became darkness o Soul – nevermore will his soul be lifted from the shadow Pondering: forgotten lore writing/books o Has a tragic downfall Can’t forget things Flung open the shutter and open the door wide o What is implied? Self inflicted Poe struggles with words o Bird – Raven = death/dark The bird (aka nature) is going to give him answers He is going mad o Tell me in the distant Edan, will I clasp Lenora Bird is saying nevermore o You ain’t going to heaven o Maybe there isn’t a heaven o Maybe Lenora won’t be there ANNABEL LEE – Edgar Allen Poe “That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of Annabel Lee;— And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me.” She was a child and I was a child, In this kingdom by the sea, But we loved with a love that was more than love” “With a love that the winged seraphs of Heaven” o Angels were jealous “And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud by night Chilling my Annabel Lea; So that her highborn kinsmen came And bore her away from me, To shut her up in a sepulchre.” “Yes! That was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out of the cloud, chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.” “But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than we— Of many far wiser than we And neither the angels in Heaven above Nor the demons down under the sea Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;” o We are connected for all eternity “For the moon never beams, without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee And the stars never rise, but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the nighttide, I lie down by the side Of my darling—my darling—my life and my bride.” o Romantic – idea that help is found in nature Tone – fairytale Ends in a sad/bad mood “This is the reason” “In her tomb, by the side of the sea” o He went into her tomb with her (her bones) and slept with her LIGEIA – Edgar Allen Poe Man doth not yield himself to the angels, nor unto death utterly, save only through the weakness of his feeble will. “If ever she, the wan and the mistywinged Ashtophet of idolatrous Egypt, presided, as they tell, over marriages illomened (bad), then most surely she presided over mine.” “I examined the contour of the lofty and pale forehead—it was faultless— how cold indeed that word when applied to a majesty so divine! the skin rivalling the purest ivory, the commanding extent and repose, the gentle prominence of the regions above the temples; and then the ravenblack, the glossy, the luxuriant and naturallycurling tresses, setting forth the full force of the Homeric epithet, "hyacinthine!" o Hyacinthine – Helen “For eyes we have no models in the remotely antique. It might have been, too, that in these eves of my beloved lay the secret to which Lord Verulam alludes. They were, I must believe, far larger than the ordinary eyes of our own race. They were even fuller than the fullest of the gazelle eyes.” o Nobody has as beautiful eyes – sentimentalities “the beauty of the fabulous Houri” “The hue of the orbs was the most brilliant of black, and, far over them, hung jetty lashes of great length. The brows, slightly irregular in outline, had the same tint. The "strangeness," however, which I found in the eyes, was of a nature distinct from the formation, or the color, or the brilliancy of the features, and must, after all, be referred to the expression.” “Those divine orbs! they became to me twin stars of Leda, and I to them devoutest of astrologers.” “Ligeia’s beauty passed into my spirit” o Sentimentality o It’s not logical, it appeals to imagination “chaotic world of metaphysical investigation at which I was most busily occupied during the earlier years of our marriage. With how vast a triumph —with how vivid a delight (sentimental)—with how much of all that is ethereal in hope—did I feel, as she bent over me in studies but little sought —but less known—that delicious vista by slow degrees expanding before me” “I saw that she must die—and I struggled desperately in spirit with the grim Azrael.” o Do anything so she won’t die “There had been much in her stern nature to impress me with the belief that, to her, death would have come without its terrors;—but not so. Words are impotent to convey any just idea of the fierceness of resistance with which she wrestled with the Shadow.” “I fully impressed with the strength of her affection. For long hours, detaining my hand, would she pour out before me the overflowing of a heart whose more than passionate devotion amounted to idolatry.” – to the narrator “It is this wild longing—it is this eager vehemence of desire for life—but for life that I have no power to portray—no utterance capable of expressing.” o Very sentimental “Lo! 'tis a gala night Within the lonesome latter years! An angel throng, bewinged, bedight Angels are in the seats watching In veils, and drowned in tears, Sit in a theatre, to see A play of hopes and fears, While the orchestra breathes fitfully The music of the spheres. Mimes, in the form of God on high, man is created in the image of God Mimes – people/puppets on a string Mutter and mumble low, And hither and thither fly— Mere puppets they, who come and go At bidding of vast formless things That shift the scenery to and fro, Flapping from out their Condor wings Invisible Wo! That motley drama!—oh, be sure It shall not be forgot! With its Phantom chased forever more, By a crowd that seize it not, Through a circle that ever returneth in To the selfsame spot, Bad, because people do the same thing over and over and expect different results And much of Madness and more of Sin And Horror the soul of the plot. But see, amid the mimic rout, A crawling shape intrude! A bloodred thing that writhes from out The scenic solitude! It writhes!—it writhes!—with mortal pangs The mimes become its food, And the seraphs sob at vermin fangs Angels know what’s going to happen In human gore imbued… That the play is the tragedy, "Man," And its hero the Conqueror Worm.” “She died” “I could restore her” “I could restore her” “Fall within the goblet” “Three of four large drops of a brilliant and ruby colored fluid.” o Feelings can become so powerful that it overrides natural laws “It might have been midnight, or perhaps earlier, or later, for I had taken no note of time, when a sob, low, gentle, but very distinct, startled me from my revery—I felt that it came from the bed of ebony.” o His feelings resurent Ligeia in Rowena “An hour thus elapsed when (could it be possible?) I was a second time aware of some vague sound issuing from the region of the bed. I listened— in extremity of horror. The sound came again—it was a sigh. Rushing to the corpse, I saw—distinctly saw—a tremor upon the lips.” “There was now a partial glow upon the forehead and upon the cheek and throat; a perceptible warmth pervaded the whole frame; there was even a slight pulsation at the heart. The lady lived” “And again I sunk into visions of Ligeia and again, again there reached my ears a low sob from the region of the ebony bed.” “had she then grown taller since her malady?” “these are the full, and the black, and the wild eyes—of my lost love—of the lady—of the LADY LIGEIA." o Don’t put me back in a body. Leave me be. She is a symbol of the romantic tradition in Germany o Because “Rhine river” “Omen” indicates something supernatural a bad sign (on marriage) o “Illomened” – bad o Could love him too much Foreshadowing the bad ending So enamored, he doesn’t have the words to describe it It’s expression of the eyes that intrigues him “Wild eyes” Romantics are concerned about feeling not thinking She had immense learning Transience – getting beyond human limitations People are always dying in the romantic era Her love is greater than words Romantics would say, go eat some shrooms Title of the play: man o Hero: Conquering worm Conquering worm: maybe it means death He leaves and goes to England because he is so devastated o Buys an Abbey He loathes Rowena o She’s a rebound, but makes him miss Ligeia more His love kills Rowena so Ligeia is resurrected into Rowena’s body Rowena symbolizes English empiricism Hatred kills Rowena How many times does Rowena come back to life? – 3 times “The Abbey is very gaudy” – Prof Needham Mourning over Ligeia and opium = crazy Their soul is gone and evil is replaced Belief: feelings can kill a person and insert a body inside a corpse – romantic idea THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF USHER – Edgar Allen Poe “His heart is a suspended lute; Whenever someone touches it, it resounds.” “During the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens” “Dreary tract of country” “A sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit.” Romantic idea “Shaking off from my spirit what must have been a dream” “Yet all this was apart from any extraordinary dilapidation.” “I breathed an atmosphere of sorrow. An air of stern, deep, and irredeemable gloom hung over and pervaded all.” He breathes into himself “boyish traits, and by conclusions deduced from his peculiar physical conformation and temperament.” assuming because physical attribute “I must abandon life and reason together, in some struggle with the grim phantasm, FEAR.” “Dissolution” death “The Haunted Palace” “IV. And all with pearl and ruby glowing Was the fair palace door, Through which came flowing, flowing, flowing, And sparkling evermore, A troop of Echoes whose sweet duty Was but to sing, In voices of surpassing beauty, The wit and wisdom of their king. V. But evil things, in robes of sorrow, Assailed the monarch’s high estate; “Having informed me abruptly that the lady Madeline was no more, he stated his intention of preserving her corpse for a fortnight, (previously to its final interment,) in one of the numerous vaults within the main walls of the building. The worldly reason, however, assigned for this singular proceeding, was one which I did not feel at liberty to dispute.” “And you have not seen it?” “You have not then seen it?—but, stay! you shall.” “I fled aghast. The storm was still abroad in all its wrath as I found myself crossing the old causeway. Suddenly there shot along the path a wild light, and I turned to see whence a gleam so unusual could have issued; for the vast house and its shadows were alone behind me. The radiance was that of the full, setting, and bloodred moon, which now shone vividly through that once barelydiscernible fissure, of which I have before spoken as extending from the roof of the building, in a zigzag direction, to the base. While I gazed, this fissure rapidly widened — there came a fierce breath of the whirlwind — the entire orb of the satellite burst at once upon my sight — my brain reeled as I saw the mighty walls rushing asunder — there was a long tumultuous shouting sound like the voice of a thousand waters — and the deep and dank tarn at my feet closed sullenly and silently over the fragments of the “House of Usher.”” o Now it’s obvious what is there o “Tarn” Swallows up the house Emotion is more important than reason He has a feeling of fear and aprehention going into the house Atmosphere can affect the person (that can be completely logical) The romantics believed the human intuition should be listened to all the time Atmosphere is entering into his spirit His intuition is telling him not to go into the house Pathetic fallacy: when human characteristics that are disruptive as nonhuman Windows: looked like eyes o The house is personified He teaches no moral lessons, no symbols o Beauty is what he is concerned with Roderick Usher o His name is a symbol o He “ushered” him into the house He referenced many literature He ushers him his own demise o He buries his sister still alive (maybe) Emotions override senses Listen to intuition “Tarn” – black… When the house falls, it falls in the tarn He tries to convince himself to go into the house Reason keeps succumbing to emotion Phrenology – tell something about someone because of their physical attributes Usher abandon’s reason for fear – pg. 875 o Phantasm: figment of the imagination Hypochondriac: someone that sees sickness in everything Similarity of Ligeia “The Haunted Palace” They are twins and thy are so intertwined that being separated, even though she is dead, would kill him Usher kept her hidden in the vault because he was afraid the doctors would use her… Reason must bow its knee to emotion He calls her “it” What brings Madeline back to life? o Emotion: vengeance upon her brother o Emotion cause her to come out of her coffin Blood – a symbol of his guilt; and she’s wearing it on her white robes of purity Her weight falls on Usher at the end THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO – Edgar Allen Poe “The thousand injuries of Fortunato” “I must not only punish but punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser.” “I did not differ from him materially; I was skilful in the Italian vintages myself, and bought largely whenever I could.” “As I said these words I busied myself among the pile of bones of which I have before spoken. Throwing them aside, I soon uncovered a quantity of building stone and mortar. With these materials and with the aid of my trowel, I began vigorously to wall up the entrance of the niche.” “I had scarcely laid the first tier of the masonry when I discovered that the intoxication of Fortunato had in a great measure worn off. The earliest indication I had of this was a low moaning cry from the depth of the recess. It was not the cry of a drunken man. There was then a long and obstinate silence. I laid the second tier, and the third, and the fourth; and then I heard the furious vibrations of the chain. The noise lasted for several minutes, during which, that I might hearken to it with the more satisfaction, I ceased my labours and sat down upon the bones.” “The wall was now nearly upon a level with my breast.” “A succession of loud and shrill screams, bursting suddenly…” “Chained form” o Removed humanity “I placed my hand upon the solid fabric of the catacombs, and felt satisfied. I replied to the yells of him who clamoured. I reechoed, I aided, I surpassed them in volume and in strength. I did this, and the clamourer grew still.” “It was now midnight. I had completed the eighth, the ninth and the tenth tier. I had finished a portion of the last and the eleventh; there remained but a single stone to be fitted and plastered in. I struggled with its weight; I placed it partially in its destined position. But now there came from out the niche a low laugh that erected the hairs upon my head. It was succeeded by a sad voice, which I had difficulty in recognizing as that of the noble Fortunato.” o Ridding Fortunato of his pride “Ha! ha! ha! he! he! he! a very good joke, indeed an excellent jest. We will have many a rich laugh about it at the palazzo he! he! he!” o Giving Montresor an opportunity to retreat “The Amontillado!” I said. “He! he! he! he! he! he! yes, the Amontillado. But is it not getting late? Will not they be awaiting us at the palazzo, the Lady Fortunato and the rest? Let us be gone.” Trying to give Montresor a way out Side note: For half a century, he had to have gone down there “For the love of God, Montresor!” “Yes,” I said, “for the love of God!” But to these words I hearkened in vain for a reply. I grew impatient. I called aloud “Fortunato!” No answer. I called again “Fortunato!” No answer still. I thrust a torch through the remaining aperture and let it fall within. There came forth in return only a jingling of the bells. My heart grew sick —on account of the dampness of the catacombs.” o Doesn’t want to infer that he is empathetic “For the half of a century no mortal has disturbed them.” 1. He went back Fortunato’s pride – narrator is aware of this tragic downfall 1. Because he himself is prideful narrator has same secret sin so he knows how to lure Fortunato into the catacombs Insult from Fortunato – he forgets Montresor’s Code of Arms Carnival season = madness 1. Reflected in the character 2. Romantic element the environment is parallel with Montresor And psychosis “A wrong is redressed when retribution…” 1. Feeling no guilt; no pain for your actions Irony: Fortunato symbolizes fortune Fortunato becomes his own accomplice in his death – tragedy “Forgot arms…” 4 examples of Romanticism: 1. The romantics often have the environment paralleled to the narrators mind 2. Psychosis of the narrator Romantics were interested in psychotic behavior 3. Emotion overrides reason He is so upset, that he kills him Fortunato has so much pride, he knew he would be sick going down but doesn’t want to let go of his pride 4. Answers found in nature Let nature take its course with his sickness down in the catacombs Background of Nathaniel Hawthorne To understand Hawthorne, the reader must set aside an attractive legend. Only accidental circumstances support the tradition of the shy recluse, brooding in solitude upon the gloomier aspects of Puritan New England, whose writings are a kind of spiritual autobiography. Instead, during most of his life, Hawthorne was decidedly a public figure, capable, when necessary, of a certain urbanity. As a writer, he set out quite consciously to exploit his antiquarian enthusiasm and his understanding of the colonial history of New England. He was absorbed by the enigmas of evil and of moral responsibility, interwoven with human destiny in nature and in eternity. After graduating college, he lived quietly in Salem. Successfully managed his official duties, made a large circle of friends, and performed the extrovert functions of foreign consul with competence, if without joy. Was five generations removed from his Puritan American forebears Read widely, preparing himself to be the chronicler of the antiquities and the spiritual temper of colonial New England 1850, he published The Scarlet Letter, which made his fame, changed his fortune, and gave to our literature its first symbolic novel. In this novel were concentrated the entire resources of Hawthorne’s creative personality and experience. He holds his permanent audience primarily by the interest and the consistent vitality of his criticisms of life. Beyond his remarkable sense of the past, which gives a genuine ring to the historical reconstructions, beyond his precise and simple style, which is in the great tradition of familiar narrative, the principal appeal of his work is in the quality of it allegory, always richly ambivalent, and providing enigmas which the reader solves in his or her own of his family, the prosecutor of Quakers and “witches”; but wherever his interest started, it led him to a long investigation of the problems of moral and social responsibility. His enemies are intolerance, the hypocrisy that hides the common sing and the greed that refuses to share joy; he fears beyond everything withdrawal from humanity, the cynical suspicion, the arrogant perfectionism that cannot bide its mortal time—whatever divorces the prideridden intellect from the common heart of humanity. It is not enough to call him the critic of the Puritan; the Quaker or the transcendental extremist might be equally guilty. His remedy is in nature and in the sweetness of a world freed not from sin, but from the corrosive sense of guilt. THE MINISTER’S BLACK VEIL – Nathaniel Hawthorne A Parable “I can't really feel as if good Mr. Hooper's face was behind that piece of crape,” said the sexton. “I don't like it,” muttered an old woman, as she hobbled into the meeting house. “He has changed himself into something awful, only by hiding his face.” “Our parson has gone mad!” “Strange and bewildered looks repaid him for his courtesy. None, as on former occasions, aspired to the honor of walking by their pastor's side. Old Squire Saunders, doubtless by an accidental lapse of memory, neglected to invite Mr. Hooper to his table, where the good clergyman had been wont to bless the food, almost every Sunday since his settlement. He returned, therefore, to the parsonage, and, at the moment of closing the door, was observed to look back upon the people, all of whom had their eyes fixed upon the minister. A sad smile gleamed faintly from beneath the black veil, and flickered about his mouth, glimmering as he disappeared. “How strange,” said a lady, “that a simple black veil, such as any woman might wear on her bonnet, should become such a terrible thing on Mr. Hooper's face!” “Something must surely be amiss with Mr. Hooper's intellects,” observed her husband, the physician of the village. “But the strangest part of the affair is the effect of this vagary, even on a soberminded man like myself. The black veil, though it covers only our pastor's face, throws its influence over his whole person, and makes him ghostlike from head to foot. Do you not feel it so?” “It was remarkable” “But what if the world will not believe that it is the type of an innocent sorrow?” “I have lived, and die! I look around me, and, lo! on every visage a Black Veil!” Parable: a story that teaches a lesson (and relatable) You are supposed to get a moral lesson from this story o Setting is Milford (which is important); a typical New England town A veil is women’s clothing a big no no Congregations response to him o In shock the peoples reaction o It was remarkable o How does the narrator feel about the people’s response? Worth of a remark remarkable o Their emotion indicates any rationality by the end There’s no retaliation, nor explanation on his part Individualism is above authority causes him to attract a larger congregation His church grew by leaps and bounds He attracts new converts – is more connected to sinners Dying sinners on their deathbed cry for Hooper Hooper is supposed to be an image of Jesus Rumors grew Smile – evil Abandoning reason with emotion Hooper’s connected in their minds with dead people Elizabeth’s motive in asking him to remove the veil: o She’s concerned about what the people will think Romantics are interested in psychology o In the bells effect of psychology o Something must be wrong with his intellect o Dark romantics – allowed for sin believed in it Story opens with a sinister tone – reflects in the story o Veil is black Emotion trumps reason Individualism…
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