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Study Guide Exam 2

by: Alexis Harman

Study Guide Exam 2 SRST 200

Alexis Harman
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Here is a study guide for all of the notes from the past three weeks for the exam!
History of Sports and Leisure in America
Mark Shriver
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Harman on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SRST 200 at George Mason University taught by Mark Shriver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see History of Sports and Leisure in America in Physical Education at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 11/07/15
SRST 200 History of Sports and Leisure – Study Guide Exam 2 Fall of the Puritans, Rise of Modern Sports New Standards for Old Sports • Puritans failing, too harsh • Reestablishes the monarchy, the catholic church, the social activities of the time • Monarchs and the well-to-do in England become patrons of sports o 1. It divides a pleasant diversion for the masses o 2. Provides an occasion to gamble Late 17 – early 18 century • ***Modernization of Sports*** • Become more formalized, and more structured • Organization of more sports teams • More governing bodies • Prearranged contests o Contests are publicized in the press o Location and so forth and then summary and recaps • ‘Sports heros’ • Complete schedules listed • Record-keeping • Entrepreneurship Without Puritans in control see: • Local festivals and customs • Return of animal fights • Maypoles and dancing • Return of running races • Cotswald Games Modernization of Sports are due to one main reason: GAMBLING • Became the need to present unfair advantage • Why laws and regulations were being established during this time King Charles • Avid bowler • Even more so he loved gambling • 1670, King Charles request that a formal set of rules are distinguished for gambling o not for fair play, but to make betting odds more even • While he was banned from England, stayed in Holland o Was exposed to other sports (ice skating)  Used to use ox horns, but then metal became popular • Brought it back to England o Divided for masses and wealthy o For wealthy, gambling was determined by style and grace o For masses, gambling was determined by speed and competitive races • Big fan of water sports o Yachting, boating, etc. • Horse racing o Built fine race track and brought in horses from around the world o  Built the popularity of horse racing • Dies in 1685 William of Orange and Queen Anne follow King Charles • Nobles and wealthy are pursuing with passion Next King in Charge, didn’t care for horse racing • Horse racing handed down from nobility to the lesser-to-do • Becomes more accessible, exposed to more people • Establish rules for betting odds more even th Mid- 18 century • Horse racing courses develop own racing rules • 1750, creation of the Jockey Club o Created in London, England o Owners and breeders, all rich o Establishes several things for horse racing:  Rules of behavior and dress for the jockeys  Appoint judges  Higher starters  Clerks and racing officials  Create and list penalties for cheating or not following rules o ***Brings order and reading to horse racing*** (in their own best interest to do so) • 1770, first horse racing calendar was published – news and events of horse racing as well as schedule • Other sports as well start to see the formalization o Boxing – Jack Broughton  Separating boxing from wrestling or sword-fighting  Father of Scientific Boxing  Introduces first set of written rules for boxing   Rules he creates: • Forbid hitting below the belt, especially when down  Banned any wrestling holds below waist • Broke up the bout into rounds (opponent was off ring or stage, or knocked out) • He also provided 30 seconds if someone was knocked out of the game  Never a time limit on the round, or number of rounds (unlike boxing today)  Governed boxing for over 100 years  Since Broughton, only two times changed  We now fight under Queensberry rules o Cricket  Peasant game in 17 century, begins to attract well-to-do  Event for high stakes gambling for masses and wealthy  In 1787, creation of MCC (Marylebone Cricket Club), created in London th  By the end of the 18 century, only game that is played by wealthy and masses  Played all over the entire country, only sport everyone was familiar with, extremely popular o Golf  Rules and customs established in this time  1754, royal and ancient golf club at St. Andrew’s (Scotland) introduces a set of 13 rules for golf  1764, St. Andrew’s creates a standard number of holes for a round of golf (18)   Odd’s fairer, larger wages Puritans failing in America, gambling back on the rise • Sports in America become governed by gambling besides boxing • Rules for boxing were for humane reasons • People going into New York came from Netherlands – a lot of Pastimes carried with them o Nine pin bowling o Boating o Ice skating o  Sledding • Virginia and Carolinas – settlers from Scotts and Irish o Foot races o Crudgling matches –dueling swords o Wrestling contests • Coastal region of America – Wealthier o Horse racing Sport develops in America in a pattern: 1. Climate – urban or rural (environment) 2. Tradition – determined by people who settled in those regions (their customs) 3. Religion – New England – puritans Virginia was different. Religion determined different pastimes and sports 4. Landscape – terrain is different everywhere, determines what games are to be played & weather 17 – 18 century in America: gambling extremely popular, Virginia no exception • Wealthy could bet large sums of money, on the drop of a hat   • What they would bet on: o Card games o Dice o Backgammon o Quarter horses • Ruling Gentry in Virginia are brought together by two reasons: o Present a united front to the governors of England o Shifting composition in the workforce – white-indentured servants changing to African Americans • Gambling was one of the only ways they could get together to socialize o 3 elements of the well-to-do culture were exhibited in this type of gambling:  1. Individualism – great planters required large tracts of land  led to Isolationism – didn’t always have a chance to see neighbors, very routine structured lives  *most plantation owners thought it was their natural right to give orders and no one can stop them  2. Competitiveness-extremely competitive, thought personal honor was at stake, fear of slipping back down into common ranks  3. Materialism – determined social standing by what you owned, not just size of plantation, but number of slaves you owned, how many buildings you had, quality of your clothes, all to show that you were better than others   Owning a horse had two specific cultural factors: o Social necessity – needed help for planting, and as a means for transportation o Viewed as an extension of its owner (a man was only as good as his horse) o Horsemanship skills had to be better than common planter • Quarterhorse was the favorite event for the wealthy to bet on o Only a quarter-mile o Most owners owned and raced their own horse o 2 ways to set up wager:  1. Regular set up race (established ahead of time, Saturday afternoon)  2. Spontaneous wager o 2 types of bets:  1. Main bet- contestants themselves  2. Side bet- everybody else betting o Legal proceedings happened, bring enough people with you to be fair o  Several people as witnesses, judges, someone to hold prize money or bet o Participating in these races distinguished you from the masses o Only raced the people in your standing so it was fair o Anyone below your standing, expected to win, if you lost, huge upset, seen as slipping among the common planters when lost, lost almost everything Influence of the Industrial Revolution mid 1700’s • ‘Birth of Mass Leisure’ • 1. Alters landscape • New kind of citizen – factory worker • New kind of society – urban society • Because of rapid growth, due to jobs, needed to provide: o  Sanitation o  New housing o  Law enforcement o Increase government o  Food supply o  Factories, cities, etc. • *** no one thinks of leaving any free space th • New forms of recreation o In 19 century gymnastics becomes important sport  Moving, balancing, climbing, vaulting • Age of Enlightenment – people challenge faith o Improve them through science o People look into the human body and movement o Introduction in anatomy and physiology o Health and human motion o *Key figure- Johann Friedrich GutsMuth  Teacher and educator in Germany  ‘Grandfather of Modern Physical Education’  Creates german gymnastics  1800, puts out a book, Gymnastics for Youth • Guide for healthy exercise and activities for kids In school   Should be doing running, vaulting, jumping and balancing   Creates rope ladders, hanging ladders, wooden saw horses o Per Henrik Ling – Swedish  Swedish gymnastics, thought Johann’s were too cumbersome  Thought they needed to be free-flowing to remove stiffness and awkwardness in individuals  Thought Gymnastics produce medical benefits  Becomes incorporated into military units, group following command of instructor  Creates Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in Stockholm, Sweden in 1813  Calisthetics- gross motor movements without weights, rhythmic o Frederick Ludwig Jahn  ‘Father of German Gymnastics’  Believed future of Germany is in it’s youth  German education only focused on academically, but nothing physically  Climbing bars, poles, ladders, and ropes  Calls his place of exercise – Turnplatz – grow significantly  No differentiation in clothing, couldn’t tell if someone was rich or poor • Reinvention of Highland Games because of increase in nationalism o Pole vaulting, stone or shutput, tug of war, jumping contests, cable toss Industrial Revolution (IR) and the Effects on England • Expansion, people moving from rural to cities due to jobs • Loss of identity • 4 ways (IR) Leads to the demise of public sports: o 1. No open spaces for people to enjoy, no parks o 2. Lack of free time – 6 days a week, 12-14 hours a day o 3. Public sports on Sunday, in England, were still outlawed o 4. Attitude of the ruling class – did not like people playing sports and pasttimes • Evangelical movement happening during IR o Do not promote sports because of gambling, sexual issues, etc. • Due to length of cricket, working class wouldn’t be a spectator, because of so little free time • However, working class loved boxing and wrestling o Animal sports are being forbidden by law o Boxing and wrestling matches were illegal in city limits, so went outside o  Used railway lines to get to and from games • Lycum Movement – self-improvement o Cities and towns supported things like lectures on art, books, and science o Put on by the masses o ***not what the masses wanted*** o Would enjoy an amusement park, dance hall, circuses, etc. • 6 popular spectator sports: o Horse racing o Trotting races – don’t need a fast horse, so many people could be involved o  Pedestrian races o Yachting – became popular in the press o Rowing races – free, enjoy the outdoors o Boxing • Most popular participant sports: o 10 pin bowling o Billiards o Football – always associated with common person (almost dies because of IR)  Due to no formal rules of what version is playing where  Not many open fields to play on  Becomes popular in colleges and universities  Elite private schools are adapting football into their schools 1820’s near 1900’s 5 factors to the rise of sports: 1.Industrialization vs urbanization 2. Cities important places to live 3. Immigrants 4. Ethnic and status subcommunities 5. Muscular christians 1820-1920 – America sees rise in Immigration like never before  Half of all Caucasians to England, Scotland, or Ireland  95% protestant  By 1920, more of an influx of people from Germany, Southern and Eastern Europe, & Mexico  By 1920, 20% of population was Catholic Ben Rader – believes popularity of sports was due to Ethnic and Status Subcommunities  Promote sport, recreation, and leisure activities o Because they are from the same background and customs o Stay in those groups to maintain cultural identity but also want to fit in  Irish exceled in boxing  Scottish exceled in golf and track&field  Germans exceled in gymnastics - Jahn  Swedish exceled in gymnastics – Ling  English exceled in cricket  Many immigrants were excluded Status Subcommunities  White, wealthy, upper-class men  Wanted to distinguish from lower ethnic subcommunities sto Created clubs and organizations for discrimination  1 category – Men’s Intercollegiate Athletics o Strict control over students  Mandatory chapel service  Mandatory study halls  Restrictions on leaving campus  No drinking, no gambling o Students rebelled  Fought faculty and professors  Inter-class struggles  Freshman/sophomore, sophomore/junior  Vandalized  Creation of fraternities  Compete against local prep schools or colleges  1852 – Harvard vs. Yale  First competition between two schools  Rowing o Administration takes a laissez-faire approach to competitions  People attend these events, bigger events  more money o Sports could distinguish a school o People who played sports were more disciplined so they had better attendance, better grades o Led to school spirit o 1870, schools see positives to student-led events o By 1900, every university and college have overseen control of these programs o Physical education teachers at these schools were the ones who controlled women’s athletics  De-emphasized competitions  Recreation purposes  Due to medical reasoning – competition would damage them physically and psychologically because of stress and pressure  Mostly, could potentially affect their reproductive organs nd  2 category – Metropolitan Athletic Clubs o For wealth and well-to-do o White males o Very restrictive o Formal dining rooms, gymnasium, track, rowing o Field for football/rugby o Maintain notion of amateur athletics o Clubs you join which simply offer athletics (people who have free time) o Wanted to be associated with winners (like winning) o Clubs would recruit athletes who were really good at particular sports, waive fee o 1850-1870, track and field is taken over by these clubs o 1888, thirteen of these clubs have a meeting  Create the AAU (Amateur Athlete Union)  New York Athlete Club (NYAC) 1868  Bring structure to the sporting environment that was lacking organization  Grow and develop amateur sports in the united states  1876, NYAC holds the first outdoor championship in outdoor track&field  1877, NYAC holds first championship in swimming  1878, NYAC holds first championship in wrestling and boxing o Downtown Athletic Club 1926  Lower Manhattan  Private social and athletic club  Presenting the Hiesman trophy, up until 2004 o Named hiesman trophy was the club’s first athletic director  1935, first trophy given out to college football team  1936, hiesman passes away, name trophy after him  Went under after 9/11  3 category – Suburban Country Clubs o Tennis o Golf o Could have country club based on ethnicity o Some country clubs based on ethnicity  Parallel Institutions o Negro baseball o White baseball Muscular Christians  Christian activism and masculinity  Man’s body given to him to be trained  Used to protect the weak, and advance righteous causes  Preaches for the spiritual values of sports *especially team sports  Thought sports could make a positive contribution to culture o Physical development o Character development  Link between spirit, mind, and body  YMCA – Young Men’s Christian Association o 1885, known as the international training school  In Springfield, MA o Train individuals to become directors of YMCA’s o Pick up ideals and values and lessons they learned, and take to hometown o 1887-1903, Luther Gulick, becomes headmaster at International training school  1903, leaves training school, becomes first director of physical education in the public schools in new York city  Becomes president of the American physical education association  Member of the organizing committee for boy scout’s of America  Also thought that women should have same opportunities as men  Creates campfire girls in 1911  Creates ymca triangle – upside down / body – spirit – mind  Creates a training program for physical directors at training school  Combined with Christian beliefs  Goals for physical education program were wide ranging:  Endurance in athletes in student body  Agility and grace in students  Courage and muscular strength  Physical education would make men better fathers  Creates public school athletic leagues in athletic leagues in New York cities (strictly for boys)  Father of US physical education & recreation o 1891, at training center, hires James Naismith to create a new game 1892  During winter  Boys were getting rowdy  2 weeks to create it  Simple, indoors, interesting, and easy to learn  BASKETBALL  Rules:  Only passing and running  No dribbling  Backboards so students wouldn’t influence o William Morgan – Naismith’s student  1895, basketball taking off  But morgan’s population was slower and older so he created  Mintonette  Game that middle-aged men could play indoors during colder months  Goal is to hit the ball over the net – called volleying  Led to volleyball 1896 first game played at international training center o *** Basketball and Volleyball are only sports we have created *** Formal and Organized Physical Education in Schools 3 levels:  College UVA – 1850’s o 2 year health and PE program  Vasser College – 1861  Brown University – 1827 o Turnplatz  *Most renowned Amherst College – 1861 o William Augustus Sterns – president of college  Responsible for the health reform movement in US o American’s have physically degenerated due to the IR  Sedentary jobs made America fat and lazy  Lack of strong laborers – problems arose  Conditions in factories were bad – disease spread  Lack of space  Many died because they couldn’t resist the disease  Against alcohol, tobacco, drugs, sexuality  Were in favor of other ideas:  Exercise  Vegetarian diets  Alternative healthcare  Decided to hire somebody at his school to help with this  Edward Hitchcock Jr., MD. o Considered the father of American College Physical Education  Three responsibilities: o Instructor of health o Instructor of physical culture o Medical officer of university  Core curriculum of physical culture – gymnastics program o Every student was required to take his courses  Give lectures to freshman on evils of drinking, smoking tobacco, masturbation  Creates Anthropometric Measurements o Becomes a manual Harvard and Yale use it o Non-evasive measurements for testing body fat o Charts body measurements as a freshman  Creates preventative healthcare  Public Schools o Very few organized physical education programs in public schools o 1850’s city of Boston, requires health and pe for all children o 1850’s San Francisco, Rincon School –John Swett  Sets up physical education program  Offered daily exercise, calisthenics, gymnastics, ball games, hikes o ***1866, California becomes first state to pass legislation on health and PE  Required health and pe programs in public schools o Next state to pass legislation was Ohio, 1892  Private Schools o Could implement health and pe easily o Didn’t have bureaucracy o Boston Normal School/Institute  Established by Dio Lewis, 1861  First school to train people to teach health and PE  NOT a degree-granting program  First of what will become hundreds of school across US  New system of gymnastics  Light-weight apparatus to enhance physical activity  Bean bags, dumbells, rings, balls  Came up with a list of 225 movements to improve health of citizens  Invented the bean bag  Trained under Jahn for german gymnastics, philosophies  Targeting groups that really needed it elderly, girls and women o Roundhill School  Established in 1823 by Carl Beck  Appointed as a Latin teacher  Establishes the first gym and gymnastics program in the US  Originally an outdoor facility  Closed due to financial difficulty  Students participated in PE every single day  Beck is considered the first Phys Ed teacher o Hartford Female Seminary  Established by Catherine Beecher  One of the most important advocates for women in the 19 century  Writes about health and physical fitness for American women  Develops an American style of calisthenics Catherine Beecher needed to make sure women were healthy enough to carry out their responsibilities as mid-19 century women  3 responsibilities: 1.  Have children 2.  Women were the upholders of morality in modern society Take care of kids, house, and husband 3.  Uphold private sphere while husband upholds public sphere.  One of the first educational institutions for women in the US. History of Football  1820’s football starts to evolve th  Largely unorganized until middle of 19 century  Intermural games played on college campuses  Each school has its own variety of football  In 1820 Princeton plays a type called ball own  In 1827 Harvard plays a type called bloody Monday. Freshman vs Sophmore  Dartmouth plays a game called Old Division.  Large mob games attempting to put the ball in the goal by any means possible  1855 football evolves to 2 styles of a game: o Kicking o carrying  3 type of game which was a hybrid of the games: Boston game  Oneida football club-considered 1 football club in the US o Formed in 1862. Plays this Boston style game.  In 1863, the game catches the attention of the press, and spreads throughout the northeast  Yale, Rutgers, Brown, Princeton play a soccer form of football against eachother  In 1869, you have the first intercollegiate football game. Rutgers vs Princeton o At Rutgers, under Rutgers rules. 25 people on each side. Score by kicking only. o 1 team to 6 points won. o Rutgers won 6-4  Next time was at Princeton under Princeton’s rules. o If someone was to catch the ball, they had a free kick from that spot. o Princeton wins 8-0  By 1872, Columbia and Yale joins the series  In 1873, Rutgers, Princeton, Columbia, and Yale get together and set up rules for intercollegiate football. Resembles soccer more.  Harvard still playing Boston game, so Harvard has to find other schools to play. o Challenged by Mcgill University in Montreal. o 2 game series o Harvard wins 1 under Harvard rules  The following day, game was played McGill style o it was a scoreless tie o Mcgill style was more of a rugby style  June of 1875, Harvard plays Tufts University o 1 two American schools that play mcgill style  Nov of 1875, Harvard Plays Yale o Concessionary rules game. o Modify rugby set of rules o Yale loses, but they enjoy the game more o Students from Princeton are watching  In 1876 of November, you have Harvard, Princeton, Yale, and Columbia. o Meet at Massasoit House at Springfield Training Center to standardize new set of rules of football. Includes rugby style, and mcgill rules. o 3 of 4 schools create IFA-Intercollegiate Football Association  Yale does not participate because they disagree about number of players on the field. Rules were codified at this time  Walter Camp - considered father of American football o Was a Yale student for 4 years. o Plays for another 2 years as a med student o Coaches the team after graduation  Rule changes by camp: 1. Replaces scrum with a line of scrimmage 2. Reduces number of people from 15 to 11 3. Changes dimensions of the field 4. Creates a system of downs 5. New scoring system 6. Field goal 5 pts, touchdown 4 points, conversion kick, 2 points back 7. Creates first all American team  Amos Alonzo Stagg o Plays football under Camp o In 1890 heads to YMCA Springfield training center and coaches there o Creates a dynasty at Chicago University st  In 1895, 1 pro football game played. In Latrobe PA o Latrobe YMCA vs Jeanette athletic club o Every player was payed. Rise of Modern Sports with the Establishment of Rules & Regulations 1850’s – early 1900’s Boxing  John L. Sullivan o Irish American o lived in Boston o deemed “Boston Strongboy” o had exhibition tours city to city paying people to fight him o won over 450 fights  44-50 rounds each o Key for boxing for two reasons:  1. Last bare-knuckles champion (1882-1889)  2. First gloved boxing champion (1889-1892) o 1892 Sullivan lost to Gentleman Jim Corbett  Corbett becomes champion 1892-1897 Tennis  Sphairstike – Greek word meaning “the art of playing the ball”  Tennis was indoors  “real tennis” o Had walls  Walter C. Wingfield o 1873 got patent rights for equipment & rules o 1874 creates 8-page handbook o From Wales  Mary Outerbridge – young NY socialite o So impressed by Wingfield & tennis o Commission a court at a Cricket Club  Wingfield sold kits to set up courts in a personal use Baseball  1796 English rules were well established  *mentioned in Yohann Gutman’s book  Early 1800’s Americans are playing baseball  By 1860’s considered America’s National Pasttimes  Alexander Cartwright  New York Knickerbacher Baseball Club st o Devised 1 set of rules o Rule #13 player need not be physically hit by the ball to be out  (player can’t be hit by the ball)  19 of June 1846 – first recorded baseball game o Knickerbacher Club vs. NY Baseballl Club o Took place in Hoboken o Knicker won 2  1857 16 clubs meet to standardize rules of baseball in NYC o Form NABBP (National Association of Baseball Players)  1867 – over 400 clubs members of NABBP  1861-1865 Civil War o *directly responsible for spread of baseball o Needed something to relieve stress and be safe – keep in shape o No standardized fields  1869 – First Professional Baseball Team o Cincinatti Red Stockings  1870 – rift between professional (paid) and amateur (unpaid)  1875 – amateur diminishes, only professional left o Rumors club won’t accept players because they were not white  1876 – another meeting to organize a more stable league NLB o First African American to play  1884-1891 – Major League Baseball  1887 - vote to have no more contact with African American players  1882 – creation of American Association o Puts teams in major cities unoccupied by NLB  NLC appealed to middle class o Charged 50 cents admission o Banned sale of alcohol o Refused to play on Sunday  American Association appealed to lower class o Charged 25 cents admission o Had alcohol for sale o Played on Sunday  1892 – 12 league team – National League and American Association of Base Ball Clubs  1900 – just National League  1901 – formation of American League  Abdner Doubleday – “invented” baseball o 1839, credited with creating baseball o 1905 – created Mills Commission  4 president of National League – search for who created o Information given by Abdner Graves saying Doubleday created baseball in Cooperstown, NY  Graves killed his wife and went to a mental institute  *Cartwright was the true creator Olympic Games  Established by Baron Pierre de Coubertain 1863 – 1937 o As a child, saw Franco-Prussian War  Thought france lost because of their lack of vigor o Studied history and education  *mostly physical education  Formed own philosophy on Phys Ed. o French “poo-pooed” phys. Ed.  Coubertain wanted to push phys. Ed. In schools  **huge artifacts in Greece of the Olympic Games during this time  Coubertain becomes obsessed with the Games o Looks to the Athenian Model  People met and did physical education in gymnasiums o Wanted to recreate the Olympic Games  Coubertain’s Beliefs o Should athletes be amateur or professional o Shouldn’t be paid o Compensation for amateurs (1)  (lodging, meals, etc.) o Promote World Peace (2) o Promote Understanding Across Different Cultures (3)  Lessens the threat of war o Advocates philosophical ideal for athletic competition (4)  The competition itself was most important over winning  “the struggle to overcome the opponent”  First Modern Olympic Games – 1896 – Athens, Greece nd  2rd– Paris, France 1900  3 – St. Louis, Missouri 1904 o Almost all were failures o Not many participants/visitors  1908 in London, England o *for the first time, athletic governing organizations were putting on the events – better, more well-rounded  1912 – Stockholm, Sweden o “Watershed games” – all five continents represented o First time to use photofinish o First time to use automatic timing o First women’s swimming and diving  Jim Thorpe – won the decathalon  George Patton  1924 – First Winter Games  Coubertain – international Olympic director until 1925 1885 – 1900 Battle of Gymnastics  People had different philosophies  Formal approaches to physical education  Evaluation of various physical education conference o Coubertain o Hitchcock o Sargeant o ***were all speakers  Opens door to two questions: o To what purpose should physical education be devoted? o By what means do you achieve this purpose?  Shift in movement away from gymnastics to sports instruction o 3 reasons for shift:  1. Growing popularity of sports  Students very board  Various theories of play o *** during this time more interest and growth in development in children o More importance on value of play o New emphasis on team games   promote socialization, teamwork, develop character, sacrifice individual 1891 – First four year degree established in physical education  Harvard  Lawrence Scientific School  Dudley Alan Sargeant o Medical doctor o Strength and measurements o Strength training o First strengths test  George Wells Fitz o Researcher o Creates first research lab  *motor development reaction studies  Program only lasts seven years o Evolves into medical system  Stanford University o Thomas Wood o Created physical education 1892 (about 5-6 years) o Ends because Wood leaves Stanford o *programs taken over by state funded institutions   1910 – first graduate program o Colombia o Under Thomas Wood o How to teach physical education Women and Sports  Tennis  Horseback riding  Golf  Swimming  Archery  Croquet – “risqué” o Castrating men  *all individual sports  Not too physically demanding  Social component  Early 1890’s o Bicycles o Competitive and recreational o 1. Allows women degree of freedom not had before o 2. Requires physical exertion o 3. Partially responsible for dress reform  Susan B. Anthony o “Bicycle has done more for the emancipation of women than anything else in the world”  Had some access to formal education programs  Delphine Hanna o Became a full professor in 1903 o Taught at Oberlin College o 1885 – develops first teacher program preparation program for physical education  Gulick  Wood  *** both her students  Sendra Berenson o Smith College  Near YMCA in Massachusetts o Reads article Nasmith o Thought basketball would be good for women  *for physical exertion o Thought too strenuous  Divides court into three sections  Can’t hold for more than three seconds  Dribble only three times o 1893 – freshman vs. sophomore games  Doors locked  No men allowed  Reshi and turkey tail mushrooms for cancel o 1896 – first collegiate game between Berkeley vs. Stanford  Basketball becomes most important sport for women:  1. Basketball acceptable for women  2. Could maintain degree of femininity  3. Physically taxing but not too much


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