Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide CLT3378
Popular in Mythology: East and West
Popular in Classical Studies
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Maynard on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLT3378 at Florida State University taught by Mark Buzbee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Mythology: East and West in Classical Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
CLT 3378 10/15/15 Prometheus, Pandora, and Hesiod’s Races of Man Theogony (Lines 507-616) o Gaia + Ouranos= 12 titans Iapetus, Oceanus, and Tethys: siblings “Neatly-ankled”(Greek women were mostly covered up—ankles were known as the sex symbol—one of the few parts exposed) Clymene, daughter of Oceanus o One of the most prominent daughters o Daughters of Oceanus known as Oceanids o Iapetus+Clymene= (four sons) Prometheus, Atlas, Epimetheus, Menoetius All 4 children punished by Zeus: Epimetheus—given Pandora as a wife Menoetius—being too prideful/full of himself; Erebos(darkest place in Tartarus) Atlas: must support heavens on his shoulders o Entire sky with the constellations, much bigger than the world Prometheus—chained to a pillar and Zeus’ eagle eats his liver Prometheus in Theogony o Trickster; amoral (unpredictable motives) o Name means “Forethinker”—can reason out how things are likely to happen o Zeus’ first cousin and peer o Punishment from Zeus: bound and/or impaled by Zeus for eternity Pillar or cliff? Hesiod unclear o Eagle (Zeus’ bird—his symbol) comes and pecks out his liver everyday—amount eaten regenerates over night just to be eaten again the next day o Heracles (Hercules) the archer to the rescue—credited with rescue of Prometheus Prometheus: First Trick o Theogony—Gods and mortal men have dispute (waaayyyy in the past) o Ox divided—After working out quarrel they kill an ox for a feast o Prometheus wraps bones in fat (apparently tempting), wraps actual meat in ox stomach (apparently unappealing) o Zeus chooses bones in fat; becomes gods’ portion at sacrifices (aetiology—why after sacrifices the Greeks would leave the bones and fat to gods while they ate the meat) o Angry Zeus not fooled(Hymn to Zeus); withholds fire from mortal men Prometheus: Second Trick o Prometheus steals fire in a hollow fennel stalk(herb)--- very similar to a bamboo Takes his torch and puts it inside the stalk to hide it o After seeing mankind has fire again-- Zeus commissions Hephaestus (AKA Limping/Lame god) to create the first woman Formed from earth Bedazzled by Athena Misogynistic Description of Women in Theogony o Women are…..“deadly race”; “sheer guile” misunderstood by men Like drone bees—don’t do much work, just keep busy o Men are screwed Single men: lonely in old age Married men: evil contends with good(woman is evil, man is good) o Moral: Don’t mess with Zeus Works and Days: Different Version (lines 43-105) o Hephaestus, Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes All involved in creation of woman First woman= “Pandora” o Pandora given to Epimetheus(brother of Prometheus) as a bride Epimetheus= “after thinker” Pandora o Name: “gifts (from) all” Gifts: plague from each Olympian In her being: evil, sickness, toil, etc…. and Hope All put in a jar (Pandora’s box) o Plagues stored in pithos (clay storage jar, not a box!) In Greek tradition it’s a jar, not a box th Erasmus, Dutch theologian, 16 century Made a mistake in translation Pyxis (cosmetic box) vs. pithos (jar) o Mischief and sorrow throughout the world after woman enters the world o Hope remains… Cryptic meaning? (Glass half full or half empty) o Themes: gender status and origin of evil o Important difference—No curiosity in Hesiod’s versions In Greek myth—she knew what would happen if she opened the jar, does it anyway Prometheus Bound o Aeschylus, Athenian tragic playwright (c. 525- 455BC) Real author? Ever performed?—don’t know if he is the original writer of play Hesiod is much older o Characters: Hephaestus Kratos (Power personified) Bia (force personified) Prometheus Hermes Io Oceanus Chorus of the Daughter of Oceanus (AKA Oceanids) Purpose of chorus in Greek play—to narrate, keep action going, communicate with audience to keep things going o Prometheus is a Titan; son of Gaia; Zeus’ elder o No mention of Pandora, or sacrifice trick (ox feast) o Prometheus depicted as cultural hero o Catalogue of the Arts (lines 447-506)—Prometheus given a voice and tells audience he is solely responsible for giving mankind…. Medicine Astronomy, numbers Farming Dream interpretation, sacrifice, prophecy Metallurgy (chariots, ships) Prometheus Bound Plot o Kratos and Bia: henchmen of tyrant Zeus o In the beginning--- Prometheus chained to a rock on coast; Hephaestus laments (weeping over the fact that his skills are being used to punish another god) Fair treatment after Titanomachy? Kronos and Atlas vs. Zeus and Prometheus o Oceanus: Zeus’ sympathizer; tries to convince Prometheus to repent (plead guilty) o Oceanids: sympathizing daughters of Oceanus; chorus o Prometheus-- I know the secret fate that could lead to Zeus’ downfall: Thetis, Peleus and Achilles Zeus’ downfall? o Io arrives in cow form o Hermes (“you have to do something about this”)-- lightning flashes (assuming from Zeus), and Prometheus banished to Tartarus Io Back story o Io: mortal woman lusted after by Zeus o Zeus doesn’t want Hera to know he is obsessed with young woman Transforms Io into heifer Hidden from Hera (Zeus’ wife) o Hera realizes what’s going on--- sends 100- eyed Argos to guard Io o Hermes to the rescue Sent my Zeus, slays monster o Hera sends gadfly (stinging flies that don’t go away) to punish Io in order to cause Io’s madness o Prometheus and Io sympathize about Zeus’ doings; Io to Egypt after o Heracles as Io’s descendant: Prometheus comforts Io Prometheus comforts Io and says good things will happen to her Prometheus Bound themes o Revenge for Prometheus—will not apologize to Zeus o No faith in tyranny; helplessness—helped Zeus in Titanomachy, nothing in return Oceanus’ pleading Prometheus: immortal, no fear(can be punished forever but cant die) o Pathetic humans (ants--- very small role compared to gods) No arts, sophistication, etc. before Prometheus o Marriage within social class (Io—mankind and gods not meant to be together) o Prometheus Unbound: Prometheus released Only have fragments today Five Races of Men (Works and Days Lines 109-201) o Works and Days: life is hard Human condition is full of suffering and pain and such Pandora is the cause Myth of Races/Ages o Races (tribes or generations not skin color) exist consecutively Golden Race Silver Race Bronze Race Hero Race Iron Race (man as we know now) Golden, Silver, and Bronze Races o Golden Races (in time of Kronos’ rule) Created from Olympians; kindly “pure spirits”, innocent and uncorrupted No sorrow on earth, just feasting, and death was painless (death in sleep) o Silver Race Created from Olympians; less noble; “blessed spirits”, race not quite as good as Golden Race Anger gods by not praising gods as they should; banished by Zeus to Underworld o Bronze Race Constructed by Zeus from ash trees Warlike (bronze because of weapons); self- destruction by taking out each others tribes; accompany Hades as their fates Hero and Iron Races o Hero Race Demi-gods (half god); fought in Trojan War(said Hesiod) Eventually die out—honored in Isles of the Blessed (Kronos released to live with them and rule over the race) o Iron Race Zeus created; Hesiod’s time—this 5 race is mankind as known now Worst race so far-- oath breakers; toil; no peace Zeus will finish them off eventually o Theme: deterioration, but civilization of men Descending order of metals—metals become increasingly worse Civilization is getting better as the races go on More problems arise as races continue
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