REL 134 Week 4 Individual Assignment Islam Worksheet
REL 134 Week 4 Individual Assignment Islam Worksheet
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Date Created: 11/07/15
REL 134 Week 4 Islam Worksheet 1 Asalama is an Arabic word and is the root word of the Word Islam Asalama is translated to mean purity peace and submission therefore the word Islam means quotsurrender to Allahquot Muslim according to these translations means quotone who submits to Allahquot Islamics believe that submission to Allah is the 3 4 5 will of god and it is stated such in the Qu ran All the branches of Islam the Shia Su s and Sunnis accept that this submission is important to Islam Islam is a monotheistic religion Islamic belief is that there is only one god Allah and his prophet Muhammad is the Last Prophet and ends a long line of prophets that have been sent to the world throughout the history of human civilization The holy scripture of Islam is the Qu39ran which was supposedly revealed to Muhammad through an angel named jibrael Islamic believes states that Allah is god and is incomparable to other gods The purpose of life is to worship Allah and follow the edicts set forth through his message to Muhammad Sunnah normative practices of Prophet Muhammad should also be adhered to as closely as possible by Islamics To a Muslim Islam is the universal and complete truth revealed through the prophets and also is the nal truth Abraham Moses and Jesus are three prophets that Islam claims were sent by Allah preceding Muhammad Islam also teaches thatJesus39 message has been distorted and is no longer accurate as it is taught by Christians and Catholics The foundation of the practices of Islam are founded in the Five Pillars The ve pillars are Shahadah acceptance of the oneness of god Salat the ve daily prayers Suam fasting that takes place during the holy month of Ramadan Zakat tax obligations to the religion and Hajj the pilgrimage to the Kabbah that should be done at least once in a Muslim39s life if the Muslim has the nancial means These ve pillars form the basic beliefs of Islam and are relevant to all Muslims Some speak of four points that are considered relevant in addition to the ve pillars These are Nabuwah the state of Muhammad and other preceding prophets as prophets Imamah necessary leadership of 12 main Imams Qiyamah judgment day and Adel justice There are two fundamentals goals for Islamics to reach for The rst of these goals is to completely submit to Allah The second goal necessary for Muslims is the adherence to the teachings of the Qu39ran and the examples given by the prophets When children are born into a Muslim family the Kalima verses that outline Tawid are whispered into the newborn39s ear as a way of ordaining the child as into Islam This is meant to acknowledge Allah39s oneness There are ve times of every day that Muslims are required to pray and this should be done in a private area Alms should be given and fasting should take place during the holy month of Ramadan If the Muslim is healthy and nancially capable the required pilgrimage should be carried out once during his or her lifetime Another part of the Islamic religion are the Promotion of Virtue and the Promotion of Vice These are longstanding virtues in Islam that guide the Muslim in social values and how to relate with other people Community is a large part of Islam this is a result of the focus Islam has on harmony and peace Allah has all of the authority that Islam believes in The Qu39ran and Sunnah should be followed as a guideline for political structure according to Islam Political leadership was originally embodied by the great caliphs Muhammad s successors for the leadership According to this type of leadership Shariah laws need to be followed The four that succeeded Muhammad are believed to have been the only ones to practice true Islam and later successors were in uenced by outside politics When the Ottoman Empire fell the Caliphate was abolished The theological concept of Shia Islam is the lmamate Sometimes Caliphate and lmamate are used interchangeably but there are differences The Shia Muslims believe in a divine institution succeeding Muhammad and the leaders are chosen by Allah The Ummah is led by the chosen lmams and lead in political religious and social contexts According to Islam what should be legal resides with Allah Allah39s laws provide guidance for Islamic Law also known as Shariah law The two sources of Shariah law are the guidelines set forth in the Qu39ran and the Sunnah which is the practices of the prophet Muhammad and how it can be applied to normal daily activity In matters outside of these two sources the Fiqh or Jurisprudence is used The Fiqh is derived from the consensus of respected Islamic scholars from the Qu ran and from the Sunnah Shia s form of jurisprudence is replaces Shariah with aql or reason Even in political systems where the Shariah law is applied there are often other legal systems parallel to the Shariah system Qadis uphold the Shariah law in societies where the laws have official status as the foundation of the societies39 legal system Some of the contexts that Shariah law can be applied in are diet personal hygiene economics and politics Shia practitioners use a different method To Shiites the source of law lies within the Sunnah The Qu39ran and practices of the lmams as well as reason Islamic theology and philosophy have a strong focus on harmony Islamic theology is centered on six articles of belief These articles are belief in one god belief in the last prophet and other preceding prophets belief in the angels belief in the books sent by god predestination and judgement Islamic philosophy has grown into a society that is not entirely focused on religion and is not completely focused on Islam Some of Islamic philosophy has its roots in preIslamic India and Hellenistic cultural in uences Islamic philosophy39s golden age was centered around Averroes and Avicenna within the time starting in the 8th century and ending in the 12th century The two major aspects of Islamic philosophy are Kalam and Falsafa Kalam is focused on ijtihad using thoughts to understand what the Qu39ran says Falsafa focused on translating Hindu and Greek texts as well as distributing them to the Islamic communities Some Muslims have more than one theology or philosophy that is part of their beliefs and way of life Some Muslims have a small focus on Aristotelian philosophy and believe that the creation of the world is necessary while putting a high value on the idea that the world only exists because of Allah Shiite Muslims have different thoughts and focus more on theology of the roots of religion and different branches of the faith The Islamic Empire had become a vast and power entity by the end of the 12th century With its territory beginning with the Mediterranean area and spreading through much of India the empire had a great amount of area Because of the widely varied societies and cultures Islam had spread to the Islamic architecture re ects aspects of each of these cultures Some of the common structures throughout the cultures where Islam has a presence are tombs mosques palaces and forts After Muhammad s in uence the interior of Islamic in uenced architecture is comprised of vast empty spaces Some excellent examples of Islamic architecture with vast empty spaces inside include the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem the mosque of Samarrah in Iraq and Hagia So a which is located in Turkey During the Persian Empires conquests in the 7th century large arches and arcades were introduced In the western world the most common examples are works of Moorish architecture Mezquita The Great Mosque is in Cordova the fort of Granada and the Alhambra all have wide open interiors where the air moves and are decorated by foliage as well as Arabic motif inscriptions A new class of architecture was created by Mughal architecture With one example being the Taj Mahal which is made of white marble and is perfectly symmetric with large cupola domes and minarets Gardens were also introduced as a new central theme by the Mughals The only signi cant theological in uence on Islamic architecture is the absence of animal or human imagery which is often considered forbidden by Muhammad
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