Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide BMS 208-03
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Chapter 14 11/7/15 1:52 PM Structural Organization of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) • Brain – neurons • Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Cranial Nerves • Spinal Nerves • Ganglia – peripheral clusters of neurons, dorsal root ganglia Functional Organization of the Nervous System - Direction of Impulse Transfer/Transportation Sensory (Afferent) Division – transmits information from periphery to the CNS, contains receptors • Somatic Sensory – Receives sensory information from skin, fascia, joints, skeletal, muscles, and special senses • Visceral Sensory – Receives sensory information from viscera, Ex. headaches Motor (efferent) Division – transmits info from CNS to the rest of the body, sends motor info to effectors, exiting CNS • Somatic Motor – “Voluntary” nervous system: innervates skeletal muscle • Autonomic Motor – “Involuntary” nervous system: innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands Cells of the Nervous System • Anatomy of a Multipolar Neuron o Cell Body (Soma) o Axon – takes info away to some other neuron, motor response § Telodendria/Axon Terminals – axon has several branches that have a knobby structure at the end = Terminal o Dendrites – short processes, sensory part/response of the neuron, bring info in, lots of dendrites means the neuron is multipolar, all motor neurons are multipolar • Structural Classification of Neurons o Unipolar neuron – one process leaving the cell body, the general senses are unipolar (touch, pressure, pain, temperature), visceral sensory o Bipolar neuron – 2 processes leaving the cell body, special senses represented by bipolar neurons, all sensory division (Sight, smell, hearing, taste, equilibrium) o Multipolar Neuron – all motor neurons • Nervous stimulation depends on electrical charge, the entire movement relies on the electrical difference (+/-) • Functional Classification of Neurons o Somatic – referring to the outer regions of the body (skin, muscles, ligaments, tendons) o Visceral – referring to the organs on the inside of the body (example: lungs, heart, stomach, blood vessels) o Posterior root ganglion – clusters of sensory unipolar glands § Sensory – conducts nerve impulses from body to CNS, most unipolar few bipolar o Anterior = motor response o Fig. 14.5 § Sensory Neuron (conducts nerve impulses from body to CNS, most unipolar few bipolar) -> Interneuron (found only in CNS, helps w/communication between sensory & motor neurons, multipolar) -> Motor Neuron (conducts nerve impulses from CNS to muscles or glands, multipolar) § Afferent neurons– transmit nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the CNS § Efferent Neurons – transmit impulses from CNS to muscles or glands o Neuroglial (Glial) Cells of CNS § Those that belong in Central Nervous System ú Astrocyte – responsible for formation of the brain blood barrier, barrier through which very few microorganisms and drugs get through ú Microglia – removes cellular waste matter ú Ependymal Cells – look like columnar epithelium, function is to produce cerebrospinal fluid, In the brain specifically ú Oligodendrocyte - Very fatty cells that help with insulation by producing myelin sheaths on myelinated axons § Those that belong in Peripheral Nervous System ú Neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells) – typical very specific cell of the peripheral, make myelin sheaths in the PNS ú Glial cells - Satellite cells very specific to the ganglia of the PNS § Node of Ranvier/Neurofibril Node – gap in myelin sheath The Synapse One neuron wants to send information to another neuron (across a synapse) must be chemical, if it goes through another neuron it is electrical • The Pre-synaptic neuron – the cell that brought the information • The Post-synaptic neuron - the cell that will receive the information through binding of the chemical • Fig. 14.14 • Neurons don’t touch each other, there is a gap, they only communicate through chemicals Ch. 15 11/7/15 1:52 PM Major Brain Structures: Embryonic through Adult • In human embryo Brain forms from cranial part of Neural Tube, undergoes growth in different regions and forms 3 primary brain vesicles (Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain) • Forebrain (Separates into two brain vesicles as a newborn) o Telencephalon - which forms the Cerebrum § Cerebrum (cerebral cortex)- 13 weeks, by 26 it overgrows all other parts of the brain, responsible for our ability to function at a higher level than other animals, allows us to think creatively, most developed, fastest growing ú Right Hemisphere ú Left Hemisphere ú Longitudinal Fissure – divides right and left hemisphere, deep sulci ú Each Hemisphere is Divided into Regions (Frontal lobe, Occipital lobe, Parietal lobe, Temporal lobe, Insula) • Insula – small lobe deep to the lateral sulcus, under the temporal lobe • Frontal Lobe – responsible for motor function, responsible for higher thinking, planning, abstract thinking • Parietal Lobe – main area of sensory, general sensation (pain, touch, temp., pressure), responsible for sensation of taste, participate in recognition of speech • Occipital Lobe – visual cues, colors, shapes, depth perception • Temporal Lobe – interpretation of audio signals, meaning of speech ú As the brain grows it becomes folded and forms the Gyri and the Sulci in the cerebrum • Gyrus - Protruding part, folds of cortical tissue o Pre-central Gyrus - in front of the central sulcus, movement, motor cortex, responsible for precision of muscle contractions, more precise movement = more neurons more signals to more muscles o Post-central Gyrus – behind central sulcus, interpretation of senses o Alzheimer’s Disease – neurons are disappearing and gyri become narrow and the sulci widen • Sulcus - gap between the gyri o Lateral Sulcus – deep groove that separates frontal and parietal lobe from temporal lobe o Central Sulcus – marks the boundary with the parietal lobe ú When cut the Cerebrum coronally • Cerebral cortex Gray matter – cell bodies of the neurons, so numerous they want to be on the outside because surface area larger on the outside, all axons extend in forming subcortical white matter • Subcortical White Matter – axons of neurons o Diencephalon - forms the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus (only need to know the thalamus and Hypothalamus) § Thalamus – relay station for info travelling to cerebral cortex, the place that knows where the information has to process, responsible for awareness of emotional states § Hypothalamus – responsible for homeostasis (balance) of temperature, letting you know when you have to eat (1. Autonomic functions, 2. Produce hormones, 3. Emotional and behavioral drives, 4. Body Temperature) ú Contains the pituitary gland – epithelial tissue, master endocrine gland: stimulate adrenal gland and thyroid gland to produce hormones Other Features of the Cerebrum Cerebral Nuclei (also called basal nuclei and mistakenly called the Basal Ganglia – clusters, paired, irregular masses of gray matter buried deep within the central white matter in the basal region of the cerebral hemispheres. • Cerebral Nuclei have the following components: o Caudate Nucleus - person begins to walk, the neurons in this nucleus stimulate the appropriate muscles to produce the pattern and rhythm of arm and leg movements for walking o Amygdaloid body – expanded region at tail of Caudate Nucleus, participates in expression of emotion, control of behavior, and development of moods o Putamen & Globus Pallidus – both are two masses of gray matter between external surface of insula & lateral wall of diencephalon, together they form the Lentiform Nucleus § Putamen – controls muscle movement at subconscious level § Globus Pallidus – excites and inhibits activities of the thalamus to control & adjust muscle tone o Corpus Striatum – the striped or striated appearance of the internal capsule as it passes by the Caudate Nucleus and Lentiform Nucleus • Basal Ganglia Disorders o Parkinson’s Disease - Stiff frozen limbs and rigid muscles o Hypokinesia = slowness of movement, Comes from dopamine depletion o Hyperkinesia - excessive movement, Arises from degeneration of caudate nucleus o Huntington’s Disease (Chorea) - Excessive motion & flailing limbs • Midbrain o Doesn’t change very much o Posterior Region of Midbrain (aka Tectum) – most posterior and superior part § Contains Two pairs of sensory nuclei (Superior and Inferior Colliculi) collectively called the Corpora Quadrigemina or Tectal Plate or Quadrigeminal plate ú Corpora Quadrigemina – quick movements of the head and neck • Superior Colliculus – visually track moving objects and control reflexes such as turning the eyes and head in response to visual stimulus • Inferior Colliculus – control reflexive turning of the head & eyes in direction of sound o Anterior Region of the Midbrain (aka Tegmentum) – most anterior, takes information from cerebrum and cerebellum and issues commands to erector spinae muscles to maintain posture while standing, bending at waist, & walking § Red Nucleus § Substantia Nigra (“Black substance”) – make a lot of dopamine (which affects brain processes that control movement, emotional response, and ability to experience pain and pleasure) § Cerebral Peduncles – most anterior • Hindbrain – divides in two vesicles o Pons – brainstem nuclei and respiratory centers responsible for proper rhythm of respiration, houses sensory and motor cranial nerve nuclei for the trigeminal (CN V), abducens (CN VI), and facial (CN VII) cranial nerves. o Medulla Oblongata – brainstem nuclei, respiratory & cardiac control centers (stimulates things like heart rate speeding up and monitoring of normal functions of the heart) o SEPARATE YET CONNECTED Cerebellum – responsible for coordination of movement, balance, equilibrium, skilled movement, diseases produce “ataxia” Brain and Cranial Nerves • 2 sets of 12 Cranial nerves, they are paired 12 on left and 12 on right o Cranial Nerve I: Olfactory – bipolar neurons in nasal cavity, carries smell § Olfactory Bulb forms cable like structure that travels into the brain that carries the smell to the temporal lobe for interpretation o Cranial Nerve II: Optic – receptors are cones and rods that are sensitive to colors and intensities/shades, info travels through optic nerve and cross the optic chiasm so part of what left eye sees the right eye see and vice versa. Allows us to form 3D image, interpreted in the Visual Cortex (occipital lobe) o Cranial Nerve III: Oculomotor – responsible for eye movement, movement originates in Frontocerebral lobe specifically in the prefrontal gyrus § Stimulates the ú Superior Rectus ú Medial Rectus ú Inferior Rectus ú Inferior Oblique o Cranial Nerve IV: Trochlear – Superior Oblique, eye o Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal – all general sensation from the head, sensory: skin of face, forehead, teeth, lips, gum, (touch, pain), Motor: muscles of mastication o Cranial Nerve VI: Abducens – lateral rectus is the muscle activated by these nerves, eye o Pneumonic = [LR6(SO4)]AO3 for what the optic nerves innervate, cranial nerve 6 moves the Lateral Rectus muscle (abduction of the eye, eyes going outwards), Superior Oblique is innervated by cranial nerve 4, All Other- the ocular motor nerve moves all others (inferior oblique, medial, inferior, & superior rectus) o Cranial Nerve VII: Facial – Sensory: taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue, motor: muscles of facial expression, parietal lobe is where taste is recognized § Bell’s Palsy – inflammation of facial nerve, paralysis of CN VII (facial nerve), loss of motor to muscles of facial expression, stapedius muscles, taste anterior 2/3 tongue o Cranial Nerve VIII: Vestibulocochlear – nerve responsible for hearing and balance, sensory: vestibular portion = sense of balance, sensory: cochlear portion = sense of hearing o Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal – provides pathway for taste to travel, sensory: taste to posterioe 1/3 of tongue, motor: pharyngeal muscles (swallowing) o Cranial Nerve X: Vagus – wanders away from the cranium, provides mixed stimulation for and from the thorax and entire abdominal cavity, Sensory: to pharynx, ear canal, visceral organs in thorax & abdominopelvic cavity, Motor: pharyngeal muscles and visceral organs in thorax & abdominopelvic cavity o Cranial Nerve XI: Accessory Nerve – motor innervation, provides stimulation to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius o Cranial Nerve XII: Hypoglossal – Motor: to tongue muscle, originates in pre-central gyrus • Cranial Meninges – connective tissue covering the brain o Dura Mater – superficial outermost, tough protective layer “tough mother” § Dural Folds ú Falx Cerebri- Double layer of the dura mater inside of the longitudinal fissure ú Falx Cerebelli – double layer of dura that separates right and left hemisphere of cerebellum ú Tentorium Cerebelli - Double layer of dura mater between cerebellum and cerebrum ú Superior Sagittal Sinus – formed by dual layer of dura o Arachnoid Mater – beneath the dura mater, spiderweb looking layer o Pia Mater – “Delicate mother” o The space between the pia and arachnoid is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, the cells producing this are the glial cells, fluid provides suspension for the brain and a sort of protection • Ventricles of the Brain – fluid filled cavities within the brain, don’t contain any neurons don’t respond to sensation, lined by glial cells (ependymal cells) that are cuboidal epithelial cells o Lateral Ventricles – fluid produced in both right and left ventricle o Third Ventricle – narrow space, from here the fluid flows posteriorly under brain and brain stem into fourth ventricle o Fourth Ventricle – in the posterior under the cerebellum, pathway from third to fourth is called cerebral aqueduct o Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) § Made by choroid plexus (exists in lateral ventricles) § Exits ventricles via arachnoid granulations HOMEWORK TABLE 15.7 Responsible for the roman numerals of the cranial nerves, names, functions (not the parasympathetic association) National Geographic Link for testing ourselves not for studying Exam NOT next Thursday but following Tuesday (November 10) Chapter 16 & 17 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 11/7/15 1:52 PM Figure 16.1 Spinal cord ends at L1 (Cornus Medullaris) and below that are the endings of the spinal nerves Lumbar Puncture (spinal tap) The Spinal Meninges • Dura Mater • Arachnoid • Pia Mater • There is a reversal of the grey and white matter, the cell bodies are surrounded by the axons • Posterior Rootlets are purely sensory axons • Ventral Rootlets are the motor sensory or exit sites Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord • Anterior Median Fissure • Posterior Median Sulcus • Central Canal – the cerebrospinal fluid flows through • White matter on the outside and Gray matter on inside • Dorsal Root – Also known as posterior root, contains only sensory axons • Dorsal Root Ganglion – unipolar neurons, axons to SC • Ventral Root Gray Matter • Posterior (dorsal) horns – Location of sensory nuclei • Anterior (ventral) horns – location of somatic motor nuclei, which innervate skeletal muscle • Lateral Horn – location of autonomic motor nuclei, innervate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands White Matter • Poserior (dorsal) Columns – lies between the posterior gray horns on the posterior side of the cord and the posterior median sulcus. • Lateral Columns - white matter region on each lateral side of the spinal cord • Anterior columns - composed of tracts of white matter that occupy the space on each anterior side of the cord between the anterior gray horns and the anterior median fissure • These are three types of columns where axons will exist Structure of a Peripheral Nerve • Nerves are clusters of hundreds of hundreds of neurons • Epineurium – This thick layer of dense irregular connective tissue encloses the entire nerve, providing both support and protection to the fascicles within the layer. • Fascicles – contain groups of axons and are coated by perineurium • Endoneurium - delicate layer of areolar connective tissue that separates and electrically isolates each axon Components of a Peripheral Nerve • Somatic Sensory & Visceral Sensory Neurons, Autonomic motor neurons, somatic motor neuron, are all in peripheral nerves Dermatomes – region of skin innervated • Cervical area • Thoracic Area • Lumbar – anterior lower body • Sacral - posterior lower body Spinal Nerves • Cervical Region = 8 pairs of cervical nerves • Thoracic Region = 12 pairs of nerves • Lumbar = 5 pairs of nerves • Sacral = 5 pairs of nerves • Coccyx = 1 pair of nerves • Total = 31 pairs of nerves along the spinal cord Plexuses (where multiple nerves are located or originate) Cervical Plexus • Phrenic Nerve = C3,C4, C5 – innervates the diaphragm, keeps you alive Brachial Plexus • Musculocutaneous Nerve stimulates biceps brachii • Radial Nerve stimulates all posterior muscles (triceps brachii) • Ulnar & median Nerve stimulate all anterior mucsles distal to elbow (flexor carpi ulnaris) Lumbosacral Plexus • Femoral nerve – all anterior muscles proximal to the knee (Sartorius) • Obturator Nerve – all medial adductor muscles in the thigh (adductor longus) • Sciatic Nerve – 2 Nerves o Tibial Nerve – most posterior muscles ( gastrocnemius) o Common Fibular Nerve – anterior and lateral muscles distal to the knee (fibularis longus) Components of a Reflex Arc General Approach – • Monosynaptic reflex: direct communication between sensory and motor neuron. Ex. Muscle Stretch Reflex • Polysynaptic Reflex: interneuron facilitates sensory-motor communication. EX. Flexor withdrawal reflex. Reflexes generated entirely in the Spinal Cord Spinal cord is primitive structure here to make sure that we don’t hurt ourselves. Brain can always override spinal cord. Anterolateral Pathway / Spinothalamic Tract - sends crude touch and pressure sensations from body • Spinothalamic Tract includes: o Primary Neuron – in the dorsal root ganglion o Secondary Neuron – in the white matter of the spinal cord o Tertiary Neuron – start in the thalamus and lead to area of brain where sensation gets recognized • Composed of Anterior Spinothalamic Tract and Lateral Spinothalamic Tract • Tract – the feedback or communication between the spinal cord and the brain o Anterior Spinothalamic Tract - touch and pressure will be sent through this o Lateral Spinothalamic Tract – Temperature and pain sensations, § Has the Primary, secondary and tertiary neuron components as well Anterior and Lateral Corticospinal Tracts – from the cortex, motor, moves from the brain to the spinal cord to a particular region Unit 4 Exam from November 24 to Dec. 1 Chapter 18 Somatic vs. Autonomic 11/7/15 1:52 PM Somatic Nervous System Motor stimulation travels from posterior/dorsal root ganglion, the sensory signal arrives in posterior/dorsal horn and is then transferred to motor neuron and exits through anterior root th Figure 18.1 of Human Anatomy, McKinley 4 Edition • Somatic Nervous System extends single motor neuron to its effector • Both Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems use only a single sensory neuron to convey impulses to the Central Nervous System • The Somatic Sensory part of the Somatic Nervous System detects stimuli and transmits nerve impulses from special senses to the CNS • The Somatic Motor part of the Somatic Nervous System initiates and transmits nerve impulses from CNS to skeletal muscle • Motor Neurons: o 1 Lower motor neuron that goes from the CNS -> Skeletal Muscle Fibers in Somatic Nervous System o This motor neuron is made of myelinated axons with a large diameter which leads to a fast spread of nerve impulse o Motor neurons always release acetylcholine • Processes are perceived and controlled consciously Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic o Effects: dilate pupils, increase heart rate, dilate brachioles, fight, flight, fright (activated in emergency situations) o Pre-Ganglionic (axon pathway? In the book refer to these sort of synapses as part of four pathways that preganglionic axons take) § 2) Synapse in Paravertebral Ganglia they are responsible for structures of skin and body wall, blood vessels, sweat glands, arrector pili (From the book “The structures in the skin (such as arrector pili muscles and blood vessels) receive their sympathetic innervation via this pathway.” Referring to Spinal Nerve Pathway) § 2) Synapse on Collateral Ganglia / Pre-vertebral Ganglia ú Types of Pre-Vertebral Ganglia, In the abdominal cavity • Celiac Ganglion & trunk • Superior Mesenteric Ganglion & artery • Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion & artery § 2) Synapse on Adrenal Medulla (in the book refer to this as a type of preganglionic pathway) o Sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons make Ach and are called “cholinergic” o Sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons make adrenaline (norepinephrine) and are called “adrenergic” • Parasympathetic o Preganglionic neurons are located in brainstem nuclei & S2-S4 segments of spinal cord o Effects: Constrict pupils, decrease heart rate, constrict bronchioles (active when you are relaxed), rest and digest response, brings body to homeostasis o Cranial Nerves And Sacral Nerves associated with Parasympathetic Division (Pre-ganglionic neurons in cranial and sacral division of ANS) § Cranial Division – for parasympathetic motor commands ú CN III – Occulomotor Nerve conveys parasympathetic innervation to head through Ciliary Ganglion ú CN VII – Facial Nerve conveys parasympathetic innervation to head through Pterygopalatine Ganglion and Submandibular Ganglion ú CN IX – Glossopharyngeal Nerve conveys parasympathetic innervation to head through Otic Ganglion ú CN X – Vagus Nerve – parasympathetic innervation to thoracic organs and most abdominal organs § Sacral Division ú S2 ú S3 ú S4 o 4 Parasympathetic ganglia in head § Ciliary Ganglion § Pterygopalatine § Submandibular § *Otic* responsible for production of saliva o Parasympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons make ACh and are called “cholinergic” o Parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurons make ACh and are also called “cholinergic” • 2 Motor Neurons -> Meet in autonomic ganglion -> reach effector • Motor neurons of the autonomic nervous system are in lateral horns of gray matter o 2 types of motor neurons in the ANS that are from the CNS and innervate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands in the ANS § The first neuron of the ANS is the Pre-ganglionic neuron, cell body and axon ú They are myelinated and small in diameter and release Ach ú They are located in both the Sympathetic (Lateral horns of T1-L2 of spinal cord) and Parasympathetic (S2-S4 of spinal cord) Nervous System branches of the ANS ú located to the right and left side of the vertebral columns, ganglion are outside the spinal cord § The second neuron of the ANS is the Post-ganglionic neuron, cell body and axon ú Unmyelinated, smaller in diameter than the preganglionic neurons = SLOW spread of nerve impulse ú Release Ach & Norepinephrine ú leads from the ganglion to the effector and these are the viscera because autonomic system supplies motor stimulation to the viscera (needs further explanation from Prof.) • Visceral Sensory part of Autonomic Nervous System detects stimuli associated with blood vessels and internal organs/viscera • Autonomic Motor part of Autonomic Nervous System initiates and transmits nerve impulses from CNS to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands Organize into three parts: Sensory, Motor, Specific part of the motor stimulation and motor only (Autonomic Nervous System) For the cranial nerves KNOW: • Name • Roman Numeral • What stimulation they carry (motor/sensory/mixed?) • Where in the brain that stimulation originates or ends? • Specific Function • What would be lost if the nerves wasn’t functioning? Ex: Trochlear Nerve Roman numeral IV Motor Commands Pre-central gyrus of frontal lobe (all motor commands originate in frontal lobe) Superior oblique for eye Ex: Trigeminal V Motor and Sensory Sensory: carries general sensation from face and head (parietal lobe, post-central gyrus) Motor: Mastication (Masseter ) in the pre-central gyrus, frontal lobe)
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