Study Guide 3
Study Guide 3 ANT 102
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
1014 Vocabulary suspensary locomotion division of weight by using different limbs to hold on to different branches more efficient way to get food Platyrrhines flat nosed New World monkey Prosimians Lemur Loris and maybe Tarsier longer snout wet nose split upper lip vertical clinging and leaping for locomotion Brachiation swinging from branch to branch using arms Lemur a prosimian only found in Madagascar Loris nocturnal prosimian Madagascar home of lemurs isolated islands Frans de Waal a primatologist who has done much work in the field of primate social behavior specifically conflict resolution and cooperation with Bonobos dental comb use bottom teeth to groom themselves instead of licking themselves Anthropology 102 Study guide test 3 lesser ape gibbons are considered lesser apes because of their size great apes gorillas orangutans chimpanzees bonobos savannah baboon move in large troupes sleep in trees organize themselves to defend against predators knuckle walking used mostly by great apes walk on their knuckles when on land because they can t walk properly on two feet Bipedalism walking on two feet arboreal quadruped walk on all fours in trees arboreal adaptation adaptation to living in trees to avoid predators Grooming Used to relax and to form alliances also as a sort of pay back system if you hsare food with me I ll groom you grooming claw a claw on prosimians used for grooming patas monkey live in the desert between savanna and grasslands Many predators so they run really fast males distract with their white chests hamadryas baboon live in highlands of Ethiopia travel in single malemultiple female units When males reach adolescence they are kicked out of their own troupe and have to steal females from other groups who they steal with neck biting and keep them from leaving with aggression sectorial premolar sharpens canine every time chimpanzee chews Display apes act aggressively crazy to warn other apes or predators off or just by displaying large sharp teeth thick molar enamel in humans for crushing and grinding Y5 molar pattern five points on molars for crushing and grinding like a mortar and pestle fissionfusion size and social groups in a society change by merging together with other groups or splitting apart to form smaller groups foramen magnum hole in the base of the skull where the spinal cord connects Nocturnal only come out at night Troop a group of primates alpha male the dominant male in a troop Silverback alpha male of gorillas usually an older male with graying fur The Carolina five five lemurs who were raised in captivity and then released to try and save a population of wild lemurs by diversifying the population Jane Goodall first human to be accepted by wild chimpanzees Dian Fossey studied mountain gorillas for 18 years Takayoshi Kano researcher of bonobos from the film vertical clinging and leaping used by lemurs instead of climbing they jump from tree to tree multiple malemultiple female in reference to troops of primates prehensile tail tail used to hang or swing from ayeaye a nocturnal lemur that eats insects and fruit and has a special middle finger specially evolved for the purpose of finding insects in small cavities Bonobo a pygmy chimpanzee known for their make love not war mindset Anthropoids a higher primate ape or human Homo genus of primates that includes all primates Sally Boyson a scientist who works with apes trying to teach them numbers and how to count dominance hierarchy the order for who is dominant in a certain group adaptive radiation adaptation to certain foods in certain niches Arboreal treedwelling Pan a genus that includes the chimpanzee and bonobo Hominidae family that includes great apes and humans opposable thumb useful tool that allows us to pick things up with our hands terrestrial quadrupeds walk on all fours on the ground Macaque Old World monkey Terrestrial land bound Hominoidea super family of all apes and humans Hominini tribe humans Pentadactyly five digits on each extremity five fingers on each hand five toes on each foot single malemultiple female in reference to troops of primates seen with savanna baboons binocular stereoscopic vision eyes are rotated fonlvard and protected on all sides Rhinarium wet nose Homininae subfamily of African apes and humans Catarrhines Old World monkeys and apes red ruffed lemur a type of lemur Study questions be sure to check Blackboard for relevant PPT presentations 1 Know the basic primate characteristics What is this morphology an adaptation too hint it isn t terrestrial Tendency towards uprightness when sitting up we face forward Retention of the clavicle Five digits opposable thumb nails instead of claws Generalized diet and dental pattern able to consume anythingomnivorous Color and stereoscopic vision protected eyes on all sides enclosed socket decreased reliance on smell bigger cerebral cortex more intelligent More efficient reproduction longer gestation fewer offspring longer dependency period longer life Morphology is an adaptation to change in environment or niche 2 What are prosimians Why do they still exist Where are lemurs found and why Locomotor behavior of prosimians Tarsiers Why are Tarsiers a taxonomic problem Know the ayeaye food procuring behavior films Lemurs with John Cleese and Prime Time Primates Prosimians include lemurs loris and tarsiers They still exist because they only exist in ecological niches where there is no competition from other primates Lemurs are found on Madagascar because they supposedly found a way to float over and populate the island a long time ago and no monkeys ever made it over which is why they still exist today They move around by vertical clinging and leaping Tarsiers are a taxonomic problem because they have an enclosed eye socket and a dry nose both of which are monkeylike characteristics Ayeaye s use their long slender middle finger almost bonelike to test for hollow spots in trees Once they find a hollow they use their sharp teeth to rip away the bark and then use their finger to fish out whatever grubs they have found 3 What are the major morphological differences between old world and new world primates What is the difference between an ape and a monkey Geographically Old World primates are located in Southern Africa and Asia while New World primates are located in South America and Mexico New World primates also have a flat nose prehensile tail and are all arboreal while Old World primates are not Apes don t have tails and monkeys do 4 Know basic ape amp human morphological similarities in body shape thorax shape position of arms etc Hint common denominator suspensory locomotion All of the African great apes are now essentially terrestrial what is their method of terrestrial locomotion Which of the apes are the only true brachiators Similarities larger bodied No tail Short deep trunk Suspensory locomotion divide weight between branches for more efficiency in trees with getting food Y5 molar pattern 5 cusps Larger cerebral cortex More complex social behavior Ape method of terrestrial locomotion is knuckle walking Gibbons are the only true brachiators when you use only your arms to propel yourself through the trees 5 What are the differences between ape and human body morphology hint differences w respect to locomotion What is the difference between ape and human dentition Apes Flexors and extensors Pelvis along back long and propellerlike Head on top of spinal cord Overlapping canine sacrificed functional chewing for aggression Diastema gap for upper canine to fit into Sectorial premolar sharpens canine every time chimpanzee chews Parallel lower jaw Thin enamel on teeth shearing grating shredding Humans Gluteal muscles to support the hip and keep us from falling over when on one leg Pelvis is basinshaped Head on top of spinal cord foramen magnum humans much more forward than other apes Foot is a modified hand Nonoverlapping canine used for chewing instead of aggression No diastema Bicuspid premolar replaces sectorial premolar with two cusped tooth mini molars because defense is no longer necessary Arc shaped lower jaw Thick enamel on teeth crushing grinding Apes also can t walk on their back legs the same as we can if they walk on two legs they have to swing their entire hip forward 6 What is the function of grooming What is affiliative behavior What is aggressive behavior Know how these terms apply to chimps bonobos macaques of Cayo Santiago film Prime Time Primates What is sexual dimorphism Grooming functions as a method of bonding calming and forming alliances Affiliative behavior is behavior that encourages the group to work together grooming is an example of this Aggressive behavior is behavior that comes with defending territory or trying to maintain a social position baring teeth displaying Chimps are aggressive for the most part and bare their teeth and display to show their status and to warn off other chimps and monkeys Bonobos are relaxed and nonaggressive they are very affiliative and groom each other a lot and use sexual touching to relax and ease tensions Sexual dimorphism is the difference in body size between males and females of the same species males tend to be larger than females 7 Review baboon savannah and hamadryas and patas monkey social organization What behavior changes occur when environmental challenges savannahseasonal wetdry desert and predators need to be dealt with Savanna baboons have a system where each baboon is organized according to their usefulness alpha male females and babies in middle juveniles and nonpregnant females in the second 10 ring low ranking males in the perimeter They move around in troops and males use intimidation to scare off predators bare teeth and show white eyes Hamadryas baboons move in single malemultiple female groups where the male uses intimidation to keep the females with him bites their necks Patas monkeys food is not plentiful they don t have a lot of sexual dimorphism hide females and males distract and run away can run fast as cheetahs Environmental changes affect the way the groups are organized because male baboons hamadryas will steal females from other groups What is the basic chimp social organization What is the basic social unit What do males do big hint patrol Know about chimpanzee hunting behavior and tool use movie The New Chimpanzees How do chimp and bonobo behaviors differ How do chimps curry favor and cement social relationships How is this different from bonobos How do males become alpha in chimp and bonobo society use your study sheets from the filmsll Chimps are organized with a fissionfusion society Basic social unit is female and her offspring with some dominant males Males patrol their territory by walking the perimeter and killing any intruders Chimpanzees hunt monkeys as a group but only alpha male and his allies get to eat Chimpanzees use sticks to fish for ants and they crush nuts with rocks or large branches Chimps are aggressive and bonobos are relaxed and nonaggressive Chimps curry favor by showing very conciliatory behavior Bonobos are very accepting anyway and use sexual touching to ease into society Males become alpha by displaying What is the gorilla social organization What is a silverback What is his social role Gorillas have an alpha male the silverback who s social role is to protect the females Multiple malemultiple female units as long as males are totally submissive to silverback Movie Ape Genius note sheet is important Consider How do chimps and humans differ in their problemsolving abilities do chimps cooperate Remember the lessons of the puzzlebox experiment princess Sally and the ball pointing etc Chimps will not cooperate with other chimps unless their rewards are separated Humans can work together and will use cues from others to figure out a problem
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