Study Guide 3
Study Guide 3 ANT 102
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 383 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
Reviews for Study Guide 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/07/15
Anthropology 102 10/14 Study guide – test 3 Vocabulary suspensary locomotion: lesser ape: gibbons patas monkey: live in the Troop: a group of primates division of weight by using are considered “lesser desert between savanna different limbs to hold on to apes” because of their and grasslands. Many different branches (more size predators so they run efficient way to get food) really fast, males distract with their white chests Platyrrhines: flat nosed great apes: gorillas, hamadryas baboon: live in alpha male: the dominant male in New World monkey orangutans, highlands of Ethiopia, a troop chimpanzees, bonobos travel in single male/multiple female units. When males reach adolescence they are kicked out of their own troupe and have to steal females from other groups who they steal with neck biting and keep them from leaving with aggression Prosimians: Lemur, Loris, savannah baboon: sectorial premolar: Silverback: alpha male of and maybe Tarsier; longer move in large troupes, sharpens canine every gorillas, usually an older male snout, wet nose, split upper sleep in trees, time chimpanzee chews with graying fur lip, vertical clinging and organize themselves to leaping for locomotion) defend against predators Brachiation: swinging from knuckle walking: used Display: apes act “The Carolina five”: five lemurs branch to branch using mostly by great apes, aggressively crazy to warn who were raised in captivity and arms walk on their knuckles other apes or predators off then released to try and save a when on land because or just by displaying large population of wild lemurs by they can’t walk sharp teeth diversifying the population properly on two feet Lemur: a prosimian only Bipedalism: walking on thick molar enamel: in Jane Goodall: first human to be found in Madagascar two feet humans for crushing and accepted by wild chimpanzees grinding Loris: nocturnal prosimian arboreal quadruped: Y5 molar pattern: five Dian Fossey: studied mountain walk on all fours in points on molars for gorillas for 18 years trees crushing and grinding like a mortar and pestle Madagascar: home of arboreal adaptation: fissionfusion: size and Takayoshi Kano: researcher of lemurs, isolated islands adaptation to living in social groups in a society bonobos (from the film) trees to avoid change by merging predators together with other groups or splitting apart to form smaller groups Frans de Waal: a Grooming: Used to foramen magnum: hole in vertical clinging and leaping: primatologist who has done relax and to form the base of the skull where used by lemurs, instead of much work in the field of alliances, also as a the spinal cord connects climbing they jump from tree to primate social behavior, sort of pay back tree specifically conflict system (if you hsare resolution and cooperation food with me, I’ll groom with Bonobos you) dental comb: use bottom grooming claw: a claw Nocturnal: only come out multiple male/multiple female: in teeth to groom themselves on prosimians used for at night reference to troops of primates instead of licking grooming themselves prehensile tail: tail used to dominance hierarchy: terrestrial quadrupeds: single male/multiple female: in hang or swing from the order for who is walk on all fours on the reference to troops of primates; dominant in a certain ground seen with savanna baboons group ayeaye: a nocturnal lemur adaptive radiation: Macaque: Old World binocular stereoscopic vision: that eats insects and fruit adaptation to certain monkey eyes are rotated forward and and has a special middle foods in certain niches protected on all sides finger specially evolved for the purpose of finding insects in small cavities Bonobo: a “pygmy Arboreal: treedwelling Terrestrial: land bound Rhinarium: wet nose chimpanzee” known for their “make love not war” mindset Anthropoids: a higher Pan: a genus that Hominoidea: super family Homininae: subfamily of African primate (ape or human) includes the of all apes and humans apes and humans chimpanzee and bonobo Homo: genus of primates Hominidae: family that Hominini: “tribe”, humans Catarrhines: Old World monkeys that includes all primates includes great apes and apes and humans Sally Boyson: a scientist opposable thumb: Pentadactyly: five digits on red ruffed lemur: a type of lemur who works with apes trying useful tool that allows each extremity (five fingers to teach them numbers and us to pick things up on each hand, five toes on how to count with our hands each foot) Study questions – be sure to check Blackboard for relevant PPT presentations 1. Know the basic primate characteristics. What is this morphology an adaptation too? (hint: it isn’t terrestrial). Tendency towards uprightness (when sitting up, we face forward) Retention of the clavicle Five digits, opposable thumb, nails instead of claws Generalized diet and dental pattern (able to consume anythingomnivorous) Color and stereoscopic vision, protected eyes on all sides (enclosed socket), decreased reliance on smell, bigger cerebral cortex (more intelligent) More efficient reproduction: longer gestation, fewer offspring, longer dependency period, longer life Morphology is an adaptation to change in environment or niche 2. What are prosimians? Why do they still exist? Where are lemurs found and why? Locomotor behavior of prosimians? Tarsiers? Why are Tarsiers a taxonomic problem? Know the ayeaye food procuring behavior (films: Lemurs with John Cleese and “Prime Time Primates”). Prosimians include lemurs, loris’, and tarsiers They still exist because they only exist in ecological niches where there is no competition from other primates Lemurs are found on Madagascar because they supposedly found a way to float over and populate the island a long time ago and no monkeys ever made it over which is why they still exist today They move around by vertical clinging and leaping Tarsiers are a taxonomic problem because they have an enclosed eye socket and a dry nose (both of which are monkeylike characteristics) Ayeaye’s use their long, slender middle finger (almost bonelike) to test for hollow spots in trees. Once they find a hollow, they use their sharp teeth to rip away the bark, and then use their finger to fish out whatever grubs they have found. 3. What are the major morphological differences between old world and new world primates? What is the difference between an ape and a monkey? Geographically, Old World primates are located in Southern Africa and Asia, while New World primates are located in South America and Mexico. New World primates also have a flat nose, prehensile tail, and are all arboreal, while Old World primates are not Apes don’t have tails and monkeys do 4. Know basic ape & human morphological similarities in body shape (thorax shape, position of arms… etc) (Hint: common denominator = suspensory locomotion). All of the African great apes are now essentially terrestrial; what is their method of terrestrial locomotion? Which of the apes are the only true brachiators? Similarities: larger bodied, No tail, Short, deep trunk, Suspensory locomotion (divide weight between branches for more efficiency in trees with getting food), Y5 molar pattern: 5 cusps, Larger cerebral cortex, More complex social behavior Ape method of terrestrial locomotion is knuckle walking Gibbons are the only true brachiators (when you use only your arms to propel yourself through the trees) 5. What are the differences between ape and human body morphology (hint: differences w respect to locomotion)? What is the difference between ape and human dentition? Apes: Flexors and extensors, Pelvis along back (long and propellerlike), Head on top of spinal cord, Overlapping canine (sacrificed functional chewing for aggression), Diastema: gap for upper canine to fit into, Sectorial premolar: sharpens canine every time chimpanzee chews, Parallel lower jaw, Thin enamel on teeth (shearing, grating, shredding) Humans: Gluteal muscles to support the hip and keep us from falling over when on one leg, Pelvis is basinshaped, Head on top of spinal cord, foramen magnum (humans much more forward than other apes), Foot is a modified hand, Nonoverlapping canine (used for chewing instead of aggression), No diastema, Bicuspid premolar: replaces sectorial premolar with two cusped tooth (mini molars) because defense is no longer necessary, Arc shaped lower jaw, Thick enamel on teeth (crushing, grinding) Apes also can’t walk on their back legs the same as we can, if they walk on two legs they have to swing their entire hip forward 6. What is the function of grooming? What is affiliative behavior? What is aggressive behavior? Know how these terms apply to chimps, bonobos, macaques of Cayo Santiago (film: “Prime Time Primates”). What is sexual dimorphism? Grooming functions as a method of bonding, calming, and forming alliances Affiliative behavior is behavior that encourages the group to work together (grooming is an example of this) Aggressive behavior is behavior that comes with defending territory or trying to maintain a social position (baring teeth, displaying) Chimps are aggressive for the most part and bare their teeth and display to show their status and to warn off other chimps and monkeys Bonobos are relaxed and nonaggressive, they are very affiliative and groom each other a lot and use sexual touching to relax and ease tensions Sexual dimorphism is the difference in body size between males and females of the same species (males tend to be larger than females) 7. Review baboon (savannah and hamadryas) and patas monkey social organization. What behavior changes occur when environmental challenges (savannahseasonal wet/dry – desert) and predators need to be dealt with? Savanna baboons: have a system where each baboon is organized according to their usefulness: alpha male, females, and babies in middle; juveniles and nonpregnant females in the second ring; low ranking males in the perimeter. They move around in troops and males use intimidation to scare off predators (bare teeth and show white eyes) Hamadryas baboons: move in single male/multiple female groups where the male uses intimidation to keep the females with him (bites their necks) Patas monkeys: food is not plentiful, they don’t have a lot of sexual dimorphism, hide females and males distract and run away, can run fast as cheetahs Environmental changes affect the way the groups are organized because male baboons (hamadryas) will steal females from other groups 8. What is the basic chimp social organization? What is the basic social unit? What do males do (big hint: patrol). Know about chimpanzee hunting behavior and tool use (movie: “The New Chimpanzees”). How do chimp and bonobo behaviors differ? How do chimps curry favor and cement social relationships? How is this different from bonobos? How do males become ‘alpha’ in chimp and bonobo society (use your study sheets from the films!!) Chimps are organized with a fissionfusion society Basic social unit is female and her offspring with some dominant males Males patrol their territory by walking the perimeter and killing any intruders Chimpanzees hunt monkeys as a group but only alpha male and his allies get to eat Chimpanzees use sticks to fish for ants and they crush nuts with rocks or large branches Chimps are aggressive and bonobos are relaxed and nonaggressive Chimps curry favor by showing very conciliatory behavior Bonobos are very accepting anyway and use sexual touching to ease into society Males become alpha by displaying 9. What is the gorilla social organization? What is a silverback? What is his social role? Gorillas have an alpha male (the silverback) who’s social role is to protect the females Multiple male/multiple female units as long as males are totally submissive to silverback 10. Movie ‘Ape Genius’ note sheet is important. Consider: How do chimps and humans differ in their problemsolving abilities (do chimps cooperate)? Remember the lessons of the puzzlebox experiment, princess Sally and the ball, ‘pointing’.....etc. Chimps will not cooperate with other chimps unless their rewards are separated Humans can work together and will use cues from others to figure out a problem
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'