Quiz 2 Study Guide
Quiz 2 Study Guide SOC 002
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Demi Chang on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 002 at University of California - Davis taught by Kiburi, Lalia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Self and Society in Sociology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
SOC 002 Self and Society Quiz 2 Study Guide Chapter 9 Group Processes Influence in Social Groups What are groups What compels people to join groups gt Group Two or more people who interact and are interdependent where the needsgoals cause them to influence one another Often groups assemble for a common purpose whether it is a group of citizens meeting to solve community problems or people who have gathered to celebrate at a birthday party Groups may include families campus clubsorganizations sports teams communities and temporary groups eg seminars college classes gt People join groups because 1 Accomplishing a Dif cult Objective Joining forces with others can increase the likelihood of accomplishing objectives that would be difficult to fulfill by oneself such as moving to a new apartment without the help of others 2 Ful lling Basic Human Needs From an evolutionary standpoint people who bonded with other people had a higher survival advantage they were able to hunt grow food find mates and care for their children better 3 The Need to Belong in Society In all societies cultures are motivated to form relationships and maintain them People have the common behavior of monitoring their status in a group and being aware of signs that would indicate that they may possibly be rejected 4 The Need to Feel Distinctive From Others People want to feel special from the people who do not belong in the same social group For example being part of the large UC Davis student body might create a sense of belonging but it would probably not make you feel distinctive from everyone else However ifyou joined a fraternity or sorority you would probably feel both a sense of belonging and distinction because the group is smaller 5 Finding OurSelfIdentity Groups can provide a new perspective on how we understand the world and our role within it a mentioned in previous chapters people often look to others as a source ofinformation in confusing ambiguous social situations Group members often wear shirts that are labeled with their group name as a form of de ning who they are Groups also create social norms both explicit and implicit to define what is acceptable behavior How do individuals behave within groups and how do groups themselves function The Composition and Function of Groups gt Social Norms Societies have norms that deem what behaviors are acceptable and unacceptable some which all members are expected to followeg like being quiet in libraries and some which vary from group to group eg appropriate clothing to wear at weddings or funerals gt A fraternitysorority may have its social norms regarding alcohol consumption and its expected feelings toward rival fraternitiessororities and different music ensembles choir and drama groups would have different norms gtNorms are powerful in shaping behavior because when we violate them we are often shunnedpressured to leave the group gt Social Roles Shared expectations of a group on how people are supposed to behave These roles help people know what to expect from one another and they often perform well they follow their role gt Differentiating from Norms While norms also help people know what to expect from one other norms specify how all members should act while roles specify how people in certain positionsin a group should act For example a boss and employee have different roles and are expected to act differently gt Costs to Social Roles In the case of Zimbardo s Stanford 2week prison experiment people were randomly assigned to play the role of a guard or prisoner in a simulated prison The students quickly assumed these roles where guards became verbally and physically abusive and the prisoners became helpless withdrawn and passive While this was onlya psychology experiment where everything was makebelieve the people took their role too far as a guardprisoner that their own personal identity and sense of decency was lost Just as American military guards abused prisoners in Abu Ghraib a prison in Iraq the people are not evil but rather that the role corrupts the person assuming that role gt Group Cohesiveness The qualities of a group that brings members together and creates a mutual liking between them The more cohesive a group is the more likely they will form a tightknit group that cares about each other gt For example a group of friends that like to go watch movies during the weekends are most likely to stay in the group actively if they are cohesive That is why group cohesiveness is especially important for groups that have formed for primarily social reasons gt Doing well as a group can create cohesiveness but cohesiveness doesn t always allow the group to perform well While cohesiveness can allow football teams to carry out a dif cult play in other situations maintaining good relations among the group can get in the way of finding good solutions to a problem eg the advisers wanting to remain good relations with President Bush may have gotten in the way of making a clear decision on whether or not to invade Iraq gtGroup Diversity Members of a group tend to be alike in age beliefs and opinions Homogeneity in groups often occur because gt Groups tend to attract people who are similar before they join the group gtGroups tend to operate in a way that encourages similarity in members However studies have shown that racially homogenous groups usually liked each other better the racially diverse groups came up with better solutions to problems That is why institutions military universities and companies have spent great effort and resources to achieve diversity in education attitude experience and race and bring a better performance gt Review Question Based Situation If a soccer team for the upcoming season has a diverse group of kids from different backgrounds race socioeconomic status sexual orientation and experience research suggests that the team will most likely experience problems with group cohesion at rst but will improve as the season goes on How do individuals perform differently when others are around Social Facilitation When the Presence of Others Energizes Us gt Simple versus Dif cult Tasks gt Simple Tasks The presence of others can improve performance if the task is relatively simple For example when a cockroach is placed in a maze where a floodlight is shined down a runway the cockroach escapes the maze runner when other roaches are watching gt Dif cult Tasks The presence of others worsen performance when the task is more dif cult For example when the same cockroaches are placed in a maze with a more dif cult task they complete the task slower when other cockroaches are watching gt Arousal and the Dominant Response gt Social Facilitation When people are in the presence of others and their performance is being evaluated they have the tendency to perform better on simple tasks and worse on dif cult tasks The presence of others increases physiological arousal and becomes more energetic and the arousal makes it easier to perform a dominant response and harder to perform something complexnew For example behavior that is second nature like riding a bike will be easier when others are present However when you re doing something complex like solving a hard math problem or learning a new sport the arousal often makes us feel more flustered than we would be if we were alone gt Why The Presence of Others Cause Arousal gt Why the presence of others cause arousal has been explained by three theories 1 Other people cause us to become more alert and vigilant For example if you are reading a book you don t have to pay attention to anything but the book But if a person enters the room they might do something that may prompt us to respond making you more alert in their presence 2 Other people make us nervous about how we are being evaluated When people can see what you are doing you feel that you are being judged Therefore you will be embarrassed ifyou do poorly and satisfied ifyou do well Evaluation Apprehension views that it is not the mere presence of others but the presence of others who are evaluating us that causes arousal and subsequently social facilitation 3 People distract us from the task at hand Any source of distraction human or not causes a person to be in a state of conflict because it is hard to pay attention to two things at the same time The divided attention creates arousal such as a college student trying to focus on their studies when loud music is blaring next door gt Social Loa ng When the Presence of Others Relaxes Us gt Social Loafing When people are in the presence of others and their individual performance is not being evaluated they have the tendency to perform worse on simpleunimportant tasks they don t care about but better on complex more important tasks These situations are the opposite of the social facilitation settings In social facilitation being put into the spotlight makes you aroused but in social loa ng we are less noticeable in a crowd so we become more relaxed For example when a group of men tugged on a rope together they exerted less force than a man who did by himself gt Gender and Cultural Differences in Social Loa ng Who Slacks Off the Most gtMen have a greater tendency to loaf women tend to be higher in relational interdependence or the tendency to focus on personal relationships with other individuals gt Western cultures also tend to loaf more than Asian cultures as Asians are most likely to have an interdependent View 0fselfdefining oneself in terms of relationships to other people which can reduce loafing in groups While women in Asian cultures do participate in social loafing they are less likely to do so in men in Western cultures Summary To predict whether the presence of others will help or hurt your performance you need to know 1 Whether your individual efforts are being evaluated and 2 whether the task is simple or complex f performance is evaluated the presence of others will make you aroused and alert This leads to social facilitation where people excel at simple tasks and do poorly on complex tasks fyour performance is not evaluated then you will most likely relax This will lead to social loafing where people do worse on simple tasks and better on complex ones gt Deindividuation Getting Lost in the Crowd gt Deindividuation The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can t be identified like when they are in a crowd People getting lost in a crowd can unleash behaviors that we wouldn t dream of exhibiting if we were by ourselves It is more often known as mob mentality like when hysterical fans trample others to death at a concert and more seriously when the Klu Klux Klan became anonymous in hooded robes and lynched African Americans Why can Deindividuation lead to impulsive violent acts gt Lessens Accountability Deindividuation reduces the likelihood that any individual will be singled and out to blame allowing people to feel less accountable for their action In To Kill a Mockingbird when a mob of white southerners group together to lynch Robinson a black fan falsely accused of rape the men all dressed similarly so it was hard to discern one from the other However when Scout the daughter of Robinson s attorney recognizes one of the men and greets him by his name she unwittingly made the mob feel more like individuals and therefore more accountable for their actions As a result the mob disbanded gt Increases Obedience to Group Norms Deindividuation increases the extent in which people obeys the group norms Often groups norms conflict with the norms of that of the larger society In To Kill the Mockingbird the lynch mob wanted to take the law into their own hands a norm that clearly conflicted with society s rules laws gt Deindividuation Online People often feel more free to write what they want on the internet because they are anonymous Deindividuation online has given way to strings of obscene comments and internet trolls on numerous websites and a decrease of common civility Are two or more heads better than one in decision making and how do leaders shape group outcomes gt When Group Interactions Inhibit Good Problem Solving 1 Process Loss Where any aspect of group interaction inhibits good problem solving For example a group can only perform well when its talented members can convince that they are right if they can t then the group will make the wrong decision In other situations the group may depend on incompetent members who don t know what they are doing or the competent members won t disagree with everyone else 2 Transactive Memory The combined memory of a group is more efficient than the memory of the individual members Often the failure to share unique information or information only known to some members of the group can be resolved by having people be responsible for certain kinds of information and taking time to discuss these data 3 Groupthink A decision process where maintaining group cohesivenesssolidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner President Kennedy s mistake with the Bay of Pigs invasion was blamed on groupthink where his advisors saw many flaws to the invasion but kept silent to avoid questioning their leader and maintain the team s unity Groupthink can be avoided by remaining impartial seeking outside opinions creating subgroups Within a group and seeking anonymous opinions gt Group Polarization Going to Extremes gt Group Polarization A group s tendency to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of their members This happens because 1 Persuasive Arguments Every individual brings to the group a set of arguments that supports their initial recommendation and being in a group can expose one to persuasive arguments that hasn t been thought of before 2 Social Comparison When people discuss an issue in a group they might check how everyone else feels In order to fit in and be liked many people will take a position that is similar to everyone else but more extreme gt Leadership in Groups gt Great Person Theory The idea that certain key personality traits makes a person a good leader regardless of the given situation 1 Personality Compared to nonleaders leaders are only slightly more intelligent extroverted assertive and con dent and charismatic In analyzing US presidents there were very few correlations between their personality traits that were related to their leadership effectiveness 2 Leadership Styles Transactional leaders set clear shortterm goals and reward people to meet them Transformational leaders inspire followers to focus on common longterm goals While transactional leaders help run things smoothly transformational leaders think outside the box and inspire their followers to meet bigpicture goals gt The Right Person in the Right Situation gtContingency Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task oriented or relationship oriented the leader is and on the amount of controlinfluence the leader has over the group This theory argues that there two kinds of leaders 1 TaskOriented Leaders Leaders who are more concerned with getting the job done than being concerned with the workers feelingsrelationships These leaders do better in A HighControl Work Situations Where the leader s position is clearly perceived as powerful and the work required by the workers is structuredwellde ned eg a corporate manager evaluating every worker s performance and raises B LowControl Work Situations Where the leader is not perceived as powerful and the work done by the workers is not defined eg a supervisor leading a newly formed group of volunteers 2 RelationshipOriented Leaders Leaders who are more concerned with workers feelings and relationships These leaders do better in A ModerateControl Work Situations Works situations that require a leader who can promote strong relations between individual employees to be the most successful gtGender in Leadership Women have difficult a difficult time to achieve leadership positions because 1 The AgenticCommunal Con ict People believe that good leaders have Agentic traits controlling dominant con dent assertive traits that are usually associated with men In contrast women are more stereotypically characterized as communalwarm affectionate and concerned with the welfare of others If women act in a communal manner they are deemed unfit for a leadership role Yet ifthey act in an agentic fashion they are criticized for not acting like a woman 2 High Risk Positions Because women are considered communal they are more likely to responsible to manage crises and high risk situations that often involve resolving interpersonal problems eg conflict between managers This makes it highly dif cult to succeed in this position Often this is called a glass cliff where even when you have broken through the glass ceiling as a woman in a top leadership position the risk of failure is way higher than the positions given to men gtC39ulture in Leadership Each culture values different traits in leadership some valuing autonomous leadership more than others However there was a universal agreement that leaders should be both charismatic and teamoriented gt Conflict and Cooperation What determines the likelihood that individual or group conflict will escalate or be resolved gt Social Dilemmg A conflict where the most bene cial action for an individual will if chosen by the majority of people will have harmful effects on everyone A common social dilemma is Prisoner s Dilemma where two players have to choose one of two options without knowing what the other person will choose Often one player s distrust of the other will lead them to look out for only their own interests rather than their partner s interests as well The worst outcome for yourself is if you are cooperative but your partner is sel sh However if you and your partner are both cooperative then both will bene t gtUsing Threat to Resolve Conflict This often tends to escalate rather than resolve conflicts ftwo companies had the ability to cut off supply of resources of the other company then conflict would increase because each side has the same threat capacity If only one side could cut off supply the conflict would be slightly less gtTitForTat Shaggy A way of encouraging cooperation by first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did whether cooperatively or competitively on the previous trial This way you communicate a willingness to work together but an unwillingness to sit back if your partner does not cooperate gtNegotiation A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict where offers and counteroffers are made until a solution is made that both parties agree to gt lntegrative Solution A solution to a conflict where parties make tradeoffs according to their different interests each side concedes on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side
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