Study guide for test 3
Study guide for test 3 BIOL 3301 - 002
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BIOL 3301 - 002
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Lutz on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3301 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Laura D Mydlarz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see CELL PHYSIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Study Guide: Phosphorylation Terms: Sterics Exocytosis Kinase Endocytosis Phosphatase Extracellular Phosphorylation cascade Binary switch Intracellular Stress Regulated secretion Acute stress Phagocytosis Chronic stress Phagosome Adrenergic receptor Early Endosome Adenylyl cyclase Lysosome LDL cAMP HDL PKA Clathrin dependent endocytosis Arrestin Receptor mediated endocytosis Cortisol Atherosclerotic plaques Vision Proteasome Rods Ubiquitin Cones Retina ProteasomeUbiquitin pathway Rhodopsin Paracrine Transducin (Gt) Endocrine Insulin Autocrine RTK Selective Expression Dimerization Effectors Secondary Messengers Adapter Protein Signal transduction Ras Scaffold protein Concepts: Where is clathrin used? Why is clathrin used here as well as from golgi to lysosomes? How many major pathways are there to move proteins out of the cell? What do we know about the first of these pathways? How many sorting pathways are there from the golgi? What are the pathways? What are the four requirements for regulated secretion? What is the relationship between regulated secretion and nerve cell synapses? What are the 6 steps of secretion in nerve cell synapses? What are the three main purposes of endocytosis? What are the dangers of endocytosis? What is the difference between endocytosis and phagocytosis? What cells in the body use phagocytosis? Why? What is the difference (structural and functional) between endosomes and lysosomes? What is the role of antibodies in endocytosis? How does endocytosis work? What are the steps of endocytosis? (ligand binding to final use of ligand in cell) What is the affinity level of extracellular receptors? What is pulled into the cell during endocytosis? (more than just the ligand) Which cholesterol packet is healthy? Which is unhealthy? Why? Where do HDL's travel? LDL's? Which has more protein? More fat? How is endocytosis related to cholesterol? Which cholesterol is endocytosed by the liver? Is endocytosis specific? Is phagocytosis specific? How are endocytic vesicles formed? (Know the steps?) What is the link between LDL receptors and cardiovascular disease? What are the 4 main uses for cholesterol? How are atherosclerotic plaques formed? How would an impairment in the immune system help prevent plaques? Why is wound healing harmful in this situation? What are the three things that can happen to extracellular receptors after they are endocytosed? What are the 5 purposes of protein degradation? What are the two types of protein degradation? What are the differences? What are the similarities? What are the 5 things that make protein degradation possible in lysosomes? Where does the proteasomeubiquitin pathway get the proteins it breaks down? Where is this pathway located in the cell? What is the structure of a proteasome? Where did ubiquitin get its name? (What two things) What determines if a cell can respond to a signal? What are the 4 general steps to cells receiving a signal? What are the pieces of cell machinery required for each step? What are 6 things that are important about the way cells transmit, receive, and react to signals? What are the three types of cell signals? (Related to distance) What are cell receptors? (What type of molecule are they, where are they in the membrane, etc.) What is the purpose of signal receptors? How do cell receptors work? Why would signals crossing the membrane be detrimental? How many families of receptors are there? How are they classified? What types of signals to receptors receive? What is a Gprotein coupled receptor? What is a receptor tyrosine kinase? What are the parts of signal transduction that are used in several pathways? How does the G protein selfregulate? Why is this a good thing? What enzymes are used commonly in these pathways? Where are G proteins located? What do they receive the signal from? Where do they take the signal? How do they do to send the signal on? How does GTP affect this process? Which amino acids are most often phosphorylated? (x2) Which amino acids are phosphorylated in bacteria? (x2) What effects does phosphorylation have on a protein? What about the structure of a phosphate group causes these effects? What are the benefits of using phosphorylation for signaling? What are the six main points about phosphatases? What is the relationship between kinases and phosphatases and how do they work together? What is the main purpose of secondary messengers? What are the 4 classes of secondary messengers? What kind of time scale do secondary messengers have? What is a signaling cascade made of? What is the similarity between acute and chronic stress? What is the alarm phase? When is the alarm phase? How is the alarm phase regulated? What is the sequence of events in the alarm phase? What are the seven qualities of the alarm phase? What class of molecule is adrenaline? Where is it produced? What are the differences between alpha and beta adrenergic receptors? How does epinephrine effect glucose concentration? What response do Beta adrenergic receptors stimulate? What are the 5 steps to beta adrenergic receptors signaling? What is the structure of an adrenergic receptor? Where is the N terminus? Where is the C terminus? How many transmembrane segments are there? What portion interacts with the G protein? What activates the receptor? How does it activate the receptor? What are the two types of Gproteins? What is the process for activating a G protein? What is the structure of adenylyl cyclase? What is the function of the catalytic domains? What does cAMP activate? What is the ratio of cAMP to activated PKA? What is the structure of the inactive PKA? What are the three roles of PKA phosphorylation? Where do cAMP molecules bind to PKA? What do PKAs activate? What do phosphorylase kinase activate? What do Glycogen phosphorylases do? What is the final effect of Beta adrenergic receptors? How does PKA regulate transcription? What does arrestin do? What are the lipid second messengers? Which adrenergic receptor uses them in the signal cascade? What effect does IP3 have? What effect does DAG have? What is the alpha adrenergic receptor signal sequence? What two molecules acrivate PKC? What are the important facts about the second messenger calcium? Where is calcium usually concentrated? How is calcium removed from cytoplasm? What is the resistance phase? What causes the resistance phase? What are the effects of the resistance phase on the body? What is the cortisol reaction sequence? What is the final effect of cortisol on cells? What is the exhaustion phase? What is the main similarity between all senses? What are the two responses to stimuli that a neuron can have? What is the order of things light passes through before hitting rods/cones? What are the 3 similarities between rods and cones? What is the structure of Rhodopsin? What change in Rhodopsin activates G proteins? What causes isomerization of retinal? Why do rods/cones require cGMP gated sodium channels? When are these channels opened? Closed? What are 4 important features of cyclic nucleotides? Are more neurotransmitters being released in the dark or the light? Which subunit of the G protein moves? What does it activate? What does that activated protein do? What effect does this have on the membrane? Is Guanylyl cyclase regulated? Why or why not? In what 3 steps of this pathway does amplification occur? Why there? Why not the other steps? Which neurotransmitter senses color? How do they sense color? Why is it beneficial to have neurotransmitters that do not sense color? What type of receptors are used for the sense of smell? What gives dogs their acute sense of smell? Which part of the neuron detects smell? Why does each receptor only sense one type of chemical? Why do olfactory neurons have cilia? How often are olfactory neurons replaced? What is the signal cascade for smell? How does desensitization occur? How do receptors of different scents work together? What is similar between smell and taste? How many types of taste are their? Where can taste receptors be located (on different species)? What makes the sense of salt different from the other tastes? What are the three types of touch receptors? What is the cause of phantom pain? What is the natural antibiotic we discussed in class? What is the effect of Cholera? What is the effect of Pertussis? Review GLUT receptors. What are Beta cells in the Pancreas? What are their function? What GLUT is used in Pancratic B cells? How does this effect the cell? What is the signal cascade? What is the structure of insulin? How is insulin synthesized? Why is insulin called a second signaling event? Where is insulin used? What are the physiological roles of insulin in the liver? Fat? Muscle? Where is the RTK coding part of DNA? What are RTKs? What is the structure of RTKs in their inactive form? active form? What causes the change from inactive to active? How do RTK's exert influence on other molecules? What are some of the common domains in adapter proteins? What classes of proteins bind to receptor phosphotyrosines? What GLUT does insulin effect? What are the two insulin activated signal cascades? What do each of these effect? Which is faster? Slower? Why? What is the Ras dependent pathway? What is the Ras independent pathway? What are the differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
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