Language Development I
Language Development I CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Language Development I October 15 2015 1 Distinguish between the behaviorist and the nativist theories of language development What evidence do we have that each theory may contribute to language acquisition What evidence do we have that each theory may not be adequate in explaining language acquisition The Behaviorist Perspective Language acquisition is driven by properties of the language environment The N prope Reinforcement Praise for saying words getting What you ask for etc Reinforcement contributes Explicit correlation is rarely successful Parents typically attend tocontact facts not linguistic errors Imitation Repeating What you hear Imitation contributes Imitation resembles their own level of production not parents Children produce words amp phrase that they have never heard ativist Perspective Language acquisition is driven by innate rties of the child Language acquisition is uniquely human We are born With a language acquisition device LAD mental organ programmed to recognize the universal deep structures of language There is biologicallydriven sensitive period for language acquisition 2 How is language a distinctively human accomplishment In what ways is it an ability we share with animals of other species Complex language With syntax amp grammar is uniquely human Using combinations of visual symbols or gestures bonobos amp the chimpanzees can produce language at roughly the level of a 2yearold child In their productions they form telegraphic utterances that encode the same semantic relations as do those of children In contrast to human children Who acquire complex language With no formal teaching nonhuman primates develop language ability only in the context of intense explicit instruction provided by their human caretakers 3 How do children raised in languagedeprived environments learn to communicate What do these situations demonstrate about necessary and suf cient conditions for language acquisition Genie was permanently locked in her room by her abusive father Genie s speech resembled the language used in telegrams There is no evidence that she ever learned to ask a real question or to form a proper negative sentence Stations Participation in normal social environment is essential to the process of language acquisition Children are not only exposed to models of how language is used amp understood they are also provided With opportunities to communicate With others opportunities that motivate them to be better communications that is to use language to express amp share ideas effectively 4 How does research by Steven Pinker video shown in class quotwugsquot and quottomasquot support the nativist theory of language development Language acquisition is uniquely human We are born With language acquisition device There is biologicallydriven sensitive period for language acquisition 5 What are some characteristics of infantdirected speech and how might it help language acquisition How did Fernald 1989 demonstrate that even 9moold infants understand the expressiveness of infantdirected speech and how did 18 moolds react in this experiment Characteristics of infant Directed ID Speech Speech to infants is different from speech to adults Sound different Higher pitch more melodic connected exaggerated intonation amp more friendly Words are different make up words more enunciation limited vocabulary Sentences are different Simpler shorter questions exclamations Help acquisition ID speech is higher pitched easier to hear ID speech is smoother pitch contours more connected Easier to think or follow ID speech is exaggerated intonation Attracts attention soothing Fernald research By asking the 9 month old to play With toy Yes good boy amp don t play With toy No don t touch 9 months old attached to experiences not words Children can use in segmenting the ow of speech to identify words Summarize the results of research investigating the relationship between special adult behaviors to teach language and the rate of language acquisition What role does culture play in this behavior The earliest social structures for language development involve what he calls infants recurrent socially patterned activities in which adult amp child do things together In the United States amp other cultures for example simple formatted activates include such games as peekaboo amp the routines surroundings bathing bedtime amp meals which provide a structure for communication between babies amp caregivers even before babies have learned any language The formatted events within which children acquire language constitute a language acquisition support system LASS which is the environmental complement to the innate biologically constituted LAD emphasized by Chomsky Culture As early as 2 12 years of age most Mayan children know as many as 30 different plant names amp could appropriately describe a variety of ways that the different plants were used In contrast 2 year olds in Berkeley had acquired just a few very general plant words usually labels for fruits amp vegetables used in the home e g banana amp spinach
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