Survey of World History to 1500- Test 3 Study Guide
Survey of World History to 1500- Test 3 Study Guide 10494
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carrington Johnson on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10494 at Georgia State University taught by Rachel Ernst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Survey of World History to 1500 Test 3 Study Guide March 22, 2016 Geography 1. Carthage 2. Rome 3. Athens 4. Macedonia 5. Ionian Coast 6. Persepolis 7. Khyber Pass 8. Pataliputra 9. Kalinga 10. Silk Road 11. Chang’an Identifications Alexander the Great- son of Philip II; assumed the throne at 21 after father’s assassination; conquered Anatolia, Palestine, and Persia, was made Pharaoh of Egypt; continued to India and laid siege there, where Chandragupta saw his chance to take over because of the tumult the country was left in after Alexander the Great came through; died from of fever of unknown origins; spread Greek culture wherever he went, where it remained for many years (Hellenization). Ashoka- grandson of Chandragupta; conquered Kalinga region; converted to Buddhism because many lives were taken in conquering of Kalinga region (10,000); redefined dharma: “that which is good”- the only way to experience true happiness; advocated ahisma (non-violence); sent sons as missionaries to Sri Lanka- significant because India today is not Buddhist, but Sri Lanka still is; public works projects; universalized weights and measures, coin currency, and commercial law Chandragupta- ruled Mauryan empire, he and political advisor of Nandas attempted to overthrow the Nandas and take over, first attempt failed but second attempt did not fail because country was weak from attack by Alexander the Great (conquered Pataliputra in 321 BCE); expanded the empire; Arthushastra (similar to Machiavelli’s The Prince) written by advisor of Nandas, Kautilya; died in Janist monastery Cyrus II the Great- king of kings; conquered Anatolia, North and West Persia, and Phoenician city-states, and Babylon; freedom of religion (Hebrews went back to Palenstine); impressive military- cataphracts (heavily armed foot soldiers), lightly armored bowmen on horseback, infantry, and navy consisting of 1,200 galley ships; deposed kings and Persian administrators became leaders in charge of collecting taxes in conquered territories. Delian League- group of Greek city-states (200 poleis) led by Athens. The league was formed against the threat of another Persian invasion, but all of the funds were used to rebuild Athens (with more splendor). The Spartans considered the league to be an Athenian Empire and did not like this. This is when the Persia saw its chance to conquer Athens and Sparta and helped Sparta to defeat Athens in the Peloponnesian War. Eastern Zhou Period- power was decentralized and regionalized power, hegemony (everything revolves around one strong state); capital relocated to Luoyang; royal family began to lose power and influence; power divided between four states in order to maintain balance; tension and power struggle led to the Warring States Period, war broke out at the end of the Eastern Zhou Period Hannibal Barca- general from Carthage and renowned strategist; served during the second Punic War and came as far as to the gates of Rome and only turned back because of lack of resources; defeated at Battle of Zama by Scipio Africanus; Treaty of 201 BCE seriously limited the power of Carthage. Herodotus- Herodotus was considered to be the “Father of History” because he traveled throughout Greece and Persia (pretty much everywhere) and actually recorded the events that occurred wherever he went. Some of the events recorded in his work The Histories came from personal accounts while other events or information was hearsay and so may or may not be true or exaggerated. Mandate of Heaven- belief that the ruling power or emperor rules with the blessing and support of the heavens; first initiated in the Zhou dynasty Oracle Bones- Oracle bones or dragon bones were used in divination and communicating with one’s ancestors. Many emperors employed many diviners for this job so that they could gain information on weather, successors, and invasion (basically matters of the state and the emperor’s rule. The diviner would write any questions they had for the ancestor on the bone and would throw the bone in the fire. The diviner would then translate the cracks in the bone in order to give the emperor the ancestor’s answer. Oracle bones were the first surviving text found in the area by archaeologists and were used in the Shang dynasty. Pax Romana- means “Roman Peace”; period of peace that lasted for 200 years and initiated by Augustus (Octavian), the son of Julius Caesar; cut the military in half; took away the Senate’s (patricians) power to collect and impose taxes and control of the military; control maintained through threat of military intervention; citizenship was extended to ex-military Qin Shi Huangdi- ruled 221-209 BCE; Totalitarian, Legalist rule; executed dissenting scholars; book burnings; standardized weights, measures, and currency; forced-labor work projects (Wall of China); Terra Cotta Warriors Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)- turns everything on its head (in the way of religion in India at this time); all life is suffering (what the Buddha revealed after 40 days of meditation under Bodhi tree); Middle Way is revealed, Eight-Fold Path, Four Noble Truths; follow Middle Way and Eight-Fold Path to reach enlightenment and then Nirvana The essay questions were answered in class on March 22, 2016.
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